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The  Future  Of  Synthetic  Music 


COMPUTE 

The  Leading  Magazine  Of  Home,  Educational,  And  Recreational  Computing 


$2.95 
January 
1984 
Issue  44 
Vol.  6,  No.  1 

£2.25  UK  S3.25Conooa 
02W3  __ 

ISSN  0194-347X     ^ 


rt  On  IBM's  PCj 


Robots  That  Roll, 
Crawl,  And  Bounce 

Action  Games 
ForVIC-20, 
Commodore  64, 
Atari,  And  Ottiers: 
Demons  Of  Osiris 
Coiorbot 


8068  MfC^OP^OCESSO/? 


DISK  DRIVE 
OPT/ON 


TfVO 
ROM 
CARTRI9GE 


\-  , 


All  About  CtiaJning 
For  VIC,  64,  And  PET 

Ihe  Mozart  Mactiine: 
Composing  Program 
For  VIC,  64,  Atari, 
And  TI-99/4A 


"7U86"02193' 


01 


History  will  record  as  a  profound  irony 

that  the  most  powerful  word  processing  package 

ever  created  for  the  IBM®  Personal  Computer 

can  be  worked  with  two  fingers. 


Ic  was  created  by  Lj.;j:;  :^^  i.-:^'-  . 
specifically  to  cake  advantage  of  the 
power  of  the  IBM  PC,  plus  the  sim- 
plicity that  all  that  power  ought  to 
be  able  to  give  you-  but  didn  c. 

Until  now,  you  could  go  for  the 
simplicity,  and  end  up  with  a  some- 
what glorified  typewriter  Or  you 
could  go  for  the  power,  and  go  nuts 
performing  dozens  of  commands  to 
do  even  the  simplest  things. 

But  with  Leading  Edge  Word 
Processing'"  you  get  both. 

You  don  t  have  to  start  with  an 
ounce  of  understanding  about  word 
processing. 

You  don't  even  have  to  be  a  terrific 
typist.  (Matter  of  fact,  the  worse  you 
type,  the  more  the  help.) 

So  come  along: 

Hunt  and  peck  your  way  into  the  future. 


IIADIHC  EDlf* 


Leading  Edge  Prcxlucts  Inc..  Headquarters  and  Retail  Division.  225  Turnpike  Street.  Canton.  Mass.  02021  |80O|  343-6833 16171 828-8150 

•IBM  is  a  registered  trademark  of  International  Business  Machines  Corporation. 


FOR  YOUR  COMMODORE  WORDPROCESSING  NEEDS 

INVEST  IN  THE  BEST 


1 


i 


>f essiona?  ^r+ . . ..  -,  .^  ..s     , 

Software  ^^,,,,0*  ^''Sus 


VrolesKona 


•-ffi'  ■'Iff' 


WORDPRO  PLUS.  IN  A  CLASS  BY  ITSELF. 


When  choosing  a  Word  Processor  for  your  Commodore™  computer,  there's 
no  reason  to  settle  for  anything  but  the  best  —  in  a  word. .  .WordPro". 

With  overSO.OOO  happy  clients  churning  out  letters  and  documents  all  over 
the  world,  the  WordPro  Plus"  Series  is  unquestionably  the  #1  selling  soft- 
ware package  on  Commodore  computersl  So  when  you  choose  WordPro, 
you  know  you're  investing  in  a  trial-tested  program  that's  a  real  winner.  And 
WordPro  is  NOW  available  tor  your  Commodore  64"  computer—  at  prices 
starting  as  low  as  S89.9S. 

Designed  for  the  user  who  has  no  computer  or  word  processing  experience 
whatsoever,  WordPro  Plus  brings  a  new  dimension  to  the  term  "user- 
friendly."  More  than  just  easy  to  use,  WordPro  will  turn  your  Commodore 
computer  into  a  sophisticated  time  saving  word  processing  tool  —  loaded 
with  the  same  inventory  of  features  found  in  systems  costing  much,  much 
mors. 

Our  nationwide  team  of  over  600  Professional  Software/Commodore  com- 
puter dealers  will  help  you  choose  the  WordPro  Plus  system  that  is  best  for 
your  needs.  Our  full-service  dealers  have  been  set  up  to  provide  strong 
customer  support.  In  addition  to  helping  you  choose  the  right  system,  many 
Professional  Software  dealers  also  offer  WordPro  Plus  training  and  system 
installation. 

Professional  Software  offers  a  complete  spectrum  of  WordPro  word  process- 
ing software  for  Commodore  computers  ranging  from  the  Commodore  64  to 
the  more  business  oriented  8000/9000  series  computers.  And  WordPro  4 
Plus  and  5  Plus  also  interact  with  our  data  base  management  systems  includ- 
ing InfoPro  and  The  Administrator.  So  whatever  your  Word  Processing 
needs,  there's  a  WordPro  system  that's  right  for  you. 

WordPro"  and  WordPro  Plus'"  are  trademarks  of  Professional  Software  Inc. 
The  WordPro  Plus  Series  was  designed  and  written  by  Steve  Punter  of  Pro  l^icro  Software  Ud. 
Commodore""  and  ttie  Commodore  64"  are  trademarks  of  Commo<Jore  Electronics,  Inc. 
Dealer  inquiries  invited. 


I 


WordPro  3  Ptui/S4" 


Invest  in  the  best. . 

WordPro  Plus.  In  a  class  by  itself. 

Call  us  today  for  the  name  of  the  WordPro  Plus  dealer  nearest  you. 

Professional  Software  Inc. 

51  Fremont  street  (617)444-5224 

Needham,  MA02194  Telex;  951579 


SPMNAKBt'S  UHE  OF 
EARLY  LEARNING  GAMES 

IS  GROWING 

AS  EAST  AS  YOUR 

CHILD'S  MIND. 


Watching  your  kids  grow  up  is  a  lot  of  fun.  But 
making  sure  their  minds  grow  as  fast  as  their 
bodies  is  even  more  rewarding.  That's  where  we 
can  help.  With  a  growing  line  of  Early  Learning 
Programs  that  are  not  only  lots  of  fun  to  play,  but 
also  educational. 

Some  of  the  games  you  see  on  these  two  pages 
help  exercise  your  child's  creativity  Others  help 
improve  vocabulary  and  spelling  skills.  While  others 


improve  your  child's  writing  and  reading  abilities. 
And  all  of  them  help  your  child  understand  how  to 
use  the  computer. 

So  if  you're  looking  for  computer  programs  that 
do  more  than  just  "babysit"  for  your  kids,  read  on. 
You'll  find  that  our  Early  Learning  Programs  are  not 
only  compatible  with  Apple®  Atari®  IBM®  and 
Commodore  64™  computers,  but  also  with  kids 
who  like  to  have  fun. 


FRACTION  FEVERS"  brings  fractions  into  play. 
Ages  7  to  Adult. 

fT^CTlON  FEVER  is  a  fast- 
paced  arcade  game  that 
challenges  a  child's  under- 
standing of  fractions.  As  kids 
race  across  the  screen  in  search 
of  the  assigned  fraction, 
they're  actually  developing  a 
basic  understanding  of  what 
a  fraction  is  and  of  relationships  between  fractions. 
They're  even  discovering  that  the  same  fraction  may  be 
written  in  a  number  of  different  ways. 
All  in  all.  FRACTION  FEVER  encourages  kids  to  learn 
as  much  as  they  can  about  fractions  -just  for  the 
fun  of  it! 


Applf.  IBM  and  Atari  are  registered  trademarks  of  Apple  tomputer.  Inc..  Intenadonal  BuSness  MacNnis  Qrf.  and  Atari,  Inc.  lepenivety.  Commodore  64  is  a  tiaderaark  of  Comtnodore  DwtronlK  Umrted. 
©  I9B3.  Spinnaker  Software  Corp,  All  nghts  reserved. 


The  story  of  STORY  MACHINE:"  Ages  S  to  9. 


STORY  MACHINE  is 
like  a  storybook  come 
to  life.  Using  the  key- 
board, your  children 
write  their  own  fun 
little  stories.  The 
computer  then 
takes  what  they've 
written  and  animates  their 
story  on  the  screen,  com- 


1 
1 
1 

f 

1 

i 

• 

• 

» 

■<  IV 

-^ma.!  w  Tr«  watnsi. 

plete  with  full  color 
graphics  and  sound. 
STORY  MACHINE 
helps  your  children 
learn  to  write  correctly, 
become  familiar  with 
the  keyboard,  and  lets 
them  have  fun  exercising 
their  creativity  at  the  same  time. 


KINDERCOMP™  Numbers,  shapes,  letters,  words  and 
drawings  make  fun.  Ages  3  to  8. 


KiNDERCOMPis 
a  game  that  allows 
very  young  children 
to  start  learning  on 
the  computer.  It's  a 
collection  of  learning 
exercises  that  ask 
your  children  to  match 
shapes  and  letters,  write  their 
names,  draw  pictures,  or  fill  in 
missing  numbers.  And  KINDER- 
COMP  will  delight  kids  with  color- 


ful rewards,  as  the 
screen  comes  to 
life  when  correct 
answers  are 
given. 

As  a  parent, 
you  can  enjoy 
the  fact  that 

your  children  are  having 

fun  while  improving  their 

reading  readiness  and 

counting  skills. 


PACEMAKERS"  makes  faces  fun.  Ages  4  to  12. 


■y*f.^, 


PACEMAKER  lets  chil- 
dren create  their  own 
funny  faces  on  the 
screen.  Once  a  face  is 
completed,  your 
children  will  giggle 
with  delight  as  they 
make  it  do  all  kinds 
of  neat  things:  wink,  smile, 
wiggle  its  ears,  or  whatever 
their  imagination  desires. 


Plus.  PACEMAKER  helps 
children  become  com- 
fortable with  computer 
fundamentals  such  as: 
menus,  cursors,  the 
return  key,  the  space  bar, 
simple  programs,  and 
graphics.  PACEMAKER 
won't  make  parents  frown  because 
their  children  will  have  fun  making 
friends  with  the  computer. 


spffm^eff 


Dbks  tor:  Apple.  Atari.  IBM.  Conmodore  64. 
CarMi^iu  for:  Atari,  Commodore  64 


VUe  make  learning  fun. 


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tia^^;::;  n^os*^ 


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adva^^^^^..--'^^  all 


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a£<^^..«  Oregon  ^*^V'^„,.e. 


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January  1984    Vol.  6,  No.  1 


FEATURES 


GUIDE  TO  ARTICLES 
AND  PROGRAMS 


22  The  Future  Of  Synthetic  Music Richard  Monsfleld 

34  Robots  That  Roll,  Crawl,  And  Bounce Fred  D'Ignazto 

44  Report  On  IBM's  New  PCjr   Tom  R.  Half  hill 

52  Micro  Mechanic Robert  L  Wright 


EDUCATION  AND  RECREATION 


68    Demons  Of  Osiris Steve  Haynal 

84   Colorbot  John  R.  Dondzita 


REVIEWS 


134  Commodore  EXBASIC  LEVEL  II  Louis  F,  Sander 

138  Atari  Starbowl  Football   Orson  Scott  Card 

138  Interpod  Interface  For  VIC/64 Lorry  81  hlmeyer 

142  PAL:  An  Extraordinary  Assembler  For  The  PET  And  64  Elizabeth  Deal 

146  Robot  Runner  For  The  Tl   Tony  Roberts 

148  Blue  Max  For  Atari  And  Commodore  64  DanGutman 


COLUMNS  AND  DEPARTMENTS 


6   The  Editor's  Notes Robert  Lock 

10    Readers'  Feedback The  Editors  and  Readers  of  COMPUTE! 

94    On  The  Road  With  Fred  D'Ignozio:  The  Robot  Teddy  Bear  Fred  D'Ignazio 

106    The  World  inside  The  Computer:  Computer  Popcorn  Fred  D'Ignazio 

114    The  Beginner's  Page:  Canned  Calculations  Richard  Mansfield 

122    Computers  And  Society:  Computers  And  The  Arts  David  D.  Thorn  burg 

126    Questions  Beginners  Ask Tom  R,  Holfhill 

130    Friends  Of  The  Turtle:  The  Demons  Of  Atari  Logo David  D,  Thornburg 

152    Programming  The  Tl:  Programming  Tips  And  Hints   C.Regena 

178  Machine  Language:  Factors:  A  Machine  Language  Factoring  Program, 

Parti Jim  Butterfield 

184    INSIGHT:  Atari  Bill  Wilkinson 

188   64  Explorer:  Printing  Graphics  Larry  Isaacs 


THE  JOURNAL 


156 
160 
172 
191 
192 
195 

198 
199 
202 
203 
205 
206 
216 


All  About  Commodore  Chaining  Melvyn  D.  Mogree 

The  Mozart  Machine  Donold  J.  Eddington 

Hidden  64  Memory Alan  R.  and  Julie  R.  Krauss 

Atari  Autorun  BASIC  Michael  E.  Hepner 

Commodore  Files  For  Beginners,  Parts Jim  Butterfield 

MLX  Machine  Language  Entry  Program  For  Commodore  64  Charles  Brannon 


CAPUTE!  Modifications  Or  Corrections  To  Previous  Articles 

How  To  Type  COMPUTEi's  Programs 

A  Beginner's  Guide  To  Typing  in  Programs 

News  &  Products 

Calendar 

Product  Mart 

Advertisers  Index 


NOTE:  S««  page  199 

before  typing  in 
programs. 


TOLL  FREE  Subscription  Order  Line 
800-334-0868  (In  NO  919-275-9809) 


PCjr 
PA//64/AT/A/C/ri 


V/64/AT 
V/64/AT 


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AT 
V/64 
P/64 

Tl 
AT/64 


AT 
64 


P.V/64 
V/64/AT(TI 

64 

AT 
P;V/64 

64 


AP  Apple  AT  AtoriP  PET/ 
CBM,VV1C-20.C  Radio 
Shack  Color  Computer,  64 
Commodore  64,  TS  Timex/ 
Sinclair,  Tl  Texas  (nstru- 
menfs,  PCjr  IBM  PCjr,  'AH  or 
several  cf  the  above. 


COMPUTE!  PublicationsJnc^ 


One  of  the  ABC  Publishing  Coinpanies: 
ABC  Publishing,  President,  Robert  G.  Burton 

1330  Avenue  oMI-e  Americas,  rMsw  York.  New  vo(l<  10019 


COMPUTII  The  Joumal  for  Progressive  Computing  (USf^:  S37250)  is  pubiislied  12  limos  each  year  by 
COMPUTE!  Publications,  Inc.,  P.O.  Box 5406,  Greensboro,  NC 27403  USA.  Phone:  ('119)  275-9809.  Editorial 
Offices  are  located  at  505  Edwardia  Drive,  Greensboro,  NC  27409.  Domestic  Subscriptions:  12  issues,  S24. 00. 
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mailing  offices.  Entire  con  tents  copvnght  C  1983  bv  COMPUTE!  Publica  tions.  Inc.  Ail  rights  reserved  ISSN 
0194-357X. 


EDITORS  NOTES 


As  many  of  you  will  be  aware, 
IBM  has  finally  unveiled  the 
long  discussed  PCjr.  The  unit 
(we  described  it  in  a  recent 
GAZETTE  editorial  as  "restrained 
as  breakthroughs  go")  leaves 
something  to  be  desired,  A 
keyboard  for  one.  Nonetheless, 
it  is,  after  all,  an  IBM,  and  not  to 
be  taken  lightly. 

Atari  and  Coleco  must  have 
breathed  collective  sighs  of  relief, 
because  both  promptly  raised 
January  1  pricing  of  their  per- 
sonal computer  systems.  Texas 
Instruments  (too  little,  too  late) 
is,  for  the  first  time  in  the  history 
of  their  home  computer  division, 
celling  every  computer  dealers 
can  get  their  hands  on,  as  fast  as 
they  can  get  their  hands  on  them. 
Unfortunately,  since  TI  doesn't 
make  TIs  any  more,  this  phenom- 
enon will  soon  be  over.  It's  a 
bargain  at  $49.95! 

We  are  pleased  to  report 
that  there  are  teeth  to  TI's  prom- 
ises of  continued  support.  They 
do  plan  to  continue  to  market 
support  software;  establish  a 
user  service  hotline;  and,  most 
importantly,  will  continue  to 
service  and  repair  their  com- 
puters. At  least  they're  with- 
drawing with  class  and  appro- 
priate concern  for  their  cus- 
tomers. 

Back  to  IBM's  highly  suc- 
cessful PCjr.  It  will  be  quite  suc- 
cessful. First,  it's  defined  a  mar- 
ket niche  that  aims  it  rather  di- 
rectly at  Apple  and  Atari,  slightly 
above  Coleco,  and  several  hun- 
dreds of  dollars  above  Commo- 
dore. It  will  compete  quite  well 
against  the  well-established 
Apple  software  library,  and 
IBM's  marketing  strength  is  cer- 
tainly ahead  of  the  struggling 

6    COMPUH!    JonuarYl984 


Atari.  The  fact  that  Atari  and 
Commodore  have  superior 
sound  and  graphics  capabilities 
may  go  unnoticed  by  many  in 
the  marketplace.  Coleco's  pack- 
aging strategy  is  sUll  an  un- 
known, and  since  we've  been 
unable  to  get  our  hands  on  a 
Coleco,  we'll  have  to  be  more 
restrained  in  our  bold  predic- 
tions. 

In  recent  editorials,  we've 
commented  that  frequently  the 
most  inexpensive  thing  in  a  com- 
puter system  is  the  computer. 
Happily  this  isn't  the  case  with 
the  PCjr.  There  are  many,  many 
"optional"  accessories  one  can 
add  without  getting  close  to  the 
price  of  the  entry-level  $689  com- 
puter. Among  these  are  joysticks 
(a  maximum  of  two)  at  $40  each; 
an  adapter  cable  so  you  can  hook 
up  a  cassette  drive  for  $30;  an 
extended  Microsoft  BASIC  car- 
tridge for  $75;  and  so  on.  Get  the 
picture? 

In  spite  of  the  inevitable 
muttering  and  groaning  by  mem- 
bers of  the  personal  computer 
industry  press,  the  IBM  PCjr 
will  make  a  definitive  mark  on 
1984  and  the  home  computer 
industry.  For  one  thing,  IBM's 
entry  will  attract  buyers  that 
have  been  reluctant  to  join  the 
home  computer  revolution. 
IBM's  credibility,  support,  and 
service  will  greatly  enhance  their 
ability  to  more  aggressively  pro- 
mote the  use  of  computers  in 
educational  settings.  And  the 
installed  year-end  base  of  IBM 
PC's  (estimated  at  approaching 
500,000)  will  surely  provide  a 
ready-made  customer  base  for 
home  users  of  the  PCjr.  IBM  has 
very  wisely  paid  full  attention  to 
the  necessity  of  compatibility. 


Where  does  this  leave  us? 
Well,  given  the  above  comments, 
not  surprisingly  we're  introduc- 
ing a  third  magazine  in  the 
COMPUTE!  Publications,  Inc., 
family.  COMPUTEl's  PC  &  PCjr 
Magazine  will  premier  with  a 
March  issue.  It  will  contain  the 
same  kind  of  useful  applications 
information,  tutorials,  and  pro- 
gramming assistance  that  are 
currently  provided  by  COMPUTE! 
and  COMPUTEI's  GAZETTE  for 
Commodore.  Concurrently, 
we're  adding  the  PC  and  PCjr  to 
COMPUTE!'s  more  intermediate 
and  advanced  editorial  coverage. 

In  this  issue,  you'll  find  a 
factual  overview  of  the  new  PCjr 
by  Editor  Tom  Halfhill.  Tom  will 
become  the  editor  of  our  new 
PC  &  PCjr  magazine.  If  you  own 
or  use  an  IBM  PC,  or  purchase  a 
PCjr  whenever  they're  really 
available,  we're  actively  recruit- 
ing columnists  and  writers  for 
our  IBM  support.  Address  your 
queries  and  submissions  to  Tom 
Halfhill,  COMPUTEI's  PC  &  PCjr 
Magazine,  Post  Office  Box  5406, 
Greensboro,  NC  27403.  If  you 
have  an  IBM  PC-  or  PCjr-related 
book  proposal,  we'd  certainly  be 
interested  in  seeing  that  as  well. 
Send  your  queries  or  proposals 
to  Stephen  Levy,  Book  Division 
Editor,  at  the  same  post  office  box. 


Editor  In  Chief 


you're  all  thumbs  at 
MasterType'^will  make  you  a  computer  wIhl 


MasterType  #1  on  everybody's  list . . . 
the  first  step  in  computer  literacy. 

MasterType  delivers.  It  is  the  one  and  only 
typing  program  that  dares  to  be  fun  without 
being  intimidating.  It  combines  the  fast  action  of 
video  games  with  the  best  typing  skills  develop- 
ment techniques  available.  The  result?  Highly 
motivated  and  enjoyable  learning. 

After  each  of  the  18  action-packed  program 
segments,  you'll  see  how  you  measure  up.  And 
you'll  become  so  caught  up  in  the  action  that 
before  you  know  it,  you'll  become  a  master  at  the 
keyboard,  calling  all  the  shots: 

On  disks  for 

Apple?  Atari;  Commodore  64"  $39.95 

IBM-PC*  $49.95 

MasterType  is  part  of  the  growing  Scarborough 
family  which  includes  Songwriter  and  Picture- 
Writer,  as  well  as  the  forthcoming  software  for 
home  management,  science  and  business  games. 


New 

Atari*  and  Commodore  64*  cartridges. 


^^HH  ^^^  B  B  ^^^  ■   You'll  grow  with  u*. 

TheScarttoroughSystenu 

©Scarborough Systems,  Inc.,  25  N.  Broadway  Tarrytown,  N.Y  10591,  1-800-882-8222  (In  N.Y:  1-914-332-4545) 


Publishef 

Editor  inChiet 

Director  of  Administration 


Gary  (?.  Ingersoll 
Robert  C  Lock 
AJiceS.  Wolfe 


Senior  Edttor 
ManogifFQ  Editor 
AsslsJant  Monoging  Editor 
Production  Editor 
f  eotur^s  Editor 
Editor.  COtyPUTE'sGAZETTE 
Technicof  Editoj: 
Aisistani  Tectinicol  Editof 
Program  Editor 
Assistonl  EdiJots 

AMistanlCopvEdrtor 
Editor  falAssistOftt 
Ptogiomming  Supen/isor 


Richotd  MionsrelO 

Kattiieen  E.  Martinek 

Tony  ftoberts 

GoEl  Walker 

TomR.HoHtijII 

Lance  Eiko 

OttisR  Cowpe* 

JohnKrauSe 

Ctiorles  Bronnon 

Dan  CcrmJchoei,  Robert  Ssms 
Tooa  Ha  morel* 


Juonilo  Lewis 
KothvYalfQl 
Patrick  Parrish 
AsBLStontProgramrriing Supervisor  Gregg  Peefe 


Tect^nicoi  Assistant 
Editofial  Pfog  rammers 

Progiamming  Assistants 
Administrative  Assistants 

CopyAssistanfs 

Assoc  iole  Editors 


Dole  McBone 

Jeft  Hamdani.  Kevin  Martin, 
Chns  Poer 

Mark  Tuttte.  Dovid  Fioronce 

Vickj  Jennings,  Louro 
MacFadden,  Julia  Fleming 

Beclcy  Ha'l  Lindo  Stiow, 
is^aitha  Bonks 

JimBufterfield, 
Toronto,  Canada 

Har/eyHermon. 
Greensboro,  NC 


f  red  D'lgnozio. 
2117  Carter  Road.  S.W..  Roanoke.  VA  2il0l5 
David  fihomburg. 
P,0  BOK 1317.  L05  Altos.  CA  ^4022 


CofiHbuting  Editor 


COMPUTE!  s  Book  Division 
Editor 

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Editorial  Assistant 
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Appte  is  a  tiociemfiik  of  Apf^e  CcmDuler  Componv 


a    CpMPUTE!    January  TOS4 


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READERS'  FEEDBACK 


The  Editors  and  Readers  of  COMPU I B 


Computing  With  Kerosene 

Our  local  computer  columnist  recently  wrote  that 
kerosene  heaters  and  home  computers  don't  mix. 
He  stated  that  one  by-product  of  kerosene  com- 
bustion is  a  conductive  film  that  gets  on  every- 
thing, including  computer  chips.  He  concluded 
that  kerosene  heaters  and  computers  should  not 
be  in  the  same  house.  Any  comment? 

Charles  Ranney 

An  interesting  point.  In  general,  burning  fuels  and 
sensitive  electronics  don't ,  in  fact,  mix  well.  Although 
we  have  no  firsthand  experience  with  the  combination 
you've  cited,  we  have  seen  what  happened  to  a  phone 
connection  box  installed  right  next  to  a  gas  heater — lots 
of  corroded  wires. 

It  probably  has  something  to  do  with  the  proximity 
of  the  heater  and  hoxo  often  the  heater  is  used.  The  situ- 
ation can't  be  as  serious  as  the  columnist  implies,  how- 
ever. Most  modern  televisions  contain  electronics  of 
roughly  equal  sensitivity  to  a  computer.  If  the  stoves 
damaged  TVs,  we  surely  would  have  heard  about  it  by 
now,  considering  the  hundreds  of  thousands  of  such 
heaters  currently  in  use. 

Nevertheless,  it  probably  wouldn't  be  a  bad  idea 
to  use  an  electrostatic  air  cleaner  just  to  be  on  the 
safe  side. 

Program  Line  Addresses  For  VIC 
And  64 

John  B.  Swetland's  letter  (COMPUTE!,  July  1983) 
and  his  program  for  locating  program  lines  on  the 
Timex/Sinclair  prompted  me  to  share  a  similar 
program  with  VIC  and  64  users.  This  program 
also  provides  the  starting  and  ending  addresses 
for  any  program  line,  but  gives  the  total  program 
length  rather  than  the  length  through  the  particu- 
lar program  line.  (Actually,  the  program  length 
will  be  two  bytes  low,  since  the  program  ignores 
two  of  the  three  zero-bytes  which  end  the  pro- 
gram.) The  indicated  addresses  are  provided  in 
decimal  and  hexadecimal  which  facilitates  the 
location  of  internal  program  POKEs  and  the  use 
of  a  monitor. 

To  prepare  the  program,  type  it  in  exactly  as 
shown,  insuring  that  there  is  a  space  between  the 
first  set  of  quotation  marks  and  the  word  "line" 
in  line  63986.  RUN  the  program,  then  enter,  in 

10     COMPUTE!     January  1984 


direct  mode,  POKE  SA  +  9,25  (ignore  the  "illegal 
quantity"  error  message  produced  by  running  the 
unfinished  program).  This  POKE  puts  a  special 
"end  of  program"  marker  in  line  63986;  line  63989 
looks  for  this  marker,  and  when  it  finds  it,  ends 
the  program  run.  Finally,  SAVE  the  program  using 
the  program  name  "line  locater". 

To  use  the  program,  append  it  to  the  program 
that  is  to  be  examined  as  follows: 

1.  LOAD  the  program  that  is  to  be  examined. 

2.  Enter  in  the  direct  mode:  POKE43,PEEK 
(45)-2:POKE44,PEEK(46) 

3.  LOAD  "line  locater",  device  number  (1  for 
tape,  8  for  disk). 

4.  Enter  in  the  direct  mode:  POKE43,l: 
POKE44,8 

Finally,  type  in  direct  mode  RUN  63987. 

James  J.  McQueeney  III 

63986  STOP: REM  "  LINE  LOCATER" 

63987  PR$="01234567a9ABCDEF" 

63988  PA=PEEK(43)+256*PEEK(44):  SA=PA;  IN" 
PUT"LINE  NUMBER";  LI 

63989  PL=PEEK(SA) :PS=PEEK(SA+9) :IF  PS=25 
[SPACEItHEN  63996 

63990  PH=PEEK{SA+1J :LN=PEEK( SA+2 ) +256*PEE 
K(SA+3) :PN=PL-1+256*PH 

63991  IF  LN=LI  THEN  63993 

63992  SA=PN+1:G0T0  63989 

63993  PI=SA:G0SUB  63997 : SA?=PY$ : P1=PN: GOS 
UB  63997 :PN$=PY$ 

63994  PRINT"BEGINS  AT" ? SA; " { $" ; SA$ ; " ) , " 

63995  PRINT"ENDS  AT" j PN; " ( $ " ; PN$ ; " ) " : SA=P 
N+1:G0T0  63989 

63996  PE=SA- PA: PRINT "PROGRAM  IS" ; PE; "BYTE 
S  LONG" :END 

63997  PY$="":FOR  N=3  TO  0  STEP-1 

6  3998  PZ=INT{PI/(16TN) ) : PX$=MID$ (PR? , PZ+1 

, 1) :PY?=PY$+PX$ 
63999  PI=PI-PZ*(16TN) :NEXT  N:RETURN 

An  Easier  Load  For  Atari  Binary  Files 

In  the  September  Readers'  Feedback  column, 
Forrest  Meiere  offers  a  very  useful  routine  that 
allows  BASIC  programmers  to  load  binary  files 
from  BASIC  on  the  Atari. 

As  long  as  we're  making  illegal  jumps  into 
the  operating  system,  here  is  a  much  simpler 
routine  that  does  the  same  thing. 

OPEN  #1,4,0,"D:PROGRAM.OBJ" 

X  =  USR(5576) 


spinnaker  Aerobics^  The  moreyou  do, 
the  less  ^'ou  have  to  show  for  it. 


Spinnaker's  new  computer  fitness  program 
;   makes  shaping  up  fun  to  do.  And  makes  you 
'    feel  terrific. 
AER0BIC5  gives  you  everything  you  need.  Warm- 
ups,  stretches,  aerobics,  cool-downs.  It  lets  you  work 
on  overall  fitness.  Allows  you  to  concentrate  on  con-, 
ditloning  specific  parts  of  your  body  Or  both.        .  -Z- 
Bestof  all,  you  can  exercise  on  your  own  sched-  \ 
ule.  In  your  own  home.  For  as  long  or 
i ^  as  little  as  you  like.  Whatever  works 


for  you. 
Whether  you're  a  beginner  or  already  in  great 
shape,  you'll  love  working 
out  with  Spinnaker  AEf^0BIC5. 
Which  means  you'll  do  It  more 
often.  And  have  even  less  to 
show  for  it. 

AER0BIC5  Is  compatible 
with  Apple,*  Atarl,^  and 
Commodore  64"  computers. 


SPffmOKSR 


We  make  learning  fun. 


©  1985,  Spinnaker  Sotlware  Corp  ftl  I  nqhB  reserved  /ipple  and  Alan  a  re  regEtered  UademarKs  of  Apple  Computer.  Inc.  snd  ftUrl.  Inc  respectively  Commodore  64  IS  a  trademarH  of 
Commodore  EleCtronlCi,  Ltd.  ACROBICS  computer  proaram  15  a  irademarh  of  Splnnaher  Software  Corp 


It's  cold  on  top  of  the 
mountain,  But  the  view 
is  great  and  the  people 
are  pulling  for  you. 

So  you  pull  on  your 
gloves,  adjust  your 
goggles,  check  your 
bindings,  take  a  deep 
breath  and  you're  off. 
Now  the  clock  is 
running,  so  you'd  better 
concentrate  on  your 
technique.  Get  as 
close  to  the  gates  as 
you  can,  but  not  too 
close -contact  with  a 
slalom  pole  will  cost 
you  precious  penalty 
seconds.  Turn  too 
sharply  and  you'll 
come  to  a  stop. 
And  slalom  poles 
aren't  the  only  obsta- 
cles  in  your  path.  This  is  a 
the  roclS°''^         remember,  so  look  out  for 
You  can  ski  around  them  Or 
jump  over  them -your  choice. 
Just  don't  waste  too  many 
tenths  of  a  second  trying  to 
make  up  your  mind! 


Developed  by  Steven  Sidlev 
Available  for  your 
Commodore  64" 


not  be  true.  But  this 
much  is  true. 

Motocross!  is  un- 
like any  computer 
game  you've  ever 
come  across. 

At  the  start/finish 
me  you  check  your 
gauges,  gun  your 
engine  and  surge  onto 
the  course. 

Through  the  cor- 
ners, up  the  hills,  into 
the  ruts  and  down  the 
straights  you  maneu- 
ver for  position  and 
try  to  beat  the  clock. 
Stay  ahead  if  you 
can.  But  whatever  you  do 
stay  on  the  course.  If  you  don't  one 
of  two  things  will  happen. 
You'll  slow  down  and  lose 
valuable  seconds.  Or  worse 
you'll  wind  up  on  the  seat    ' 
of  your  pants. 

Who  says  computers 
don't  like  to  get  dirty? 


Developed  by  Jim  Rupp 
Available  for  your 
Commodore  64" 


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iComn^fcdore  ^4  Is  a"tr«dernark  of ' 


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Inalewood,  CA  9030.1  ,(213);215-052-a 


PROGRAM. OBJ  is  of  course  any  valid 
filename  that  can  be  loaded  with  the  L  function 
from  Atari  DOS  II.  This  is  particularly  useful  when 
using  either  the  Datasoft  BASIC  Compiler  or  the 
Monarch  ABC  Compiler,  since  neither  allows  you 
to  load  and  run  other  programs. 

For  readers  who  use  the  Axlon  RAMdisk,  the 
appropriate  location  to  jump  to  is  X  =  USR{6060). 
If  the  Monarch  ABC  Compiler  has  been  used  with- 
out the  relocating  loader,  you  may  then  jump 
back  into  the  calling  program  with  the  M  command 
and  address  $2600.  This  information  first  appeared 
on  the  Atari  SIG  on  CompuServe. 

Michael  H.  Reichmann 

'We've  tried  this  useful  technique,  and  it  works  well. 
Because  the  DOS  routine  does  not  have  the  PLA  that 
USR  requires,  you  wiU  get  an  ERROR  9.  just  ignore  it, 
or  use  TRAP  to  make  BASIC  ignore  the  error  for  you. 

Tl  Cartridge  Loading  Problems 

I'm  wondering  if  any  readers  have  had  problems 
using  TI  cartridges  with  the  TI'99/4A.  I've  had  no 
problem  loading  them  the  first  several  times,  but 
after  ten  or  so  uses  of  the  same  cartridge,  loading 
becomes  increasingly  difficult.  I've  had  problems 
with  the  keyboard  locking  up  and  with  broken 
screen  display  patterns.  It  often  takes  me  ten  or 
more  tries  to  load  and  run  something  successfully. 
Have  any  of  your  readers  experienced  such  prob- 
lems and,  if  so,  have  any  solutions  been  found? 

Charles  J.  Smith 

We  have  many  TI  cartridges  here  at  COMPUTE!  and, 
even  after  prolonged  use,  haven't  had  any  of  the  problems 
you  mention.  One  possible  cause  is  dirty  contacts  on 
the  cartridge.  To  prevent  this,  you  should  occasionally 
clean  the  contacts.  On  the  back  of  the  cartridge  {where 
the  cartridge  is  fitted  into  the  slot),  manually  depress 
the  spring-loaded  section,  and  you'll  see  an  edge  zoith 
about  18  contact  strips.  Use  a  cotton  swab  moistened 
with  either  contact  cleaner  fluid  or  rubbing  alcohol.  Rub 
the  contacts  gently  with  the  swab,  allow  them  a  few 
seconds  to  dry,  and  your  cartridge  will  be  ready  to  use. 
If  this  doesn't  help  with  your  loading  problems,  we 
suggest  you  try  the  suspect  cartridge  in  another  TI 
computer  and,  if  there's  still  a  problem,  contact  your 
dealer.  If  any  readers  have  had  this  same  problem  and 
found  a  solution,  we'd  like  to  hear  from  you.  On  the 
other  hand,  if  you're  using  a  kerosene  heater,  all  bets 
are  off. 

More  "Extra  Instructions" 

Joel  Shepherd's  article  "Extra  Instructions"  for 
the  6502  {COMPUTE!,  October  1983)  presents  a 
fascinating  peek  into  the  mysterious  workings  of 
microprocessors.  I  wonder,  though,  if  the  limited 
usefulness  of  these  instructions  would  warrant 

M     COMPUTE!     JonuOtVl984 


the  trouble  of  expanding  our  assemblers  to  include 
them.  For  instance,  since  the  decrement/compare 
instruction  (DCMP)  ties  up  the  accumulator,  it 
would  be  of  limited  value  in  real  applications. 
Likewise,  how  often  does  a  real  program  need  to 
load  the  accumulator  and  the  X  register  simul- 
taneously from  a  single  memory  location?  Now,  if 
you  could  load  immediate  data  to  both  registers 
with  one  command,  that  would  be  handy. 

After  a  few  minutes  at  the  keyboard,  1  dis- 
covered that  Mr.  Shepherd  has  revealed  only  the 
tip  of  the  iceberg.  In  fact,  most  of  the  "unofficial" 
opcodes  do  something.  Here  are  a  few  that  would 
be  really  useful: 


Opcode 
ab  XX 

cb  XX 

8b  XX 


"Mnemonic" 

LAX  #$dd     (.a  =  data) 

(.x  =  data) 
SBX  #$dd     (.x  =  .x-data) 

(without  carry) 


NAX 


#$dd     (.a  =  .aand  .xanddata) 


There  are  many  more.  The  most  bizarre  extra 
"instruction"  I  found  was: 

bb  XX  XX  :  ZSP  $aaaa,y  (sp  =  sp  and$aaaa,y) 
(.a  =  sp  and  $aaaa,y) 
(.x  =  sp  and  $aaaa,y) 

That's  right,  the  contents  of  the  stack  pointer  are 
anded  with  indexed  absolute  memory  and  the 
result  placed  in  the  accumulator,  the  .x  register 
and  the  stack  pointer  (ZSP  is  Zap  Stack  Pointer). 
Talk  about  limited  usefulness! 

One  more  point:  If  assembler  modification  is 
contemplated,  three-letter  mnemonics  should  be 
used,  since  such  programs  often  take  advantage 
of  the  fact  that  all  standard  6502  mnemonics  have 
three  letters  only. 

Once  again  my  thanks  to  Mr.  Shepherd  for  a 
very  stimulating  article. 

Henry  Gibbons 


"Extra  Instructions"  And  6502  Design 

Joel  Shepherd's  article  "Extra  Instructions"  (COM- 
PUTE!, October  1983)  was  fascinating.  Some  of 
these  instructions  appear  quite  useful.  It  must  be 
remembered,  however,  that  the  published  instruc- 
tion set  for  a  microprocessor  constitutes,  in  a  sense, 
a  "contract"  between  the  maker  and  the  user. 
The  "extra"  opcodes  are  not  guaranteed 
across  design  revisions  of  a  chip  from  one  man- 
ufacturer, or  among  separate  designs  of  what 
appear  to  be  the  same  chip  from  different  man- 
ufacturers. A  good  example  is  redesign  for  less 
silicon  area.  The  less  area,  the  more  chips  per 
wafer  and — all  else  being  equal — the  more  chips 
per  dollar  of  processing.  The  redesign  might 
change  a  microprocessor  using  a  "state  machine" 
architecture — a  programmed  logic  array  and  reg- 
ister design  to  a  microcoded  design — essentially 


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HOW  TO 

GET  Q'BERTOUT  OF 

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If  you've  been  wanting  to  play  Q*bert,  but  haven't  been  able  to  find  it  available 
for  your  home  system,  your  time  has  come.  Because  now  you  can  keep 
things  hopping  with  any  of  uiese  popular  home  \'ideo  and  computer  formats. 
Get  going  to  your  nearest  video  store  and  get  Q*bert 
today.  And  wnile  you're  there,  check  out  Parker 
Brothers'  POPEYEf  FROGGER;"  TUTANKHAM;" 
and  SUPER  COBRA.'"  All  the  great  Arcade  Action  't^giRKgl 
games,  now  in  all  the  great  home  formats.  BROTHERS 

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a  little  computer  inside  the  computer.  The  new 
chip  might  meet  all  published  specifications  yet 
be  radically  different  inside.  The  "extra"  in- 
structions might  also  do  something  completely 
different — or  nothing  at  all. 

Similar  caveats  apply  to  the  electrical  aspects 
of  microprocessors.  Often  very  interesting  things 
go  on  internally  and  in  between  the  defined  places 
on  the  timing  diagrams.  The  early  TI  9900  chips 
are  an  example  of  this.  Bitter  system  designers 
can  even  relate  mechanical  horror  stories,  like 
manufacturers  deciding  to  "slightly"  move  a  few 
pins  around  on  their  microprocessor. 

With  respect  to  the  6502,  it  would  be  inter- 
esting to  see  how  many  owners  of  the  various 
home  computers  with  6502s  can  use  these  in- 
structions. My  Atari  can  at  least  execute  the  ANDX 
and  thus  likely  can  execute  the  others. 

Brian  Converse 


64K  And  Bank  Memory  For  The  VIC-20 

Recently,  I  have  seen  64K  expansion  cartridges 
for  the  VIC-20.  They  use  something  called  "bank 
memory."  Since  the  VIC  is  expandable  only  to 
32K,  how  do  you  get  64K?  And  what  is  bank 
memory? 

Robert  Bleich 

The  6502  microprocessor  (the  "brain"  of  Commodore , 
Atari,  ami  other  computers)  can  access  only  64K  of 
memorxjat  one  time.  Of  this  total,  various  amounts  are 
used  up  by  the  VlC's  operating  system  in  ROM,  and 
by  periplieral  chips,  including  the  VIC  (video)  chip. 
There  is  a  maximum  of32K  of  space  left  for  user  memory 
(RAM)  in  a  VIC.  Some  RAM  expanders  get  around 
this  by  letting  you  swap  out  pieces  of  your  user  memory. 
For  example,  one  8K  block  could  be  replaced  by  any  of 
four  other  8K  blocks,  giving  you  32K  of  memory  in  one 
8K  space.  You  just  bank-select  zvhicli  of  the  blocks  of 
memory  you  want  to  move  into  the  actual  address  space. 

Bajik  selection  varies  among  RAM  expanders  in 
several  ways:  hi  the  size  of  the  blocks,  the  number  of 
bank-selected  blocks,  a) id  where  the  switchable  blocks 
will  reside.  For  example,  a  64K  device  might  give  you 
52K  of  memory  the  usual  way,  then  let  you  switch  to 
an  alternative  32K  block  all  at  once.  On  the  other  hand, 
it  may  be  configured  as  eight  4K  blocks,  two  16K  blocks, 
four  8K  blocks,  etc.  One  other  thing:  You  can  only  take 
advantage  of  the  64Kfrom  your  own  programs,  as  com- 
mercial software  can  hardly  be  expected  to  figure  out 
how  your  cartridge  is  bank-selected. 


Atari  Color  Explosion 

Here's  a  program  that  demonstrates  all  256  colors 
on  the  Atari.  It  uses  GRAPHICS  9  and  a  lot  of 
display  list  interrupts. 

Thomas  Brandner 

16     COMPUTEI     JanuaiYl9e4 


10  GRAPHICS  9 

20  FDR  A=0  TO  79:C0LaR  INT(A/5> 

30  PLOT  A,4:DRAWT0  A,191:NEXT  A 

40  FOR  A=1536  TO  1562:READ  B:POKE  A, 

B: NEXT  A : D=PEEK ( 5i0 ) +256 »PEEK ( 56 1 

) 
50  FOR  A=0  TO  14:READ  B:POKE  D+B,143 

:NEXT  A 
60  POKE  1616,0:PaKE  512,0:POKE  513,6 

: POKE  54286, 192 
70  GOTO  70 
80  DATA  72,173,80,6,24,105,16,141,80 

,6,141, 10,212, 141, 26, 208, 201, 240, 

200, 5, 169, 0, 141, 80, 6, 104, 64 
90  DATA  17,29,41,53,65,77,89,104,116 

,  128,  140,  152,  164,  176,  laa 


Try  this.  It's  pretty  impressive. 


Serial  Or  Parallel? 

What  is  a  serial  or  parallel  printer?  How  can  I  tell 
if  my  printer  is  one  of  these  or  both? 

Rajeev  Rohtegi 

A  printer  must  receive  and  send  data  to  and  from  the 
computer  and  therefore  requires  an  interface  (a  con- 
nection which  makes  two  things  able  to  communicate). 
Most  printers  have  either  a  serial  or  parallel  interface 
built-in. 

A  serial  printer  has  a  single  channel  and  receives 
one  bit  at  a  time — in  a  series — from  the  computer.  A 
parallel  printer  has  a  multichannel  connection  and 
receives  one  byte,  or  eight  bits,  at  a  time. 

Parallel  printers  are  faster,  easier  to  use  zvith  a 
variety  of  software,  andean  be  more  expensive .  Serial 
printers  often  require  the  user  to  manipulate  certain- 
functions  (baud  rate,  word  size,  parity,  etc.)  for  com- 
patibility with  different  software. 

There  is  no  shnple  way  of  telling  which  kind  you 
have,  but  your  manual  should  certainly  make  it  clear. 

What  is  An  RGB  Plug? 

I  have  a  Commodore  64  and  a  Data  Grade 
Panasonic  Color  Monitor  (CT-1-300D).  The  moni- 
tor has  a  video/audio  RCA  input  and  an  eight-pin 
female  RGB  input,  which  the  manual  says  is  for 
computer  applications.  The  RCA  input  works  fine 
with  the  64,  but  what  is  the  RGB  plug  and  how 
do  I  use  it?  I've  written  to  Commodore  and 
Panasonic,  but  to  no  avail.  Can  you  help? 

John  G.  Laing 

The  basic  principle  of  black  and  white  television  is  that 
a  "gun"  sprays  a  controlled  stream  of  electrons  across  a 
specially  treated  screen.  When  the  electrons  hit  there 
are  light  spots,  and  where  no  electrons  fall  the  screen 
remains  dark.  The  arrangement  of  light  and  dark  pat- 
terns forms  the  image  on  the  screen. 

Color  televisions  are  more  complicated.  Instead  of 
just  one  electron  gun,  these  TVs  have  three — one  each 
for  red,  green,  and  blue  (hence  RGB)  signals.  Instead  of 


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COLECOVISION 


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combining  into  light  and  dark  paffenis,  the  three  colors 
mix  to  form  various  hues  to  produce  the  multicolor 
screen  image.  In  a  television,  and  in  most  inexpensive 
color  monitors,  there  is  only  one  input  signal  for  all 
three  colors,  and  the  TV  or  monitor  must  separate  the 
parts  for  each  gun.  More  sophisticated  (and  usually 
more  expensiz'e)  RGB  monitors  allow  you  to  have  direct 
control  over  each  gun.  As  a  result,  the  picture  o?;  such 
a  monitor  can  be  much  sharper  and  more  detailed. 

Unfortunately,  separate  red,  greoi,  and  blue  sig- 
nals are  more  difficult  to  produce.  So,  few  home  com- 
puters have  an  RGB  video  output.  The  VIC-II  chip  in 
the  Commodore  64,  for  example,  produces  only  a  com- 
bined chrominance  signal,  not  three  separate  signals. 
Special  interfaces  are  available  for  some  RGB  monitors 
to  provide  RGB  signals  front  a  condnncd  chroma  signal, 
but  ive're  not  aware  of  otic  for  the  64.  One  other 
problem — RGB  has  not  yet  been  statidardized.  Thus, 
the  plug  from  a  computer  might  not  jnatch  the  input  to 
an  RGB-capable  monitor. 


Multicolor  Players  From  BASIC  On 
The  Atari  400 

I  own  an  Atari  400  with  16K.  Is  there  any  way  to 
achieve  multicolor  players  from  BASIC?  Was  it 
described  in  an  earlier  COMPUTE!  issue? 

Gary  Resheff 

With  machine  language,  you  can  dynamically  change  a 
player's  color  while  the  screen  is  being  draivn,  but  this 
is  exorbitant  in  terms  of  the  processing  time  needed. 
There  is  a  better  way,  discussed  in  COMPUTEI's  First 
Book  of  Atari  Graphics  ("The  Priority  Registers"), 
in  lohich  you  can  overlay  two  players  to  share  tzoo  colors, 
as  well  as  have  a  third  color  formed  by  overlapping 
pixels.  This  technique  was  used  for  a  multicolor  airplane 
in  the  Atari  version  of  the  "Air  Defense"  game  fCOM- 
PUTE!,  April  J983). 


Commodore  for  about  $100.  Because  the  1 650  is  designed 
to  plug  into  the  expansion  port,  it  will  oidy  be  usable 
with  the  64.  The  1650  is  an  auto  dial/auto  answer  modem 
that  comes  packaged  with  a  tape  cassette  containing 
the  necessary  softzuare  support,  and  one  free  hour  on 
CompuServe. 

The  format  of  your  screen  (40  columns)  is  not 
controlled  by  the  modem,  and  you  do  not  need  any  special 
screen  software  to  use  either  of  the  modems.  It  should 
also  be  noted  that  the  tele-terminal  software  available 
for  the  1600  modem  is  not  compatible  with  the  new 
1650  modem. 


Pascal  On  Ttie  Atari 

I  know  that  you  can  use  Pascal  on  the  Apple  with 
only  one  disk  drive.  I  have  an  Atari  800  with  one 
disk  drive;  I  heard  that  you  need  two  disk  drives 
to  run  Pascal  on  the  Atari.  Is  it  possible  to  run 
Pascal  on  the  Atari  with  only  one  disk  drive? 

Tim  McWain 

Pascal  for  the  Atari  zvas  originally  developed  for  use 
with  the  815  dual-drive ,  double-density  disk  system ,  as 
it  requires  targe  amounts  of  disk  storage  for  the  compiler 
ami  compiler  loork  space.  Pascal's  future  looked  grim 
after  the  815  zoas  caticelled,  but  an  enterprising  pro- 
grammer managed  to  modify  Pascal  so  it  ivould  go  bc- 
tzoeen  tzoo  drii>es,  zuith  the  equivalent  of  half  of  an  815 
disk  on  each  drizv.  Both  drives  need  to  be  accessed  during 
compilation.  The  Atari  and  Apple  products  arc  not  ver- 
sions of  the  same  product,  but  Apple  Pascal  has  more 
disk  space  to  zoork  luith  per  drive  (140K  versus  90K). 
You  may  be  interested  iii  other  language  alterna- 
tives for  the  Atari.  The  most  Pascal-like  is  Actioti  from 
Optimized  Systems  Softzoare.  It  oidy  requires  16Kand 
can  zoork  ivitli  cassette.  Other  languages  include  Forth 
and  C,  zoith  versions  azmilable  from  several  companies 
including  the  Atari  Program  Exchange.  PILOT  is  avail- 
able from  Atari,  Inc.,  and  an  Atari  Logo  is  forthcoming. 


VICmodem  1600  And  1650 
Ditterences 

What  is  the  difference  between  the  VIC  1600 
Modem  {VICmodem  for  VIC/64)  and  the  new 
1650  modem?  Do  they  have  40-column  screens?  If 
not,  do  you  need  a  40-coIumn  screen?  If  so,  how 
do  you  get  one  {hardware  or  software)?  I'm  even- 
tually going  to  trade  in  my  VIC  for  a  64.  Are  these 
modems  and  their  software  compatible  with  both 
the  VIC  and  64? 

Matt  Schmidt 

The  VICmodem  (1600)  zvas  the  first  modem  that  Com- 
modore offered  for  the  VIC  and  the  64.  Because  it  plugs 
into  the  user  port,  it  can  be  used  with  both  the  64  and 
the  VIC. 

The  1650  modem  is  the  new  offering  available  from 

18    COMPimi     ^anua!y^'}BA 


Electronic  Typewriters  As  Printers 

I  would  like  to  add  to  the  comments  made  in 
COMPUTE!  {November)  about  using  typewriters  as 
printers.  While  I  have  serious  doubts  about  the 
suitability  of  a  mechanical  electric  typewriter  with 
solenoids  placed  over  the  keys,  I  know  from  ex- 
perience that  modern  electronic  typewriters  are 
perfectly  acceptable  for  use  as  printers.  Electronic 
typewriters  are  themselves  computers  of  sorts. 
The  keyboard  (input  device)  is  constantly  scanned; 
when  a  key  is  pressed,  a  signal  is  sent  to  the  logic 
board  (CPU).  A  typing  program,  in  ROM,  enables 
the  printer  (output  device)  to  make  the  desired 
impression  on  paper. 

Interfaces  for  electronic  typewriters  connect 
between  the  keyboard  and  the  logic  board,  al- 


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INTELLIVISION 


COMMODORE  VIC  20 


ATARI  2600 


COMMODORE  64 


WU  CAN  F[M  FEOGGER" 

ATTOURPAD. 

FROGGER  is  one  of  the  all-time  great  award-winning  home  video 

5^-  |\         games.  And  now  Parker  Brothers  has  programmed  it  into  >........ 

\^.,  • ': ,  J  all  the  most  popular  video  and  computer  formats  so  you  can  sAJis*.''W'f  v9n 

Nv         ;^/ keep  things  hopping  in  your  own  home.  I 

^^-<j  Catch  Frogger  along  with  POPEYEf        M^  /  /:>« 

*>'-''^'^^-<r  Q*bert:TUTANKHAM™  and  SUPER  ff///f 
COBRA""  where  you  buy  your  video  and  com- "  [^RdRKER  ff^/  /i/ / 
puter  games.  You'll  find  it  absolutely  ribbitting.BROTHElS  ^'imL.t,JM 

ColecoVision  is  a  trademark  of  Coleco  Industries.  Inc.  Si  1983  Parkt-r  Brothers.  Beverly,  MA  01915.  Inleiiivjsion  is  a  trademark  of  Mattel.  Inc.  Commodore  ViC  au  and  Conuvudore  64 
are  trademarks  of  Commodore  Business  .Vlacliines,  Inc.  Teiuis  Instruments  99.MA  is  j  trademark  of  Texas  Instruments,  Inc.  .Atari.'  Atari  Video  Computer  Sysiem."  Atari  4t)O'8UO/S0OXL" 
and  Atari  SZOO"  Video  Game  System  arc  trademarks  of  Atari,  Inc.    'TM  designates  a  trademark  of  Sega  Enterprises,  Inc.  S  198,1  Sega  Enterprises,  Inc. 


lowing  the  computer,  rather  than  the  typewriter 
keyboard,  to  be  the  source  of  input;  the  interface 
handles  handshaking.  Most  interfaces  have  a 
selectable  baud  rate,  line  feed  enable/disable,  form 
feed,  and  other  useful  features.  Parallel  and  serial 
interfaces  are  available.  Normal  typewriter  func- 
tions are  not  affected. 

All  major  typewriter  manufacturers  offer 
interfaces  for  their  high-end  electronic  type- 
writers, but  these  machines  will  likely  be  too  ex- 
pensive for  many  home  users.  However,  type- 
writers such  as  the  Olympia  Electronic  Compact, 
Swintec  1146CM,  Adler  Satellite  II,  Royal  Alpha 
2001,  and  the  Olivetti  Praxis  series  are  available 
(and  already  interfaced)  for  under  $1000.  Some  of 
these  machines  might  even  be  available  at  discount 
stores.  If  you  already  own  the  electronic  type- 
writer, let  the  dealer  install  the  interface  to  keep 
your  warranty  or  maintenance  contract  active 
(your  maintenance  contract  rate  may  rise  slightly 
with  the  addition  of  the  interface). 

The  interfaced  electronic  typewriter  provides 
the  home  computer  user  with  two  machines  in  one 
package:  an  up-to-date  electronic  typewriter  along 
with  a  printer  with  unsurpassed  impression  qual- 
ity. It  is  an  alternative  well  worth  consideration. 

J.  A.  Jaynes 


Interfacing  The  Epson  MX-80  With 
A  64  And  1541  Disic  Drive 

I'm  finding  that  I  write  longer  programs  and  have 
grown  out  of  my  present  computer  capacity  and 
need  to  either  expand  my  existing  system  or  start 
over.  I  can  get  set  up  with  a  Commodore  64  for 
less  money  than  it  would  cost  me  to  expand  my 
present  system.  I  would  like  to  buy  the  computer 
and  disk  drive,  and  retain  my  Epson  MX-80  printer. 
From  what  1  have  been  able  to  determine,  the 
disk  drive  and  printer  use  the  same  RS-232  interface 
connection  on  the  computer.  It  seems  that  each 
time  !  want  to  use  the  disk  drive  I  would  have  to 
disconnect  the  printer  and  then,  when  I'm  through 
with  the  disk  drive,  disconnect  it  and  plug  in  the 
printer  again.  Can  you  help? 

George  O'Kelley 

There  is  some  co}ifusioii  here  about  the  serial  port  used 
for  Commodore  disk  drives  ami  printers,  and  the  separate 
RS-232  port  which  is  used  to  add  third-party  serial 
devices  such  as  luodeins,  digitizers,  plotters,  and  RS-232 
printers.  You  can  attach  both  a  Commodore  printer  and 
a  Commodore  disk  drive  by  plugging  the  disk's  cable 
into  the  computer,  and  the  printer's  cable  i)ifo  the  disk 
drive  via  a  second  connection.  This  is  knoion  as  daisy 
chaining. 

Your  MX-80  will  not  plug  directly  into  the  Com- 
modore serial  port,  because  that  port  is  not  RS-232 

20    COMPUTE!    Januarv1984 


standard  serial.  In  fact,  the  serial  port  signals  are 
modeled  on  those  of  the  IEEE  port  of  the  PEVCBM 
models.  If  your  printer  has  a  built-in  RS-232  port,  you 
can  attach  it  to  the  User  Port  (modem  port)  with  the 
Commodore  RS-232  cartridge.  This  cartridge  performs 
voltage  conversions  (the  lines  coining  out  of  the  User 
Port  are  at  the  computer's  level — 0-5  volts,  whereas 
most  serial  printers  and  modems  need  voltage  levels 
from  -Uto  + 12  volts).  If  your  MX-80  has  a  Cen- 
tronics parallel  port,  there  are  interfaces  available  which 
plug  into  the  disk  drive  and  convert  the  data  from  the 
Commodore  serial  port  into  parallel  format  for  your 
printer.  There  are  some  interfaces  which  convert  the 
User  Port  into  a  software-driven  parallel  port,  but  this 
function  is  separate  from  the  use  of  the  User  Port  as  an 
RS'232port. 


What  Are  Sprites? 

1  recently  bought  an  Atari  800  and  1  am  wondering 
if  it  has  sprites,  and  if  so,  how  many. 

Paul  Mercurio 

A  sprite  is  a  movable  display  object.  Its  shape  is  different 
from  a  character  or  graphics  pixel,  due  to  its  independ- 
ence from  other  screen  activity.  A  true  sprite  can  pass 
over  any  background  text  or  graphics  without  disturbing 
the  background.  It  is  also  usually  faster  ami  easier  to 
program  than  a  bitmapped  (high-resolution)  shapie. 
Machiiies  with  sprites  usually  include  features  such  as 
collision-checking  (have  one  or  more  sprites  touched 
each  other?)  and  variable  height  and  width  for  the 
sprites. 

The  Atari  800  has  four  such  sprites,  called  players, 
ami  four  tiny  two-bit  sprites  called  missiles  (the  missiles 
can  he  condnned  to  form  a  fifth  player).  They  can  each 
he  eight  bits  (dots)  wide,  ami  up  to  256  lines  high.  The 
use  of  players  is  not  limited  to  games.  They  can  also 
form  borders,  special  tall  characters,  cursors,  or  even  a 
checkerboard.  Other  machines  that  have  sprites  are  the 
Commodore  64  (with  eight  24  x  21  sprites  with  multi- 
color capability),  and  the  T1-99/4A  (whose  sprites  can 
be  moved  automatically  by  the  computer). 


Our  reference  to  a  game  by  Michael  S.  Holtzman 
and  Timothy  Baldwin  in  the  October  1983  issue 
was  incorrect.  It  shoidd  have  been:  Michael  S. 
Holtzman  and  Mark  Kershenblatt. 


COMPUTE!  welcomes  questions,  comments,  or 
solutions  to  issues  raised  in  this  column.  Write  to: 
Readers'  Feedback,  COMPUTE!  Magazine,  P.O. 
Box  5406,  Greensboro,  NC  27403.  COMPUTE! 
reserves  the  right  to  edit  or  abridge  published 
letters.  © 


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The  Future 
Of  Synthetic  Music 


Richard  Mansfield,  Senior  Editor 


Something  is  about  to  happen  to  music.  Synthetic 
music,  synthesizers — those  machines  which  can 
sound  like  entire  orchestras  at  the  touch  of  a 
button — are  becoming  inexpensive  consumer 
items.  Soon,  anyone  will  be  able  to  afford  this 
powerful  musical  tool:  an  instrument  which  can 
be  programmed  (you  can  make  technically  perfect 
music  even  if  you're  tone  deaf  or  have  no  rhythmic 
sense);  can  sample  and  hold  any  sound  via  a  micro- 
phone (you  could  write  a  concerto  for  doorbell 
and  dog  orchestra);  and  can  create  digital  "tracks" 
in  RAM  memories  (you  layer  sounds  as  if  you 
were  a  one-man  band  and  had  rented  a  profes- 
sional recording  studio). 

Anyone  thinking  of  buying  a  piano  or  organ 
for  their  home  now  has  to  think  twice.  A  good 
synthesizer  can  offer  all  the  sounds  of  an  organ, 
plus  a  harpsichord,  drums,  piano,  and  even  realis- 
tic violins  and  cellos. 

Hal  Chamberlin,  an  authority  on  com- 
puterized music,  believes  that  synthesis-on-a- 
single-chip  technology 
now  has  made  small  and 
affordable  what  used  to 
cost  thousands  of  dollars 
and  was  very  large  in- 
deed. The  revolution  in 
electronics,  which  made 
personal  computers  pos- 
sible, is  now  transform- 


that  synthesizers  will  never  replace  an  instrument 
like  the  guitar.  They  won't  be  as  transportable. 
You  cannot  sing  along  with  a  synthesizer  quite 
the  same  way  that  you  can  with  a  guitar.  Most 
synthesizers  have  to  be  plugged  into  your  stereo 
amplifier  and  played  through  your  speakers.  That 
would  be  hard  to  set  up  on  the  beach. 

Some  portable  synthesizers  do  contain  built- 
in  amps  and  speakers,  but  there's  always  the  prob- 
lem of  power.  Moog  doesn't  expect  electronic 
keyboards  to  simply  replace  traditional  instru- 
ments in  every  situation:  "Not  until  there's  a 
technical  breakthrough,  which,  as  far  as  I  know, 
no  one  currently  foresees.  Battery  power  cannot 
do  that  much,  but  they  will  replace  home  organs, 
electric  pianos,  etc.  They  simply  have  more 
potential." 

The  Sound  Of  The  Nineties 

Research  on  sound  synthesis  is  moving  at  a  rapid 
pace  these  days.  Moog  says  that  in  the  next  decade 


mg  music. 

Synthesizer  pioneer 
Robert  Moog  predicts 
that — with  a  Casio  syn- 
thesizer already  selling 
for  under  $100^prices 
are  not  going  to  fall  much 
further.  Materials  will  not 
go  down  much  in  cost.       a  video  display  of  -waveforms  and  a  computer  keyboard  accompany  New  England  Digital's 
Furthermore,  he  says         Synclavierll. 


'8  '^ 


M  M  m  113 


m^ 


LAST  NIGHT,  39  MUSICIANS  HAD  A 

CompuServe  conference,  so  did  31  M.D.S, 

49  Sports  Fans  And  640  Apple  polishers, 

And  No  One  Had  To  leave  home. 


The  Electronic  Forum, 
Cheaper  than  Long  Distance 
and  Much  More  Rewarding. 

Every  night  on  the  CompuSeive 
Information  Service,  professional 
and  social  groups  discuss  a  wide 
range  of  subjects.  From  what's  new 
in  medical  technology  to  what's 
nouvelle  in  continental  cuisine. 

And  every  day  more  computer 
owners  who  share  a  common 
interest  are  discovering  this  exciting 
new  way  to  exchange  ideas  and 
even  transfer  hard  copy  data. 


And  besides  electronic  forums, 
they  leave  messages  for  each  other 
on  our  national  bulletin  board, 
"talk"  informally  on  our  CB  simulator, 
and  communicate  via  CompuServe's 
electronic  mail. 

But  best  of  all,  in  most  cases, 
CompuServe  subscribers  get  all  of 
these  state  of  the  art  communications 
options,  plus  a  world  of  on-line 
information  and  entertainment  for 
the  cost  of  a  local  phone  call  plus 
connect  time. 

To  become  part  of  this  flexible 
communications  network,  all  you 


need  is  a  computer,  a  modem  and 
CompuServe.  CompuServe  connects 

with  almost  any  personal  computer; 
terminal,  or  communicating  word 
processor. 

To  receive  an  illustrated 
guide  to  CompuServe  and  learn  how 
you  can  subscribe,  contact  or  call: 


CompuServe 

Consumer  Inlormation  Service.  RO  Box  20212 
5000  Arlington  Centre  Blva   Columbus.  OH  43220 

800-848-8199 

In  Ohio  call  614-457-0802 


An  H4R  Block  Company 


HOME  MANAGEMENT  SOFTWARE  FROM  ELECTRONIC  ARTS 


If  you  can  learn  to  use  this  word  processor 
in  90  seconds,  can  it  really  be  any  good? 


uear   Piof!.' 

Hold   ar&  Mou?     How's    Dad?      Little   Ernie? 


is   a   freshman   aQain..    I 
didn't   get   all    the   classes   tnat  ,1    hoped 

for .  I 

Here's   my   schedule -so   far- 

riWF=    Hist.     10-11.    En-3-i    1-2 
TTh=    Bio.    3-18..    Drama   2-4 

Let's  be  frank  Morn.. 


t'laterials   uen-r.   up    tni: 
I   you   please   send   me   $-50U    or   i^^-    .  ■-•. 


Sj    etc 


Please    hurry 


Love; 


Bruce 


CUT  &L  PASTE""  displays  its  commands  on  a  single  line  at  the  bottom  of  the  screen.  This 
makes  uvrking  with  it  easier  and  also  g^ves  you  more  usable  space  on  the  .screen. 


Of  all  word  processors  on  the 
market  today,  Cut  &  Paste  may 
well  be  the  easiest  to  use.  In 
fact,  by  the  time  you  finish  reading  this 
section  of  the  ad,  you'U  know  how 
to  work  with  Cut  &  Paste.  So  read  on. 
START  TiTING.  Working  with  Cut 
&  Paste  is  like  working  with  a  type- 
writer. If  you  know  how  to  use  a  type- 
writer, you  already  know  how  to  type 
in  your  draft  with  Cut  &.  Paste. The 
only  real  difference  is,  with  Cut  & 
Paste  it's  easier  to  correct  typos. 
MAKING  CHANGES.  Let's  say 
you've  decided  to  make  a  cut  in  your 
rough  draft.  To  do  this  you  put  the 
cursor  (the  bright  block)  at  the  start 
of  the  text  you  want  to  delete,  and 


stretch  it  through  to  the  end  of  your 
cut.  Then  you  send  the  cursor  down  to 
the"CUT"  command  on  the  bottom 
of  the  screen.  Done. 

If,  on  the  other  hand,  you  want 
to  keep  that  line,  but  put  it  in  a  differ- 
ent part  of  your  draft,  you  use  the 
'TASTE"  command.  You  mark  the 
point  of  insert  with  the  cursor.  Then 
you  put  the  cursor  over 'TASTE." 
That's  all  there  is  to  it. 
PRINTING  rr  OUT.  When  you 
like  the  way  your  work  looks,  you  print 
it.  Put  the  cursor  on  the  "PRINT" 
command.  Then  set  your  margins,  in 
inches. That's  it. 

You  now  know  how  to  use  Cut 
&.  Paste. 


OKAY,  IT'S  SIMPLE.  BUT  HOW 
GOOD  IS  IT?  Cut  &  Paste  has  all 
the  features  you'll  ever  need  to  use 
at  home.  Here  are  a  few  of  them: 

1.  Scrolling  dynamic  menus 

2.  Automatic  word  vn-ap 

3.  Simple  cut  &.  paste  editing 

4.  Block  indenting 

5.  Set  margins  and  paper  size  in 
inches 

6.  Tabs 

7.  Automatic  page  numbering 

8.  Controllable  page  breaks 

9.  Headings 

10.  Scrolling  text  windows 

11.  Automatic  widow  and  orphan 
control 

12.  Clear  and  concise  manual 
In  other  words,  Cut  &  Paste 

will  do  just  about  everything  other 
word  processors  do.  But  Cut  &  Paste 
will  do  it  more  easily.  Without  com- 
plex commands  and  modes. 

If  you  think  about  a  word  proc- 
essor in  terms  of  what  it  replaces  (type- 
writers, pens  and  paper,  files),  Cut  & 
Paste  begins  to  look  very  good  indeed. 

And  when  you  consider  that  all  this 
power  can  be  had  for  approximately 
$50,  we  think  you'll  see  why  we  believe 
Cut  &.  Paste  is  something  of  an 
achievement. 

A  PHILOSOPHY  OF  DESIGN. 
The  people  who  designed,  devel- 
oped and  programmed  Cut  &  Paste 
have  some  fairly  hea\'y  credentials. 

They  are  people  who  worked  on 
the  internationally-famous  user  inter- 
face designs  diat  led  to  the  Xerox  Star" 
and  Apple's  Lisaf  They  are  also 


THE  CHANGING  OF  THE  GUARD.  Vml  quae  recently  ue  used  pens  and  paper 
and  typewriters  to  write  with,  mostly  because  we  knew  how  to  use  them.They  haie  been  good 
tools,  but  limited.  You  tend  to  make  messes  when  you  work  with  them,  and  getting  rid  of  those 
messes  makes  extra  work.  Cut  &  Paste  is  an  inexpensii'C  and  practical  alternative.  Because  ii  is  as 
easy  to  use  as  a  typewriter,  you  really  will  use  it.  Which  mny  make  it  the  first  scruible  word  processor 
for  the  home.  Thus  an  alleged  labor-saving  device  has  come  to  a  position  where  it  really  can  save  a 
significant  amount  of  labor,  i.e., yours. 


-IIK3ii 

■"i^miKm,3ti\  t  III 

H^H^^HH^v  ^^^^^^^ 

SMi^^    ^^     ./^^ 

'^'"^^^^^^^^^^^^M 

THE  MEN  WHO  MADE  CUT  & 

PAS  1 1.  Tfie  Linofype  T(\a6nxns.  picXureA  here 
was  the  19ih  century's  most  important  contri- 
bution 10  word  processing  technology.  It  let 
typesetters  compose  and  rearrange  text  in  (he 
form  of  metal  castings.  The  importarux  of  Cut 
&  Paste,  of  course,  must  await  the  judgment 
of  history.  Nevertheless,  the  seven  men  who  de- 
veloped it  look  confident  Iterc.  Standing  left  to 
right,  they  are:  Norm  Lane,  Steve  Shaw,  David 
Maynard,  Dan  Silva,  Steve  Hayes  and  Jerry 
Morrison.  Seated  at  the  console  is  Tim  Mott, 
whose  idea  this  was  in  the  first  place. 

people  who  have  in  common  a  \'ery 
lucid  philosophy  of  design. 

Computers  and  the  programs  they 
run  are  tools<  they  belie\'e.  Tools  are 
never  noticed  unless  they  are  bad  tools. 
When  they're  good,  they  become,  in 
effect,  invisible.  And  if  you  want  to 
make  a  good  tool— an  invisible  tool— 


you'd  best  study  the  way  people  use 
the  tools  they  already  have. 

As  a  result  of  this  thinking,  Cut  & 
Paste  was  designed  to  work  much  in 
the  same  way  that  you  already  work 
with  a  typewriter  or  with  pen  and 
paper.  The  most  complex  and  power- 
ful parts  of  the  program  are  hidden 
from  view.  The  work  they  do  takes 
place  deep  in  the  machine.  All  you  get 
to  see  are.  the  results. 

But  beyond  that,  there  is  something 
almost  indefinable  about  a  good  de- 
sign.Things  about  it  just  seem  to  work 
crisply.  Little  touches  and  features 
that  you  notice  make  you  want  to  smile. 
Ifit's  really  good, 
it  feels  good. 

Cut  &  Paste 
feels  good.  ELECTRONIC  Arts" 


THE  PRODUCTS  o/Ektronic  Arts  can 
bejoxmd  in  yvur  favorite  computer  stores,  soft- 
ware CCTittrrs,  and  in  leading  department  stores 
tfiroughoiit  the  countrj.  Botn  Cut  &  Paste 
and  Finandai  CookbooK"  are  now  available 
at  a  stiggested  retai!  price  of  $50  for  the  Apple 
lie  and  the  Commodore  64  and  will  soon  be 
available  for  the  IBM-PC  and  Atari. 


OUR  COMMITMENT  TO 
HOME  MANAGEMENT 

Cut  &.  Paste  is  just  one  of  a  growing 
number  of  products  we're  publishing 
within  the  category  of  "home  manage- 
ment software  ."These  products  are  all 
built  around  the  same  program  archi- 
tecture, making  them  all  equally  "friend- 
ly," as  well  as  remarkably  straightfor- 
ward and  practical.  We  believe  that 
designs  like  these  will  soon  make  home 
computers  as  functional  and  efficient  as 
today's  basic  appliances. 

Our  next  product  in  this  line  is  called 
Financial  Cookbook.  It's  a  realistic  alterna- 
tive to  the  complex,  pre-programmed  fi- 
nancial calculators  we  all  xvish  we  knew 
how  to  use.  With  a  few,  simple  keystrokes, 
Finanriai  Cookbook  lets  you  make  more 
than  30  key  time-value-of-money 
computations— just  about  all  the  ones 
you'd  ever  use  for  personal  finances- 
like  calculating 
mortgages  with 
changing  inter- 
est rates,  com- 
pounding the 
interest  on  IRA 
and  savings  ac- 
counts, and  buy- 
versus  -  lease 
comparisons  for 
automobile  pur- 
chases. 

To  find  out  more  about  these  home 
management  products  and  about  what 
we  have  planned  for  the  future,  call  or 
write:  Electronic  Arts,  2755  Campus 
Drive.  San  Mateo.  CA  94403  (415) 
571-7171. 


Apple  (tnd  LiMare  re^Kred  ifiidcmirki  tif  A}>}>le  Computer,  fnc  Slai  is  it  Tc^tered  iTadetnark  of  the  Xfmx  Corpomtton  Commodore  64  a  a  rcs^tcrcd  tradayuirlt  of  CcmmotkiTe  Business  Mot-hiJU-s,  Jtic  PC  w  a  ux^itred 
n-uJcmaifc  o/^rmemulnma/BiuiTWJs  Mjjcfinws.  Jnc  Awri  ii  d  n-ffurcred  tr-tdemafk  a/AwTi.  Imr.a  Wimj;!  Comrnwijcdriom  t-i)mp(m\ 


"Make  note  of  that  name,  Electronic  Aits. 

It  may  well  set  the  standard  for  sophisticated 

entertainment  software  in  the  BOk" 


—Creative  Computing. 


ELECTRONIC  ARTS 

COMES  TO 
THE  COMMODORE. 


ARCHON" 

by  Free  Fail  Associates 
"No  review  could  possibly  do 
more  than  hint  at  the  manifold 
excellence  of  Archon.  It  is 
ituIy  a  landmark  in  the  devel- 
opment of  computerized 
strategy  games,"         —Video 
"...  you're  bound  to  fall  for  it. 

Imagineachessgamein  which 

you  can  cast  spells." 

—Creative  G>mputing 


'. . .  the  offices  of  A.N.A.L.O.G. 
echo  with  the  searing  roar  of 
dragon-fire  and  shouted 
obscenities  from  angry  players. 
Archon  turns  friend  against 
friend  and  inspires  grudges  that 
can  last  for  days.  What  better 
compliment  can  you  give  to  a 
computer  program." 

-A.N.A.L.O.G. 


HARD  HAT  MACK™ 

1)7  Michael  Abbot  and 
Matthew  Alexander 

"An  outstanding,  state-of-the- 
art  game.  Hard  Hat  Mack  is  the 
blue  collar  heto  of  this  three 
screen  climbing  game  and  his 
tasks  are  far  from  simple." 
—Arcade  Express 

"If  you  put  Hard  Hat  Mack 
in  the  ring  with  all  other 
games  on  the  market,  it 
would  win  most  bouts  in 
the  opening  seconds  of  the 
first  round.  It's  diat  good." 
—  Softaik 


C64.  Ap.  A: 


C64.Ap,At 


Ap.  CM.  At.  signiiV  flv^ibbilrtv  fct  Appie  II.  li  +.  HE.  Commodore  64.  or  Atari  Wmc  computers  with  dist  drive.  All  screen  shots  nepiesent  Commotiore  64.  Appie  is  a  registered 

mdcnuilt  of  Apple  Computet.  Inc.  Comnwdotc  64  li  a  teglsteied  trademark  of  Cjjmmndotc  Business  Mtchirie!.  Inc-  Atari  is  a  regiMertd  tiadeuiark  of  Atari.  Inc.,  a  Vhrxr  Comitiunicatiotvs  Compinn 


A*« 


M.U.L.E.' 

by  Ozark  Soflscape 
"A  must-have." 

—Electronic  Fun 

"May  well  become  the  Monopoly 
of  computer  games." 

—Persona!  Software 
"Graphics,  sound  and  humor 
are  superlative." 

—Creative  Computing 

"Recommendation?  Buy  it." 

— Softline 


MURDER  ON  THE 

ZINDERNEUF"' 
by  Free  Fall  Associates 
"Whodunit  fans,  drop  your 
Agatha  Christie  and  come 
running.  This  is  your  game!  The 
graphics  are  among  the  most 
colorful  and  attractive  I  have 
seen  in  any  game ''— Antic 


kiU^ 


CM,  At 


;^ 


PINBALL 

CONSTRUCTION  SET 

by  Bill  Budge 
"The  best  program  ever  written 
for  an  8-bit  machine." 

—  Steve  Wozniak 
"A  fully  integrated 
graphics-oriented 
design  tool  that  lets 
you  create  your  own 
video  pinbaSl  games, 
required  study  for  all  serious 
software  authors," 

-A.N.A.L.O.G. 
"A  tour  de  force." 

—Creative  Computing 


ELECTRONIC  Arts 

Home  Software  for  die  Q)mmodore  64 


Look  for  our  oihcr  CommoJorc  64  titles  LW  AXIS  ASSASSIN!"  WORMS?"  and  THE  TESSERACT  STRATEGY"*!  your  favorite  compuicf  mow,  wfrwaie  center  and  at  fine  dtpartment  stores  xhrotighiiut  the  counrry. 
For  more  InfomMriCTi  about  (httCSftdl  other  ElMirewiicAraproducw.wriK  or  call  us  ai  2755  Campus  Drive.  San  Mateo,  CA  94403 -(4151  571-7171. 


/ 


there  will  be  new  "special  input  devices — maybe 
a  keyboard,  an  alphanumeric  keyboard,  special 
controls.  Synthesizers  could  become  so  stand- 
ardized that  they  all  become  preset." 

Hal  Chamberlin  looks  for  keyboards  with 
more  freedom,  and  falling  prices  for  performance 
synthesizers.  Synthesizers  optimized  for  perfor- 
mance (as  opposed  to  primarily  programmable 
machines)  will  offer  greater  expressiveness,  a 
more  sensitive  response  to  the  player's  hands. 
He's  currently  working  on  a  keyboard  which  re- 
sponds to  the  velocity  with  which  a  key  is  pressed, 
the  amount  of  initial  pressure,  and  the  secondary 
pressure  deriving  from  the  motion  of  the  fingers — 
three  kinds  of  sensitivity  at  once. 

Will  Alexander  is  technical  manager  for  Fair- 
light  Instruments,  a  manufacturer  of  popular, 
high-end  synthesizers.  He  sees  several  important 
developments  over  the  next  few  years.  For  one 
thing,  new  technology  will  make  the  instruments 
more  complex.  They'll  have  "more  memory, 
smaller  packages,  more  voice  generation  capability 
(as  in  polyphony)."  What  is  now  layered  sound 
on  an  eight-track  recorder  will  be  handled  in  one 
pass  by  a  synthesizer.  And  we  can  probably  also 
expect  to  hear  more  synthesizers  in  video  and 
media  applications. 

One  interesting  possibility  is  direct  interfacing 
to  personal  computers.  That  would  permit  com- 
puter-generated graphics  that  illustrated  the 
music.  Alexander  also  believes  that  the  now  com- 
mon restriction  limiting  many  synthesizers  to 
playing  eight  notes  at  once  might  well  expand  to 
64  voice  capability.  The  computer  and  its  great 
mathematical  capabilities  make  all  this  possible. 

An  Invasion  Of  Numbers 


Victims  of  evoluiionary  pressure  prepare  to  make  music  witli 
portable  Moo^  "Liberation"  synthesizers. 

when  something  goes  digital,  you  can  expect  to 
find  a  computer  in  there  somewhere,  keeping  the 
numbers  straight.  It's  a  matter  of  speed,  really — if 
you  can  sample  something  fast  enough  and  then 
assign  a  number  to  each  sample,  you  can  store  it 
and  transmit  it  with  no  degradation  in  quality. 
Alexander  notes  that  digital  has  "a  transparent 
sound — it  has  no  characteristics  (unlike  analog). 
It  only  produces  what  you  program  it  to  do." 

Perhaps  even  more  important  to  the  creative 
musician,  digitization  permits  an  extraordinary 
range  of  sound  timbres,  rhythms,  and  harmonies. 
And  while  it  can  take  years  to  learn  to  effectively 


Although  it  is  at  first  hard  to  imagine  the  music  of     play  a  violin,  you  can  quickly  pick  up  the  skills 
Vivaldi  or  The  Talking  Heads  as  a  collection  of  necessary  to  program  an  artificial  violin.  On 

numbers  and  equations,  music  is  very  much  a  current  analog  synthesizers,  the  string  section 

part  of  the  current  trend  toward  digitization.  And     sounds  pretty  convincing.  On  digital  synthesizers, 

you  might  well  be 
hard-pressed  to  tell  the 
difference. 

Of  course,  in  many 
areas  of  modern  life,  digi- 
tal is  replacing  the  tradi- 
tional analog  approach.  A 
tiny  imitation  of  a  Vivaldi 
concerto  appears  as  the 
bumps  in  the  grooves  of  a 
typical  stereo  LP  record. 
The  new  laser  discs  con- 
tain only  numbers.  And 
the  laser  disc  players  are 
dedicated  computers 
which  can  read  those  num- 
bers at  the  rate  of  44,000 
per  second. 


Korg's  self-contained  SAS-20  makes  up  rhythm,  bass,  and  even  chord  progressions  when 
you  play  a  melody  with  one  finger. 


Tli£ENDo/DINKETY' 
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the  first  computer 
music  program  that 
actually  sounds  like 
mvtsic 

LET'S  FACE  IT.  Up  till  now,  music 
programs  for  your  home  computer 
have  all  sounded,  well,  pretty  lame. 
There  were  the  ones  that  resembled 
little  electronic  music  boxes,  remem- 
ber? And  then  there  were  those  that 
sounded  like  so  many  burps. 

Enter  Music  Construction  Set.™  It's 
the  first  music  program  that  really 
makes  use  of  the  power  of  that  ma- 
chine you've  got.  If  you're  a  serious 
student,  this  means  you'll  be  able  to 
work  with  an  intricacy  and  range  of 
sound  quality  you've  never  heard  be- 
fore on  a  computer.  And  if  you  know 
nothing  about  music,  you'll  find  some- 
thing even  more  important.  Namely, 
that  this  thing  is  simple  enough  to 
be  a  lot  of  fun. 

Take  a  good  look  at  this  screen 
because  it,  you,  and  a  joystick  are  the 
whole  story  here. 

That's  you  at  the  right  end  of  the 
staff  of  notes  —  the  litde  hand.  Move 
the  joystick,  and  you  move  the  hand. 
Use  it  to  carry  notes  up  to  the  staff. 
Lay  in  rests,  signatures,  clefs,  then  point 


to  the  little  piano  in  the  lower  right 
and  listen,  because  you'll  hear  the 
whole  thing  played  back. 

Move  those  tittle  scales  in  the  mid- 
dle up  and  down  to  vary  the  music's 
speed,  sound  quality, and  volume.  Use 


MUSIC 

—  '/•  Mm 


^I". 


the  scissors  to  cut  out  whole  measures, 
then  use  the  glue  pot  to  paste  them 
in  somewhere  else.  Got  a  printer? 
Great.  Print  the  score  out  and  show  it 
off  to  your  friends. 

But  what  if  you're  not  up  to  writing 
your  own  stuff  yet?  No  problem. 
There  are  twelve  pieces  of  music  al- 
ready in  here,  from  rock  'n  roll  to 
baroque. They're  fun  to  listen  to,  and 
even  more  fun  to  change.  (Apologies 
to  Mozart.) 

The  point  is,  the  possibilities  are 
endless.  But  if  you're  still  skeptical, 
visit  your  nearest  Electronic  Arts  dealer 
and  do  the  one  thing  guaranteed  to 
send  you  home  with  a  Music  Con- 
struction Set  in  tow. 

Boot  one  up.  Point  to  the  piano. 
And  listen. 


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E-MU  Systems'  Dnoiiuiator, 
of  real  drum  sounds. 


coutni)ii)ig  digitized  versions 


Will  Alexander  states  without  equivocation 
that  "digital  is  the  wave  of  the  future  in  music 
synthesis,"  His  company's  Fairlight  synthesizer  is 
a  computer— it's  got  BASIC,  FORTRAN,  a  word 
processor,  and  a  light  pen.  And  soon  they're  ex- 
pecting to  add  the  language  C.  The  Fairlight  has 
two  microprocessors  on  the  same  bus — one  for 
music  composition  and  the  other  for  input/output. 
He  sees  the  availability  and  managemerit  of  mem- 
ory as  a  key  to  future  synthesizer  designs.  At 
present,  the  Fairlight  implements  the  concept  of 
virtual  memory  storage;  music  can  be  performed 
while  new  music  is  overlaid  in  memory. 

Most  of  today's  synthesizers  are  analog.  If 
you  want  a  softer,  more  woodwind  sound  on  one 
of  these  machines,  you  turn  a  dial  controlling  a 
built-in,  filtered  waveform  until  you  get  close 
to  what  you're  after.  Yamaha  has  recently  intro- 
duced a  relatively  inexpensive  digital  synthesizer 
and — like  anything  digital — it  isn't  tuned,  it's 
programmed. 

Alexander  forecasts  the  death  of  analog: 
"Analog  has  been  taken  to  its  limits  ...  the  deci- 
sions are  made  for  you."  With  digital,  "the  end 
user  specifies  the  parameters — decisions  are  made 
by  the  user."  Using  analog,  you  work  with  a  spe- 
cific set  of  predefined  harmonies;  with  digital, 
you  specify  the  harnionies  for  the  system.  This 
gives  the  player  more  responsibility,  but  also  far 
more  freedom.  The  Fairlight,  for  example,  has  no 
oscillator — the  user  works  directly  with  the 
waveform  itself. 

Playing  an  analog  synthesizer,  Alexander 
says,  is  like  going  to  a  paint  store  and  just  buying 
tubes  of  colors  and  supplies.  Using  a  digital  syn- 
thesizer is  far  more  individual:  Like  a  painter  in 
the  15th  century,  you  work  from  scratch,  making 
your  own  paints,  creating  all  your  own  colors. 

Hal  Chamberlin  agrees,  saying  that  analog 
synthesis  will  be  dying  out  over  the  next  several 

30    COMPUTEI    Januaiv,19Bd 


years.  The  only  thing  holding  back  further  digital 
development  is  the  cost  and  complexity  of  the 
technology.  He  says  that  the  chip  technology  is 
already  here — it's  just  a  matter  of  implementation. 

Tom  Rhea,  director  of  marketing  for  Moog 
Music,  Inc.,  finds  digital  inevitable,  but  in  its  in- 
fancy. "Digital  technology  as  it  appears  in  musical 
instruments  is  not  at  a  mature  stage.  What  tech- 
nology can  do  is  known.  What  people  need  and 
want  is  the  problem.  There's  a  lot  of  hoopla  over 
digital.  It's  another  buzzword.  For  a  while  it  was 
poli/phojiic,  then  programmable,  now  it's  digital.  But 
in  ten  or  fifteen  years  we'll  have  digital  everything. 
It's  the  music  of  the  future." 

Analog  versus  digital  "should  be  a  non- 
issue  to  a  musician.  The  musician  is  concerned 
with  'What  does  the  sound  do?  How  can  I  ma- 
nipulate it?'  Nobody  asks  of  a  piano  'How  are 
you  constructed?'  They  just  play  and  respond 
subjectively." 

Paul  Turino,  an  engineer  in  the  product 
development  division  of  Unicord,  distributors  of 
Korg  machines,  expects  that  the  coming  digital 
equipment  will  open  many  doors  for  musicians. 
"We'll  see  a  greater  utilization  of  microprocessor- 
based  units.  Presently,  a  synthesizer  such  as  the 
Fairlight  can  record  any  sound  imaginable  and 
process  it — as  a  result  of  sampling  principles.  In 
the  future,  synthesizers  will  be  able  to  store  more 
features  and  handle  ten  times  the  amount  of 
routines  that  they  handle  now." 

Dog  Symphonies 

You  hear  Fido  howling  at  the  moon.  It's  a  haunt- 
ing, pleasant  sound.  You  quietly  turn  on  your 
tape  recorder  and  save  the  sound.  The  next 
morning,  you  plug  the  recorder  into  your  synthe- 
sizer and  sample  the  sounds.  A  computer  inside 
the  synthesizer  makes  a  very  accurate,  high- 
resolution  analysis  of  the  noise.  After  that,  you 
can  play  the  howls  in  any  key,  add  vibrato,  decay, 
echo — whatever  you  want,  to  manipulate  the 
sounds  into  new  "instruments."  Then  layer  your 
invented  instruments,  harmonize  them,  bring 


A  Commodore  64  interfaced  to  a  pair  of  Prophets  from 
Sequential  Circuits. 


•  Papular  Computing,  November,  1982 
t  Apple  SoFulk,  April,  1982 


Everyone's  talking  about  The  Home  Accountant. 


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it's  great  for  home  and  business  use? 
Or  because  it  has  up  to  200  budget 
categories  and  handles  up  to  5 
checking  accounts? 

Yes.  But  there  are  a  lot  more  reasons 
why  people  buy  The  Home  Accountant. 
And  why  you  will,  too. 

Because  The  Home  Accountant  can 
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For  personal  or  business  use. 


The  Home  Accountant  will  even 
print  net  worth  and  financial  state- 
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In  shon.  The  Home  Accountant  is  the 
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Stop  by  your  Continental  Software 
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The  Home  Accountant  is  available 
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ters. Actual  budget  capacities  will  vary 

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iH 


1JBI**»^ 


Z^ 


one  to  the  front  as  the  melody,  and  you've  created 
a  dog  orchestra. 

Do  you  like  Linda  Ronstadt's  voice?  Sample 
it  from  the  radio.  Drive  it  through  a  singing  speech 
synthesizer  and  you've  got  the  services  of  a  robot 
songstress  at  your  command.  Sampling  is  the 
hottest  topic  in  synthesis  today  and  it,  too,  is  an 
offshoot  of  the  digital  revolution  brought  about 
by  computerization. 

You  can  pull  a  birdsong  from  the  sky  as  easily 
as  you  could  snap  a  picture  of  a  bluebird  in  a  tree. 
Sampling  is  a  technique  that  digitizes  a  whole 
sound,  says  Moog,  and  any  sound  imaginable 
can  be  used.  Fairlight's  Alexander  also  feels  that 
sampling  is  an  extremely  important  technique, 
especially  in  the  way  it  simplifies  things  for  the 
musician. 

It's  not  necessary  to  write  a  computer  program 
to  generate  and  manipulate  a  waveform.  Just  offer 
a  sound  to  the  machine  and  the  computer  figures 
out  the  equations  for  you,  synthesizes  the 
waveforms,  and  suddenly  Linda  or  Fido  is  waiting 
inside  the  instrument.  You  can  concentrate  on 
writing  a  song  for  them  because,  as  Alexander 
points  out,  with  sampling  there  are  no  mathemat- 
ics for  the  user  to  bother  with. 

To  The  Limits  Of  Your  Talents 

Tom  Rhea  sounds  a  cautionary  note.  Though 


synthetic  music  has  great  promise,  he  wonders  if 
it  will  be  abused.  Playing  the  violin  well  "involves 
neuromuscular  skills,  technique,  hours  of  time. 
With  a  synthesizer  we  just  press  buttons.  Because 
we  can  do  this,  is  this  what  we  slwiild  be  doing? 
Electronic  instruments  are  dangerous — you  can 
do  so  much  for  so  little.  With  synthesizers  it's 
easy,  easy,  easy  to  play  badly.  Everyone  can  play, 
sure,  but  can  they  play  it  well?" 

Of  course,  this  argument  was  raised  by 
painters  when  the  camera  was  invented.  Eventu- 
ally, photography  became  an  alternative  art  form. 

The  computerization  of  music  will — like  any 
technology — have  its  drawbacks.  But  most  people 
will  welcome  the  exhilarating  possibilities  offered 
by  these  new,  powerful  music  machines.  There's 
something  to  be  said  for  an  instrument  which  lets 
you  go  quickly  to  the  limits  of  your  talents  without 
having  to  spend  years  studying  before  finding 
out  just  how  good  you  might  be. 

Moog  Music,  Inc. 
2500  Waldeii  Ave. 
Buffalo,  NY  14225 


Sequential  Circuits,  Inc. 
3051  N.  First  St. 
Sail  }ose,  CA  35134 

Nap  England  Digital  Corp. 

P.O.  Box 546 

White  River  }ct.,  VT  05001 

E-MU  Systems,  Inc. 
2815  Cha?iiic!eer 
Santa  Cruz,  CA  95062 


Unicord 

89  Frost  St. 

Wt'stbimi,NYU590 


Commodore®  owners: 
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■B  (.ojiyrishl  !■)?.>  by  Mjrl  H    Rob 


Robots  That  Roll, 
Crawl,  And  Bounce 


Fred  D'Ignozio,  Associote  Editor 


The  World  Headquarters  For  Robots 

Where  is  the  world  headquarters  for  robots?  Is  it 
in  Japan,  England,  the  Soviet  Union?  Probably 
not.  It's  probably  right  here  in  the  United  States 
at  the  Robotics  Institute.  The  institute  is  part  of 
Carnegie-Mellon  University,  in  Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. 

The  Robotics  Institute  was  established  in 
1979.  Eighty  scientists  and  engineers  and  over  60 
students  work  on  the  institute's  multimillion-dol- 
lar projects  to  invent  new,  advanced  computers 
and  robots.  The  institute's  17  corporate  sponsors 
watch  the  research  closely.  They  are  hoping  the 
scientists  and  students  will  invent  robots  and 
computers  that  their  companies  can  use  in  their 
business. 

A  Robot  That  Crawls 

All  the  robots  at  the  institute  are  exciting,  but  the 
most  interesting  robots  are  the  ones  that  move. 
There  are  three  types  of  mobile  robots:  a  wheeled 
robot  named  Rover,  a  six-legged  robot  that  crawls, 
and  a  couple  of  bouncing  robot  pogo  sticks. 

The  crawling  robot  is  one  of  the  first  six-legged 
robots  (or  hexapods)  in  the  world.  Earlier  hexapods 
were  built  in  Japan  and  in  the  U.S.  And  there  is 
even  an  octopod  (an  eight-legged  robot),  built  by 
scientists  in  the  Soviet  Union. 

In  order  to  walk,  the  earlier  hexapod  robots 
divided  up  their  six  legs  into  two  tripods  of  three 
legs  each.  To  take  a  step  they  would  raise  three 
legs.  To  keep  from  falling  they  would  keep  three 
legs  on  the  ground  (in  the  shape  of  a  triangle — or 
tripod).  In  this  way,  the  hexapod  could  move,  but 
it  didn't  need  to  maintain  its  balance  since  it  always 
had  three  legs  on  the  ground. 

The  institute's  hexapod  robot  can  walk  using 
the  tripod  method.  But  it  is  capable  of  using  other 
methods  as  well.  Its  inventor,  Ivan  Sutherland, 
studied  the  motion  of  several  animals,  including 

34    COMPUTE!    Januofv1984 


four-legged  horses  and  six-legged  insects.  He 
programmed  the  robot  to  use  some  of  the  same 
patterns  that  real  animals  use. 

Each  of  the  six  legs  on  the  robot  has  its  own 
microcomputer  to  control  the  leg.  The  computers 
communicate  with  each  other  and  with  a  central 
supervisor  computer  to  make  sure  the  robot 
accomplishes  its  main  objective:  crawling.  Without 
the  computers  working  together,  the  robots'  six 
legs  would  become  jerky  and  spastic.  Instead  of 
walking  it  might  begin  doing  deep  knee  bends  or 
keel  over. 

A  human  can  ride  Sutherland's  hexapod. 
Even  though  the  robot  has  lots  of  little  computers 
to  help  it  walk,  a  human  can  do  some  important 
things  to  help  the  robot  get  where  it's  going.  The 
rider  can  adjust  the  attitude,  or  tilt,  of  the  robot  so 
it  won't  tip  over  on  hillsides  or  rocks.  He  can  adjust 
the  robot's  clearance  so  that  the  robot  doesn't 
scrape  its  tummy  on  sharp  stones,  tree  branches, 
and  other  objects  it  passes  over.  And  he  can  help 
the  robot  decide  where  to  place  its  feet.  This  is 
especially  important  when  the  robot  is  walking 
near  a  hole,  next  to  a  cliff,  or  beside  a  puddle. 

However,  the  most  important  reason  to  have 
a  human  ride  on  the  robot  is  not  to  help  it  walk. 
It's  to  use  the  robot  as  an  intelligent,  legged  jeep 
or  land  rover — to  get  somewhere  that  no  wheeled 
vehicle  could  reach. 

But  don't  expect  to  get  there  fast.  Sutherland's 
hexapod  travels  at  only  two  miles  per  hour. 

A  Robot  That  Bounces 

Perhaps  the  strangest  robot  at  the  institute  is  Marc 
Raibert's  bouncing  pogo  stick.  The  robot  has  no 
arms  or  head,  only  a  body  and  a  leg — one  leg.  The 
leg  keeps  its  balance  and  moves  forward  by  hop- 
ping, just  like  a  kangaroo. 

Raibert  built  the  robot  (or  monopod)  to  help 
him  study  how  creatures  balance  themselves.  The 


The  road  to  floppy  success  is  paved  with  Gold  Standards. 


Maxell  can  speed  your  success  in 
computing.  Helping  you  avoid  the 
traps  that  can  block  the  way  to  the 
information  you've  stored.  After  all, 
our  disk  has  outpaced  every  other  in 
performance  tests.  And  earned  a  life- 
time warranty. 

Consider  this:  disks  travel  through  a 
disk  drive  where  heat  builds  up.  And 
up.  Only  Maxell  designed  its  protective 
outer  jacket  to  defy  140°F.  So  the  disk 
keeps  its  shape.  And  keeps  your  infor- 
mation on  track. 


How  good  is  Gold?  Maxell's  the  disk 
that  many  floppy  drive  manufacturers 
trust  to  put  new  equipment  through 
its  final  paces. 

And  the  unique  way  we  pack  our 
oxide  particles  and  bind  them  together 
means  quality  for  the  long  run. 

Dropouts?  Disk  errors?  Just  pass 
them  by.  You're  on  the  Gold  Standard. 

maxell 

ITS  WORTH  IT 


maxell 

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■'.  M^s.  ."i'^'=>- Vir '  ■■'■  ''''^  ■-T^-i:^  />  ■  ^diiii 


'■  "V"*!^ 


1^  We  just  made 


owning  an  Atari  comp 
a  lot  more  logical 


^^Miii 


r^A 


■>i*-V 


£?l^s 


RanaSystems  ^ 


Bus/  I        PnOTECTl       i  UN.TIO         I         TRACK 


£Jr!S;ii^;Sj?5j,% 


iiiWii 


EJ--    ^r-t^Urr- 


P 

#1): 


Introducing  the  Rana  1000  disk  drive.  It!s  a  whole  new  game  for  Atari  computers. 


This  two  digit  LED  readout 
displays  a  code  that  tells  you 
everything  you  need  to  know. 


This  switch  tells  you  your 
write  protect  feature  is 
keeping  your  information  safe. 


The  remaining  switches 
provide  readouts  on  density 
storage,  error  status,  and 
drive  number. 


This  switch,  when  you  touch  it, 
tells  you  what  track  you're  on. 


When  Rana  Systems  introduced  the  Elite 
Series  of  Apple®  compatible  disk  drives,  we  didn't 
know  what  a  tremendous  impact  they  would  make. 
It  turned  out  to  be  a  line  so  outstanding  in  perfor- 
mance, styling,  capacity,  and  price,  that  it  instan- 
taneously made  us  a  major  force  in  the  market. 
Well,  needless  to  say,  the  response  was  so  great 
that  we  were  forced  to  create  the  same  highly  ad- 
vanced disk  drive  for  Atari®  A  disk  drive  that  when 
coupled  with  Atari's  computer,  could  perform 
everything  from  accounting,  financial  planning, 
and  stock  charting,  to  word  processing,  business 
management,  and  letting  you  write  your  own  pro- 
grams. Plus,  we  made  it  simple  enough  for  a  child 
to  use,  for  learning  anything  from  the  alphabet  to 
a  foreign  language. 

Working  with  a  diskette 
versus  playing  with  a  cassette. 

Let's  face  it.  The  only  reason  Atari  made  a 
cassette  option  to  their  computer  was  to  make  it 
affordable.  But  now  you  don't  have  to  settle  for  less. 
Because  now  you  can  get  a  diskette  for  your  Atari 
computer  which  outperforms  their  cassette.  With 
Atari's  cassette  you  only  get  half  the  functions  of  a 
computer  compared  to  what  our  floppy  disk  can 
give  you.  Their  cassette  is  not  only  limited  in  the 
software  available,  but  it  also  takes  20  times  longer 
to  get  the  information  you  need.  And  Rana's  disk 


RaiiaSystems 


drive  offers  twice  the  storage  capacity  of  either 
their  cassette  or  disk  drive. 

Why  even  stylewise  our  new  low  profile  design 
not  only  looks  100  times  more  spectacular,  but  it 
occupies  3  times  less  space.  And  our  new  Rana 
1000  also  gives  you  a  piece  of  its  mind  every  time 
you  use  it,  because  our  disk  drive  gives  you  informa- 
tion as  well  as  takes  it.  And  we  think  that  says  a  lot. 

The  disk  drive 
that  has  all  the  answers. 

Rana  offers  you  a  myriad  of  features  Atari 
couldn't  even  conceive  of.  Like  five  electronic  func- 
tions on  the  front  panel  that  give  you  a  LED  read- 
out when  touched.  Our  disk  drive  tells  you  what 
track  you're  on,  and  what  density  and  how  much 
information  you're  storing.  And,  we  have  a  write 
protect  feature  which  protects  your  diskette  from 
being  erased.  In  fact,  no  other  disk  drive  can 
offer  you  that. 

As  you  can  see,  it  was  easy  to  build  a  disk 
drive  superior  to  Atari's.  Because  for  every  reason 
you  buy  a  disk  drive,  Rana  has  superior  technology. 

The  Rana  1000  disk  drive.  It  brings  your  Atari 
computer  to  a  higher  level  of  sophistication  for  a 
price  one  third  lower  than  Atari's.  So  your  choice 
shouldn't  even  be  a  matter  of  logic. 

Just  common  sense. 


Always  a  step  ahead. 


21300  Syperior  Sireei.  Chaiswonh.  CA  9131 1  2i3-709.5tB4  For  dealer  mfoftnaiion  call  loll 
tree  l-aOO-121-2207.  In  California  only  call:  l-SOQ-262-1221.  Source  Num&er:  TCT-6S4 


^  Apple  is  a  registered  tradema/k  of  Apple  Computer.  Inc.  ^  Atariisaregisieredtrademajlcof  Alari,  Inc.aWamerConiniunk^ionsConipany 


A  New  Age  Of  Discovery 


Someday,  maybe  10  or  20  years  from  now, 
an  exciting  new  Age  of  Discovery  will  begin. 
It  will  be  comparable  to  the  1400s,  1500s,  and 
1600s,  when  European  explorers  spanned 
the  globe.  Yet  most  of  the  explorers  this  time 
won't  be  people,  thev'll  be  robots.  Many  of 
the  robots  will  be  descendants  of  the  rolling, 
crawling,  and  hopping  robots  being  de- 
veloped at  the  Robotics  Institute. 

Today's  robots  are  not  very  intelligent. 
Their  senses  are  primitive,  and  their  move- 
ments are  jerky  and  limited.  A  robot  "ex- 
plorer" of  today  might  not  be  able  to  find  its 
way  out  of  your  bedroom. 

But  tomorrow's  robots  will  be  different. 
They  will  be  smarter,  more  agile,  and  have 
advanced  vision,  hearing,  touching,  and 
other  senses,  Thev  will  still  not  be  as  sharp 
as  a  human  being,  but  they  will  be  far 
sturdier.  They  will  be  fabricated  out  of  metal, 
durable  plastic,  and  crystalline  graphite.  The 
robots  will  be  able  to  survive  in  the  extreme 
cold,  the  killing  vacuum,  and  the  awful  radia- 
tion of  outer  space.  They  will  be  able  to  with- 
stand the  tons  of  pressure  and  cold,  numbing 
water  beneath  the  seas  and  the  extreme  heat 
under  the  earth's  surface.  They  will  go  where 


no  man  or  woman  has  gone  before. 

They  will  work  in  mines  and  factories 
on  the  far  side  of  the  moon,  on  Mars,  on  the 
moons  of  Saturn  and  Jupiter,  in  the  Asteroid 
Belt,  and  in  deep  space. 

They  will  dive  to  the  bottom  of  the  ocean, 
perform  salvage  operations  on  sunken  ships, 
and  mine  and  farm  the  ocean  floor. 

They  will  shrink  down  to  microscopic 
size  and  become  the  eyes  and  fingers  of 
surgeons  as  they  travel  on  a  fantastic  voyage 
inside  a  person's  veins,  arteries,  stomach,  or 
lungs. 

They  will  work  in  dark,  dirty  mines  far 
beneath  the  ground,  in  erupting  volcanoes, 
nuclear  power  plants,  and  amidst  shrieking 
hurricanes.  They  will  travel  along  miles  of 
labyrinthine  air  ducts,  sewers,  and  oil 
pipelines  that  are  too  narrow  or  too  hazard- 
ous for  human  beings. 

Robots  will  also  work  with  human  beings 
as  their  expert  helpers  and  companions. 
Human  beings  and  legged  robots  will  scale 
tall  mountains  together,  inspect  and  guard 
pipelines  across  the  Arctic  tundra,  journey 
to  the  South  Pole  and  through  the  unmapped 
interior  of  the  Amazon  jungle. 


first  version  of  his  robot  can  fall  down  in  only  one 
direction  since  it  is  supported  by  a  cushion  of  air 
blown  out  of  a  tilted  wall  to  one  side.  A  new  ver- 
sion of  the  robot,  now  being  built,  will  resemble  a 
pogo  stick  wearing  a  bicycle  helmet.  The  new 
robot  will  be  able  to  balance  entirely  on  its  own. 

It  will  be  some  time  before  one-legged, 
bouncing  robots  can  leap  tall  buildings  in  a  single 
bound.  But  Raibert's  robot  has  already  shown 
that  it  can  leap  onto  curbs  and  over  six-inch  stacks 
of  blocks. 

The  robot  maintains  its  balance,  even  while 
jumping,  by  paying  attention  to  a  group  of  soisors 
(electronic  senses)  that  send  it  information  about 
its  speed,  the  length  and  angle  of  its  leg,  and  the 
texture  and  tilt  of  the  surface  it  is  hopping  on. 

The  leg  does  not  have  its  own  onboard  com- 
puter. Instead  it  functions  on  a  "leash,"  an  elec- 
tronic tether  attached  to  a  high-speed  computer 
in  the  lab.  The  robot's  cord  is  actually  more  like 
an  umbilical  cord  than  a  leash  since  the  cord  pipes 
in  compressed  air  and  pressurized  oil,  along  with 
computer  instructions.  The  robot  uses  the  com- 
pressed air  to  power  the  leg  and  jump;  it  uses  the 
pressurized  oil  to  adjust  the  angle  of  its  hips  and 
leg  to  maintain  its  balance. 

38     COMPUTE!     Jonuarv1984 


Sutherland's  crawling  boat  and  Raibert's 
bouncing  pogo  stick  are  a  far  cry  from  the  walking 
robots  in  the  Star  Wars  movies.  But  they  are  fore- 
runners of  robots  of  that  size  and  complexity. 
Compared  to  factory  robots  that  are  bolted  to  the 
floor,  these  first  legged  robots  are  a  great  step  for- 
ward. 

The  Robot  Rover 

There  is  another  exciting  robot  at  the  Robotics 
Institute.  It  moves  on  old-fashioned  wheels  in- 
stead of  legs.  But  it  is  one  of  the  most  advanced 
robots  anywhere  in  the  world.  It  is  Hans  Moravec's 
mobile  robot  Rover. 

In  shape  and  size,  the  Rover  is  a  distant  cousin 
of  R2-D2.  But  it  has  more  the  appearance  of  a 
small  barrel  than  that  of  a  movie  superstar.  It  is 
approximately  one  meter  high,  rests  on  three 
independently  computer-controlled  wheels,  and 
is  50  centimeters  in  diameter.  It  is  powered  by  six 
lead-acid  batteries. 

Atop  Rover's  head  is  a  small  model  railroad 
track.  On  the  track  is  a  video  camera  resting  on  a 
little  cart.  The  camera  is  Rover's  lone  "eye."  But 
its  eye  can  move  up  and  down  the  track,  swivel 
back  and  forth  sideways,  and  tilt  up  and  down. 


THERE'S  A  COMPUTER  BORN  EVERV  MINUTE... 

GIVE  rr  A  HOME. 


For  $09>99  with  the  CS-i632  you  can  house  your  computer, 
peripherals,  and  accessories  without  spending  a  fortune. 


For  those  with  a  brge  computer  family  the  CS-27'!ie  gives  you  all  the  roonn  you 
need  for  your  computer,  monitor,  printer,  peripherals,  sofware.  etc.  at  a  price 
that's  hard  to  believe:  S299.95. 


The  CS-1632  computer  storage 
cabinets  compact  yet  functional 
design  fits  almost  anywhere 
while  housing  your  computer 
mofUtor.  joysticks,  software, 
books  and  peripherals  all  for 
only  $89.95. 

The  slide  out  shelf  puts  the 
computer  at  the  right  height  and 
position  for  easy  comfortable 
operation. 

Thc  fold  up  locking  door  keeps 
unwanted  fingers  off  she  key 
board  when  not  in  use 
To  store  joysticks  just  turn  them 
upside  down  and  slide  them  into 
the  inverted  storage  rack. 
Twist  tabs  on  the  back  of  center 
panel  allow  for  nea!  concealed 
grouping  of  wires,  while  power 
packs  rest  hidden  behind  center 
panel  on  shelf. 
The  slide  out  software  tray 
has  room  for  14  cartridges  or 
cassettes  and  up  to  30  diskettes. 
Most  brands  of  software  will  fit 
between  the  adjustable  parti- 
tions with  a  convenient  hook  for 
the  spare  key  at  rear. 
Stand  fits  Atari  400  &  800, 
Commodore  64  &  VIC  20, 
Ti  99/4A  and  TRS-80. 
Cabinet  dimer^ions  overall  36" 
high  X  33-7/8"  wide  x  16"  deep. 


To  order  CS- 163^  send  $39,95  to:      To  order  CS-274S  send  S299.9S  to: 


hvtb: 


1  SYSTEMS! 


P.O.  Box  446 

W«tt  LYna,  OR  97068 

For  Fast  Phone  Orders  Call  Toll  Free  1-800-547-3100 
Inside  Oregon  Call  <503)  635-6667 


Name. 


Address 


Qry 

Quantity. 


,Slaie 


.CS-1632 


Quantity. 


-Zip 


.CS.2748 


□  Goiden  Oak  Finish  □  Natural  walnut  finish 

□  My  personal  check,  cashiers  check  or  money  order  is  enclosed, 

D  Bill  my  VISA  # Exp,  Date 

n  Bill  my  MasterCard  *  Exp,  Date 

Q  Please  include  freight  charge  on  my  VISA  or  MasterCard, 

Card  Holders  Signature 


HVTB] 


ImmcdkSIe  ihipmcmifinMocl'  KrwM,  fllJow  3,4  weeks  for  dettveiy  lfp«r$onilchcck  is  sent  allow  dtidiftonal 
2  weeki  CS- 1632  ships  UPS  teghl  coUn  from  Oregon.  CS-274a  ships  bv  Injch  freight  collect  from  Oregon 
Pnces  subject  lo  change  Shiprrient  ^uh;ea  to  availabiHrv 

Bolh  th«  CS-1632  ajiii  CS  £74fi  shjp  unassemfaied  in  two  carion^  Aswmbty  requires  only  a  icrewiirrvcr. 

hammer,  and  a  iew  rrunuies  of  yow  umc. 

Choicr  In  imuiaicd  woodgrtunotwrsmt  gokiei  oUr  or  nch  nuiiral  walnui  firash 


The  two  slide-out  shelves  put 
the  keyboard  at  the  proper  oper- 
ating height  while  allowing  easy 
access  to  the  disk  drives. 
The  bronze  tempered  glass  door 
protecting  the  keyboard  and 
disk  drives  simply  lifts  up  and 
slides  back  out  of  the  way  during 
use, 

Tv/ist  labs  on  the  back  of  the 
-enter  panel  allow  for  neat  con- 
cealed grouping  of  wires  while 
a  convenient  storage  shelf  for 
books  or  other  items  lies  below. 
The  pnnter  sits  behind  a  fold 
;iown  door  shat  provides  a  work 
surface  for  papers  or  books 
while  using  the  keyboard.  The 
lifl  up  top  allows  easy  access 
lo  the  top  and  rear  of  the  printer. 
A  slot  in  the  printer  shelf  allows 
for  center  as  well  as  rear 
feed  printers. 
Behind  the  lower  door  are 
a  lop  shelf  for  paper,  feeding  the 
printer,  and  a  bottom  shelf  to 
receive  printer  copy  as  weii 
as  additional  storage. 
Stand  fits  same  computers 
as  the  CS-1632  as  well  as  the 
Apple  1  and  si.  IBM-PC,  Franklin 
and  many  others. 
The  cabinet  dimensions  overall: 
39- 1/2"  high  X  49"  wide 
X  27"  deep. 

Keyboard  shelf  20"  deep  x  26" 
wide,  Diskdftve  shelf  15-34" 
deep  X  26"  wide.  Top  shelf  for 
monitor  17"  deep  x  27"  wide. 
Printer  sheI/22'' deep  X  19"  wide. 


HowtDg^tintDudi 


KoalaPad  Touchlkblet 

puts  the  controls 
atyour 

fmgertip& 


laint  the  screen  with 
colorful  graphics  or  play  lightning- 
fast  games  with  just  a  touch  of  your 
finger  The  KoalaPad'Touch 
Tablet  makes  using  your  com- 
puter more  fun  than  ever  before. 
Just  moving  your  finger  across 
he  special  touch-sensitive  surface 
^^ontrols  graphics,  game 
"^^  commands,  and  much 
^"  more.  It's  a  great  way 
to  get  the  most  out 
of  your  computer 
while  you  just  sit 
back  and 


Mthyourcon^uter. 


'^^L 


relax.  The  KoakPad  fits 
comfortably  in  the  palm 
of  your  hand  for  easy  use. 
And  once  you  have  it  in 


Dancing  Bear' brings 
a  funny,  furry  cabaret 
Star  right  into  your 
home  where yoitr 
own  programmed  per- 
formances will  win 
applause  enery  time. 


your  hands,  it's  hard  to 
put  down.  That's  because 
the  KoalaPad  does       {^ 
much  more  than  joysticks,^ 
paddle  controllers  or  the 

"mouse:'  Each  KoalaPad 

set  is  packaged  with  a  KoalaWare™ 

graphics  program* 

for  creating  beautiful 

high-resolution 

graphics  right  on  the 

screen. 

And  that's , 

just  the  beginning 


There's  a  full  line  of  KoalaWare  pro- 
grams to  choose  from 

with  a  perfect 


Logo  Design  Master' 

uses  computerized 
graphic  design  to  help 
children  and  adults  learn 
the  basics  of  program- 
ming and  prepare 
for  more  advanced 
iippHcations. 


Spider  Eater'  llie  game  that 
attacks  musical  eilucation 
with  a  voracious  appetite, 
taking  a  bite  out  of  the  task 
of  learning  the  musical  scale. 


^.  combination 
of  entertainment 
and  education. 
Add  a  touch  of 
excitement  today  to  your 
Apple*'  Atari*  Commodore® 
orlBM^computer. 
See  the  KoalaPad 
Touch  Tablet  at  the  computer  store  nearest 
you.  To  locate  the  dealer  in  your  area,  call 
toll  free  800-227-6703.  (In  California, 
800-632-7979.) 


Spellteopter"  takes  off  into 
lite  uvrld  of  spelling  with 
aerial  acrobatics  to 
challenge  young  students. 


TechnologiES  Corporatian 


We  make  computing  more  personal'." 


"Sofiftare  Includfd  *iih  Touch  TUblet  raries » iih  compuKr  hpe 


Ksalihd.  Koilitire.  Li>|:<:  Dk^h  Sluicr. 

Spidjf  Ejier.  iiitd  Paitcing  Beaf  ar*  iride- 

iTurb  o[  Koala  Techriolaf;ies  CorporaliDn 

Spclkopter  \i  a  trademark  of  De^gnVaifr.  Inc 

Koala Technoiogies  Corporaiion. 

3M0  Palrid  Henry  Drive, 

Sania  Clara.  Ca!  95050 


With  a  quick  signal  from  one  of  Rover's  computers, 
the  robot  can  swing  its  eye  around  and  sec  in  any 
direction. 

Rover's  guidance  computer  gets  much  of  its 
information  from  the  digitized  patterns  sent  to  it 
by  the  video  camera.  These  patterns  consist  of 
tiny  squares  of  light  and  shadow  transmitted  by 
the  camera  and  translated  by  the  computer  into 
electronic  bits  of  information.  Together,  the  light 
and  dark  squares  might  represent  a  chair  directly 
in  front  of  Rover,  or  a  person's  knee.  Rover's  vision 
computer  tries  to  decide  which. 

Rover  has  other  ways  of  obtaining  informa- 
tion about  its  world.  It  has  an  infrared  sensor  that 
detects  the  heat  given  off  by  different  objects  in 
the  room.  This  sensor  warns  Rover  if  there  is  any 
danger  of  crashing  into  something. 

And  it  has  a  bat-like  sonar  device  that  trans- 
mits a  high-frequency  sound  wave,  bounces  it  off 
a  nearby  object,  and  catches  the  wave  when  it 
returns,  like  a  boomerang.  A  special  proximity 
computer  calculates  how  long  it  took  the  wave  to 
make  its  complete  trip.  The  result  of  this  calcula- 
tion is  a  new  tidbit  of  information  for  Rover's  guid- 
ance system.  Now  it  knows  how  far  it  is  from 
nearby  objects.  This  enables  it  to  plan  how  to  get 
where  it  is  going  based  on  where  it  is  now.  It  steers 
clear  of  any  obstacles  in  its  path. 


'ftrn  m|^^^M^^^B8B5B^M£1i  ^^MJ 


Rover's  15  onboard  computers  let  it  do  a  lot 
of  thinking  on  its  own.  But  it  still  needs  the  help 
of  a  high-speed  computer  nearby  to  process  the 
millions  of  bits  of  information  that  flood  into  its 
system  from  the  TV  camera.  It  sends  this  infor- 
mation over  a  UHF  (Ultra-High  Frequency,  TV- 
like)  channel.  It  gets  the  digested  visual  informa- 
tion back  by  way  of  an  infrared  wave  transmitted 
by  the  computer.  The  infrared  and  UHF  signals 
give  Rover  a  lot  more  freedom.  It  can  move  about 
its  world  without  being  tethered  by  a  wire  to  the 
computer  {like  the  robot  pogo  stick).  Robots  with 
wires  are  somewhat  free,  but  they  often  end  up 
like  a  dog  tied  to  a  leash  in  the  backyard — all 
tangled  up. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  things  about 
Rover  is  its  control  program,  or  rather  its  "or- 
chestra" of  programs.  Rover's  chief  program  is 
called  the  conductor  because  it  coordinates  all  the 
other  programs  running  on  all  the  other  com- 
puters. It  must  keep  all  the  programs  working  in 
harmony,  or  Rover  would  crash  into  walls,  fall  off 
ledges,  or  maybe  even  stop  working  from  total 
confusion. 

Rover  uses  an  electronic  "blackboard"  to 
keep  from  getting  confused.  The  blackboard 
handles  all  the  messages  sent  by  each  computer 
to  the  central  conductor  computer  and  to  all  other 
computers.  A  special  computer  (a  high-speed 
Motorola  68000  chip)  stores  the  blackboard  in 
Rover's  memory.  As  new  messages  flash  in,  the 
computer  posts  them  on  the  blackboard  to  share 
with  all  the  other  computers.  This  way,  anytime 
one  of  Rover's  computers  wants  information — 
say,  on  what  Rover  sees,  or  how  far  its  wheels 
have  turned,  or  what  its  current  destination  is — 
the  computer  just  has  to  check  on  the  blackboard. 

Rovers  Of  The  Future 

Rover's  inventor,  Hans  Moravec,  had  to  wrestle 
with  hundreds  of  problems  every  day,  just  to 
design  Rover  and  build  it  from  scratch.  He  had  to 
worry  about  the  type  t^f  motors  used  inside  the 
Rover  (brushless),  the  number  of  computers  to 
include  (15),  how  to  program  the  computers  (using 
a  "blackboard"  system),  and  how  to  send  signals 
from  the  main  computer  to  the  Rover's  onboard 
computers  (by  UHF  and  infrared  signals). 

Yet  Moravec  never  loses  sight  of  his  long- 
range  objectives.  His  current  Rover  is  a  prisoner 
of  the  laboratory.  It  couldn't  survive  in  the  real 
world  just  outside  the  laboratory  door.  But  the 
Rover's  descendants  will  venture  far  beyond  the 
laboratory — deep  under  the  ocean,  down  beneath 
the  earth's  surface,  and  far  out  into  the  unexplored 
reaches  of  the  solar  system  and  beyond. 

Moravec  is  already  designing  new,  improved 
Rovers  of  the  future.  And  he  is  busy  planning  all 
the  exciting  things  they  will  do.  @ 


GIVE  YOUR  KIDS 

SOMETHING  TO  SBOOT  FOR 

BESIDES  ALIENS. 


INTRODUCING  FOUR  NiW  LEARNING 
GAMES  FROM  HAYDEN  SOFTWARE 

The  point  of  Hayden  Educational 
Software  is  not  just  to  get  a  high 
score.  Its  to  scoie  high  in  some 
subjects  that  wall  be  very  important 
later  in  life. 

Lite  math,  geography,  spelling 
and  reading. 

Our  games  are  educational,  but 
they're  also  fun  They  feature  excit- 
ing animatioa  colorful  graphics  and 
great  sound  effects. 

Make  your  kids  real  winners.  Buy 
four  new  games  at  your  local  retailer. 
DONT  SHOOT  THAT  WORD! 
In  this  reading  game,  a  picture 
pops  up  on  the  screen  and  a  series 
,  of  words  move  aaoss  a 
shooting  gallery. 
Reading  skills  are 
required  to 
determine  i^ch 
words  match  the 
object.  The  goal 
is  to  shoot  all  ttie  wrong  words. 


then  for  extra  points,  get  the  letters 

as  diey  fall  away.  For  ages  6  and  up. 

MONKEY  SEE  MONKEY  SPELL 

Kids  learn  to  spell  by  racing  a 

monkey  up  and  down  a  "letter"  tree 

and  grabbing  those  letters 
that  spell  the  object 
shown  at  the  bottom 
of  the  screen  Monkey 
See,  Monkey  Spell 
features  sbc  difficulty 
levels  and  a  memory 
game.  For  ages  4  and  up. 


THE  GREAT  MAINE  TO 
CALIFORNIA  RACE 

A  great  way  to  learn  about  the 
geography  of  the  U.S.  Two  dragsters 
race  from  coast  to  coast 
answering  questions 
about  state  capitals, 
sizes,  boundaries,        i, 
products  and  otha 
interesting  facts. 
The  race  is  not  to  the 
swift  but  to  the  knowledgeable.  For 
one  or  two  players,  ages  10  and  up. 


FACTOR  BL\ST 

This  animated  game  lets  kids 
have  a  blast  wMe  developing  their 
math  skills.  It  teaches  the 
factoring  of  numbers 
through  100,  which  is 
vital  for  understanding 
both  fractions  and 
algebra.  Factor  Blast 
provides  three  levels 
of  difficulty  and  the  option  of  playing 
against  the  computer. 
For  ages  10  and  up. 
For  more  information  see  your 
local  retailer,  or  call  1-800-343-1218 
(In  MA  617-937-0200).  Hayden 
Software  Company  600  Suffolk 
Street  Lowell,  MA  01853. 

^MP^/  Hayden  Leaming 
Games 


^^/ 


HAyDEN  SOFTWARE 


Runs  on  Apple  II.  II  +,  He,  Atari  and  Commodore 
64  Computers. 


Report  On 


IBM's  New  PCjr 


Tom  R  Halfhiil,  Features  Editor 


After  months  of  incessant  speculation  and  rampant 
rumors,  IBM  finally  unveiled  its  new  home  computer 
in  New  York  on  November! .  The  PCjr  (code-named 
"Peanut"  before  its  introduction)  zvill  be  demonstrated 
at  IBM  dealers  in  December  and  available  sometime  in 
January.  This  report  is  a  firsthand  look  at  the  machine 
which  industry  observers  predict  will  be  a  significant 
development  in  the  evolution  of  the  home  computer 
industry. 


Never  before  in  the  history  of  personal  computing 
(admittedly  a  brief  history)  has  a  product  been  so 
eagerly  awaited  by  so  many.  The  rumors  of  a 
forthcoming  IBM  home  computer  started  more 
than  a  year  ago,  and  every  week  seemed  to  bring 
another  theory  about  what  the  computer  would 
be  like.  Many  of  these  theories  contradicted  each 
other.  IBM  stubbornly  refused  to  confirm  even 
the  existence  of  such  a  machine,  but  nobody  let 
that  slow  them  down. 

On  one  subject  everyone  seemed  to  agree: 
The  introduction  of  a  home  computer  by  IBM — the 
company  which  is  virtually  synonymous  with 
computers — would  be  a  turning  point  in  the  his- 
tory of  the  personal  computer  industry.  First, 
there  was  IBM's  traditional  domination  of  the 
mainframe  industry.  Second,  there  was  the 
phenomenal  success  of  the  IBM  Personal  Com- 
puter, which  by  itself  has  spawned  a  whole  sub- 
industry  in  PC  compatibles,  look-alikes,  and 
add-ons.  And  third,  since  IBM's  research  and 
development  budget  is  larger  than  the  budgets  of 
some  small  nations,  there  were  high  hopes  that 
IBM  would  deliver  a  revolutionary  machine  that 
would  reinvent  the  home  computer. 

After  all  these  expectations,  perhaps  it's 
inevitable  that  the  PCjr  is  a  bit  less  than  what 
some  people  expected  for  the  money.  But  there 
seems  little  doubt  that  it  will  indeed  be  a  com- 
mercial success  and  exert  a  major  impact  on  home 
computing. 

Truly  A  Junior  PC 

Much  can  be  grasped  from  the  name  "PCjr," 
favored  by  IBM  over  the  more  flippant  code  name 
"Peanut." 

44     COMPUTE!     JanuarYl984 


Once  you  get  past  the  obvious  cosmetic  dif- 
ferences, the  closer  you  look  at  the  PCjr,  the  more 
it  resembles  the  full-grown  PC.  Rather  than  de- 
signing the  PCjr  from  the  ground  up,  IBM  chose 
to  start  with  a  PC  and  scale  downwards.  In  almost 
every  sense,  the  PCjr  is  truly  a  junior  PC.  It  is 
apparent  that  one  of  IBM's  overriding  design  con- 
siderations was  to  retain  as  much  compatibility  as 
possible  between  the  PC  and  PCjr,  while  protect- 
ing the  PC's  business  market  against  competition 
from  the  PCjr.  These  considerations  explain  both 
the  PCjr's  capabilities  and  its  limitations. 

To  preserve  compatibility,  both  computers 
share  the  same  16-bit  microprocessor  chip  for 
their  Central  Processing  Unit  (CPU),  the  Intel 
8088.  The  floppy  disk  drives,  disk  format,  and 
Disk  Operating  Systems  (DOS)  are  virtually  iden- 
tical, so  disks  are  completely  interchangeable. 
The  fundamental  keyboard  functions  are  the 
same.  The  BASIC  languages  are  generally  com- 
patible. And  the  internal  operating  systems,  too, 
are  virtually  identical.  The  PCjr  even  looks  like  a 
downsized  PC,  with  a  main  "System  Unit"  and 
remote  keyboard. 

As  a  result,  a  very  large  proportion  of  existing 
PC  software  will  run  as  is  on  the  PCjr,  In  fact, 
according  to  IBM,  about  the  only  programs  that 
won't  work  are  those  which  exceed  the  limitations 
imposed  on  the  PCjr  as  a  scaled-down  PC — mainly 
memory  limitations  and  the  single  disk  drive. 
Although  the  16-bit  CPU  can  address  up  to  lOOOK 
(one  megabyte)  of  memory,  IBM  has  limited  the 
PCjr  to  a  maximum  of  128K  addressable  RAM. 
There  are  also  no  provisions  for  adding  more  than 
one  disk  drive.  Therefore,  any  PC  program  which 
fits  in  112K  (video  subtracts  16K  overhead)  and 
requires  only  one  drive  should  run  without  mod- 
ification on  the  PCjr. 

Two  Basic  Models 

IBM  plans  to  market  two  configurations  of  the 
same  basic  computer,  although  the  higher  model 
is  expected  to  account  for  at  least  80  percent  of 
sales.  The  only  difference  is  that  the  upper  model 
comes  with  twice  as  much  memory,  a  built-in 
disk  drive,  80-column  video  capability,  and  (of 
course)  a  higher  price  tag. 


GIVE  THE  GIFT  THAT 
MAKES  YOUR  APPLE  SHINE. 


This  Christmas  give  PLATO 
educational  courseware 
and  start  your  family  on  an 
exciting  learning  adventure. 

Discover  the  difference  quality 
courseware  makes.  Begin  with 
the  new  PLATO  Computer 
Concepts*  series:  The  Com- 
puter Keyboard,  Storage  and 
Memory  Files  and  Editing,  and 
Databases.  Put  these  lessons 
into  practice  along  with 
Keyboardingt  and  Computer 
Literacy  to  help  your  family 
really  understand  the  computer. 

Widen  your  child's 
world  with  these  other 
PLATO  lessons. 

Grade  school  kids  can  have  fun 
while  they  learn  Basic  Number 


Facts,  Whole  Numbers,  Deci- 
mals, and  Fractions.  For  the 
teen-ager  in  your  family  there 
are  PLATO  lessons  in  Ele- 
mentary Algebra^,  Physics- 
Elementary  Mechanics,  and 
Foreign  Languages,  All  are  part 


of  a  growing  library  of  quality 
educational  programs. 

Ask  for  PLATO  at  selected 
retail  outlets. 

PLATO  courseware  for  micro- 
computers is  available  for  the 
Apple  II  Plus  and  Apple  lie. 
Selected  lessons  are  also  available 
for  the  TI99/4A  and  Atari  800, 
For  a  free  PLATO  catalog:  Call 
toll-free  800/233-3784.  (In  Calif , 
call  800/233-3785.)  Or  write 
Control  Data  Publishing  Co., 
PO.  Box  261 127, 
San  Diego,  CA  92126. 


•Developed  with  Comiimous  Learning  Corporation. 
tDcvelofwd  with  Gregg,  McGraw-Hill. 
tDevclopcti  with  Courses  by  Computet^  Inc. 

Warranty  available  free  from  Control  Data  Pubiidiing  Co., 
4455  Eastgate  .Matt.  San  Diego,  CA  93121 


PLATO 

COMPUTER-BASED  EDUCATION 


CONTRpL  DATA 
PUBLISHING 


I 


1 

i 

1 

-^^ 


cPttf^ 


m''  ^ 


:^S 


■*5<A.-,.,j3h>;,- 


Now  the  excitement  of  original 
arcade  graphics  and  sound  effects 
comes  home  to  your  computer 

introducing  ATARiSOFI™  A  new 
source  for  computer  software. 

if  you  own  a  Commodore  VIC  20 
or  64,  a  Texas  instruments  99/4A,  an 
IBIVI  or  an  Apple  II,  you  can  play  the 
original  arcade  hits. 

DONKEY  KONG  by  Nintendo, 
CENTIPEDE™  PAC-MAN,  DEFENDER, 
ROBOTRGN:  2084,  STARGATE  and 
DIG  DUG.  (On  the  Tl  g3/4A  you  can 
also  play  Protector  II,  Shamus,  Picnic 
Paranoia  and  Super  Storm  J 

So,  start  playing  the  original  hits 
on  your  computer 

Only  from  ATARISOFT 

Some  games  also  available  on 
ColecoVision  and  Intellivision. 

ATARISOFT 

Now  your  computer  fits 
the  arcade  hits. 

DONKEY  KDNG.  Mario  and  NINTENDO  are  trademarks  and  O 
Nintendo  1981, 1983.  RAC-MAN  and  characcers  are  trademarks 
af  Bglly  Midway  Mfg.  Co.  sublicensed  to  Atari.  Inc  by  Namco- 
America.  Inc.  DEFENDER  is  a  trademark  of  Williams  E'ectronics. 
Inc  ,  manufactured  under  license  from  Williams  Electrcnics  Inc 
ROBOTOON:  2084  is  a  trademark  and  O  df  Williams  1 382.  manu- 
factured under  license  from  Williams  Electronics,  Inc.  STARGATE 
is  a  trademark  and  9  of  Williams  19S1 .  manufactured  under  license 
from  Williams  Electronics,  Inc.  DIG  DUG  is  created  and  designed 
by  NamcD  Ltd  fnanufactured  under  license  by  Atan,  Inc  Trade- 
marks  and  O  Namco  1 982  PROTECTOR  H  is  a  tratJemark  of  Syn- 
apse Software  Corporation,  manufactured  undar  license  by  Atari, 
Inc  SHAMUS  IS  a  trademark  cf  Synapse  Software  Corporation, 
manufactured  under  license  by  Acan  Inc  PI  CIMIC  PARANOIA  is  a 
trademark  of  Synapse  Software  Corporation,  ^^anufactured  by 
Atan,  Inc.  SUPER  STORM  is  engineered  and  designed  by  Synapse 
Software  Corporation,  manufactured  under  license  by  Atan,  Inc. 
ATARISOFT'"  products  are  manufactured  by  Atari  .Inc.  For  use  on 
tfie  above  referenced  macfiines  a/id arenotmade,  licensed  or 
approved  by  the  manufacturers  of  these  machines.  COMMODORE 
64.  VIC  20,  TEXAS  INSTRUMENTS  99/4A.  IBIVI,  APPLE   CQLE- 
COVISIDN  and  INTELLIVISION  are  respectivelv  trademarks  of 
Commodore  Electronics  Limited,  Tesas  Instruments,  International 
Business  fwlachines  Corp..  Apple  Computer  Inc    Coieco  Industries, 
Inc  and  Mattel,  Inc  A  O  Warner  Communications  Company 
©  1 363  Atari,  Inc.  All  nghcs  reserved. 


Complete  this  coupon  and  we'll  keep  you 
up  to  date  on  the  newest  hits  from 
ATARISOFT™ 


City 


State 


Zip 


Telephone 

PRODUCT  OWNED;  (Check  one) 


5 1    I  Commodore 
Vic  20 


1  n  TI-99/4A 

2  n  IBM  PC  SD  Intellivision 
3 Q  Commodof^  64  7 Q  Apple  II 
4n  ColecoVision  bQ 


Mail  to: 

Atari,  Inc.,  RO.  Box 2943, 

So.  San  Francisco.  CA  94080, 


ASMS 


The  Entry  Model  can  be  upgraded  to  the  Ex- 
panded Model  bv  adding  the  64K  RAM/80-column 
video  board  ($140)  and  disk  drive  ($480). 

The  PCjr  Entr)'  Model,  as  it's  called,  retails 
for  $669.  It  consists  of  a  box-like  System  Unit  (the 
actual  computer),  a  remote  cordless  keyboard, 
and  an  external  power  transformer.  The  System 
Unit  contains  all  the  main  circuit  boards  and  chips, 
including  64K  RAM  and  64K  of  Read  Only  Mem- 
ory (ROM).  The  64K  ROM  includes  a  builVin 
Microsoft  BASIC  (referred  to  by  IBM  as  "cassette 
BASIC");  the  computer's  main  operating  system, 
called  BIOS  (Basic  Input/Output  System);  a  self- 
testing  diagnostic  program  activated  when  power 
is  first  switched  on;  and  "Keyboard  Adventure," 
a  program  which  uses  graphics  to  acquaint  new- 
comers to  the  keyboard. 

Like  all  home  computers  designed  to  work 
with  ordinary  TV  sets,  the  Entry  Model  is  limited 
to  a  40-column-wide  video  display.  An  external 
RF  modulator  is  required  and  costs  $30  extra. 

The  Entry  Model  is  designed  to  use  cassettes 
for  storing  programs  and  data.  Any  standard, 
good-quality  cassette  recorder  can  be  connected 
to  the  PCjr  with  an  optional  $30  cord.  PC  and 
PCjr  cassettes  are  compatible.  The  data  transfer 
rate  is  variable,  but  averages  about  1200  baud 
(somewhat  faster  than  a  Commodore  or  Atari 
cassette  recorder). 

The  PCjr  Expanded  Model  ($1269)  is  identical 
except  for  an  extra  plug-in  board  which  adds  64K 
RAM  (for  128K  total);  switchable  40/80-column 
video  capability  (monitor  required  for  80  columns); 
and  a  double-sided,  double-density  S'/i"  floppy 
disk  drive  built  into  the  System  Unit.  The  drive 
stores  up  to  360K  per  disk.  The  PCjr  uses  DOS  2.1 
(available  for  $65),  a  slightly  modified  version  of 
the  current  DOS  2.0.  The  Expanded  Model  also 
comes  with  two  disks,  "Exploring  the  PCjr,"  a 
tutorial,  and  "Your  IBM  PCjr  Sampler,"  a  collec- 
tion of  sample  home  application  programs. 

L  For  Later 

Both  versions  of  the  PCjr  have  these  features  in 
common:  two  front-facing  slots  on  the  System 
Unit  for  plug-in  program  cartridges;  an  internal 
slot  for  a  direct-connect,  300-baud  modem  card 
($199);  a  serial  port  to  which  standard  RS-232-C 
serial  devices  can  be  attached  with  an  adapter 
cord  ($25);  rear  connections  for  two  analog-type 
joysticks  ($80  per  pair);  light  pen  input;  audio 
output  jack;  and  outputs  for  both  composite  video 
and  RGB  (Red-Green-Blue)  direct-drive  video 
monitors.  There's  also  an  unused  jack  reserved 
for  future  expansion  (labeled  "L"  for  "Later," 
explained  an  IBM  spokesman). 

To  add  a  parallel  printer  port,  a  snap-on  in- 
terface ($99)  attaches  to  the  side  of  the  System 
Unit.  Internally,  the  PCjr  System  Unit  has  three 

48    COMPUTS!    Jonuorv1984 


slots:  one  for  the  modem  card,  one  for  the  64K 
RAM/80-column  video  board,  and  another  for  the 
disk  drive  controller  card.  The  last  two  slots,  there- 
fore, are  already  occupied  in  the  Expanded  Model. 

Infrared  Keyboard 

The  most  innovative  feature  of  the  PCjr  is  its  cord- 
less remote  keyboard.  Two  tiny  infrared  "light 
bulbs"  poking  out  the  rear  of  the  keyboard  estab- 
lish a  remote  link  with  an  infrared  sensor  in  the 
front  of  the  System  Unit.  The  lightweight  (25- 
ounce)  plastic  keyboard,  powered  by  four  AA 
penlight  batteries,  can  be  operated  up  to  20  feet 
away  from  the  System  Unit.  As  long  as  the 
keyboard  remains  in  line-of-sight  of  the  System 
Unit,  and  within  approximately  a  60-degree  arc  of 
the  infrared  sensor,  there  are  no  clumsy  cords  to 
bother  with.  Keystrokes  register  on  the  screen 
reliably  and  instantly. 

The  PCjr  constantly  checks  this  invisible  link 
and  sounds  a  beeper  if  it's  interrupted — for  ex- 
ample, if  someone  walks  between  the  keyboard 
and  System  Unit.  IBM  says  the  keyboard  batteries 
should  last  for  months  with  normal  use.  When 
they  do  begin  to  fail,  the  beeper  will  warn  that 
keystrokes  are  not  registering  properly.  Battery 
failures  cannot  erase  programs  or  otherwise  affect 
the  computer. 

If  another  PCjr  is  operated  nearby,  the  key- 
board can  be  hooked  up  to  the  System  Unit  with 
an  optional  cord  ($20)  to  keep  them  from  inter- 
fering with  each  other.  (Incidentally,  IBM  says 
the  PC  keyboard  is  not  compatible  with  the  PCjr.) 

Aside  from  its  cordless  convenience,  the  PCjr 
keyboard  itself  is  somewhat  disappointing  for  a 
computer  in  its  price  range.  Perhaps  to  encourage 
some  people  to  buy  a  PC  instead  of  a  PCjr,  the 
PCjr  keyboard  consists  of  62  small,  flat,  plastic 
calculator-style  keys,  similar  to  the  so-called  "chic- 
let" keyboards  found  on  low-end  home  com- 
puters. It  feels  much  like  a  TRS-80  Color  Computer 
keyboard,  except  the  keys  are  rectangular  instead 
of  square. 

Also,  the  keycaps  are  totally  blank — all  the 
lettering  is  squeezed  onto  the  keyboard  surface 
between  the  keys.  The  lettering  is  crowded  and 
difficult  to  read  in  places  because  some  keys  have 
multiple  functions.  For  example,  the  PCjr  lacks 
the  ten  special  function  keys  found  on  the  PC. 
Instead,  the  PCjr  combines  the  special  function 
keys  with  the  numeral  keys,  accessed  by  first 
pressing  a  CONTROL-type  function  key.  The 
PC's  separate  numeric  keypad  also  is  eliminated 
on  the  PCjr.  However,  the  PCjr  retains  the  four 
cursor  keys  arranged  in  a  handy  diamond  pattern. 

The  PCjr's  calculator-style  keyboard  does 
allow  keyboard  overlays,  not  possible  on  regular 
typewriter-style  keyboards.  Since  the  entire 
keyboard  is  redefinable,  you  can  program  any 


WOULD  YOU  SHEU  OUT 
$1000  TO  MATCH  WnS 


WITH  THIS? 


suspended;'  The  WIT- 
NESS;"' planetfale: 

enchanter;"'  and  INFIDEL"^ 
has  become  an  instant  best- 


Meet  your  match.  Meet  Infocom  games: 
perhaps  the  best  reason  in  software 
for  owning  a  personal  computer. 

In  fact,  people  have  been  known  to 
purchase  computers  and  disk  drives 
solely  for  the  purpose  of  playing  our 
games.  And  they  haven't  been  disap- 
pointed. Because  Infocom 's  prose  stim- 
ulates your  imagination  to  a  degree 
nothing  else  in  software  approaches. 
Instead  of  putting  funny  little  creatures 
on  your  screen,  we  put  you  inside  our 
stories.  And  we  confront  you  with  start- 
lingly  realistic  environments  alive  with 
situations,  personalities,  and  logical 
puzzles  the  like  of  which  you  won't  find 
elsewhere.  The  secret?  We've  found  the 
way  to  plug  our  prose  right  into  your 
imagination,  and  catapult  you  into  a 
whole  new  dimension. 

If  you  think  such  an  extraordinary 
experience  is  worth  having,  you're 
not  alone.  Everything  we've  ever 
written-ZORK'  I,  II,  and  III, 

deadline;"'  starcross;^' 


seller.  For  the  simple  reason  that  Infocom 
offers  you  something  as  rare  and  valu- 
able as  anything  in  software— real 
entertainment. 

At  last,  you  can  fritter  away  your  eve- 
nings playing  a  computer  game  without 
feeling  like  you're  frittering  away  your 
computer  investment. 

Step  up  to  Infocom.  All  words.  No 
pictures.  The  secret  reaches  of  your 
mind  are  beckoning.  A  whole  new 
dimension  is  in  there  waiting  for  you. 

(For  more  information  on  Infocom 
games  contact:  Infocom,  Inc.,  P.O. 
Box  855,  Garden  City,  NY  11530.) 

inpocom 

The  next  dimension. 

For  vour:  Applf  11,  Alari,  Commodiirr  liJ.  Cl'/M  S.'DEC  Rainbow.  DEC  KT-ll. 
[B^i.  MS-DOS  3.0.  NEC  .APC.  NKC  i'CSOJO.  Osborne.  Tl  Proffssiiral. 
TI  *i'4A,  TKS-8IJ  Mudfl  I.  TKS- W  \U\vl  III . 


key  to  perform  any  function  and  slip  on  a  custom 
overlay  with  your  own  labels. 

Color,  Graphics,  Sound 

To  keep  things  as  compatible  as  possible,  the 
PCjr's  sound  and  graphics  are  basically  the  same 
as  those  on  a  PC  equipped  with  a  color  graphics 
card.  The  PCjr  does  have  additional  color  graphics 
modes  and  sound  capabilities,  but  they  require  a 
$75  extended  Microsoft  BASIC  cartridge  to  access. 
The  32K  cartridge  plugs  into  one  of  the  two  front 
slots  on  the  System  Unit  and  adds  numerous 
graphics  and  sound  commands. 

Without  the  BASIC  cartridge,  the  PCjr  Enhy 
Model  has  two  high-resolution  graphics  modes: 
320  X  200  pixels  with  four  colors,  and  640  x  200 
pixels  with  two  colors  (the  latter  mode  requires  a 
monitor  for  legible  resolution).  Sound  consists  of 
a  PC-type  beeper  (similar  to  the  Apple  11)  and  a 
second  internal  alarm  beeper.  The  System  Unit 
actually  contains  a  more  sophisticated  sound  chip, 
but  the  standard  BASIC  lacks  the  sound  com- 
mands to  use  it. 

Adding  the  BASIC  cartridge  to  the  Entry 
Model  allows  access  to  a  medium-resolution 
graphics  mode  (160  x  200  pixels  with  16  colors) 
and  the  sound  chip.  The  sound  chip  has  three 
tone  generators  covering  seven  octaves  for  music, 
plus  white  noise  for  sound  effects,  with  16  volume 
levels  (similar  to  the  Commodore  VIC-20). 

The  PCjr  Expanded  Model  offers  more  colors 
in  the  high-res  graphics  modes:  16  colors  in  the 
320  X  200-pixel  mode,  and  four  colors  in  the 
640  X  200  mode.  The  commands  WIDTH  40  and 
WIDTH  80  switch  between  the  40-  and  80-column 
text  modes. 

All  of  the  graphics  modes  can  display  any  of 
the  PCjr's  16  colors,  within  the  limits  explained 
above.  IBM  says  the  PCjr  has  no  sprites  (also 
known  as  player/missile  graphics)  for  animating 
objects  on  the  screen.  However,  some  animation 
is  possible  via  "screen  flipping" — drawing  an 
alternate  screen  in  memory  while  another  screen 
is  being  displayed,  then  flipping  instantly  to  the 
second  screen, 

A  Luxurious  BASIC 

Thanks  to  the  PCjr's  Microsoft  BASIC,  it  should 
be  fairly  easy  to  convert  straightforward  BASIC 
programs  written  for  other  computers  to  the  new 
IBM.  Some  commands,  such  as  CLS  for  "clear 
screen,"  resemble  TRS-80  BASIC  keywords. 

It's  also  a  very  luxurious  BASIC.  Most  home 
computers,  including  the  Atari  and  Commodores, 
have  8K  B ASICs  in  ROM  (Applesoft  is  12K).  IBM 
says  the  PCjr's  built-in  BASIC  is  32K  long,  and 
the  extended  BASIC  cartridge  adds  another  32K. 
This  huge  BASIC  includes  commands  that  are 
separate  utilities  on  most  other  home  computers, 

50    COMPUTE!    Jonuarv1984 


such  as  RENUM,  for  renumbering  BASIC  program 
statements;  DELETE,  for  deleting  ranges  of  BASIC 
lines;  TRON  (Trace  On)  and  TROFF  (Trace  Off),  a 
powerful  debugging  tool  which  lists  line  numbers 
on  the  screen  as  they  are  executed;  FILES,  to  list 
the  disk  directory;  and  KILL,  to  scratch  disk  files. 
Because  of  the  16-bit  CPU's  megabyte  of  ad- 
dress space,  it  was  possible  to  add  this  large  BASIC 
without  mapping  out  any  RAM.  BASIC  uses  only 
a  few  kilobytes  of  RAM  for  overhead.  However, 
IBM  says  the  BASIC  cannot  address  more  than 
64K,  even  in  the  128K  Expanded  Model  PCjr.  The 
Expanded  Model  with  cartridge  BASIC  leaves 
only  60130  bytes  free  for  BASIC  programming. 
The  64K  Entry  Model,  without  adding  cartridge 
BASIC,  has  about  45K  free. 

An  Open  Computer 

IBM  says  the  PCjr  is  an  "open  architecture 
machine,"  meaning  that  full  technical  information 
will  be  available  to  independent  software/ 
hardware  developers  and  users.  This  is  to  en- 
courage third-party  software  and  accessories. 
Expect  to  see  a  busy  market  in  replacement 
keyboards,  multiple  disk  drives,  combination 
boards  to  make  the  most  of  the  PCjr's  three  internal 
slots,  and  possibly  expansion  beyond  128K  RAM. 

IBM  has  a  few  peripherals  of  its  own  ready, 
plus  some  home  software  written  by  outside  com- 
panies (albeit  wrapped  in  IBM  packaging).  Besides 
the  joysticks  and  modem  card,  IBM  introduced  a 
PCjr  carrying  case  ($60)  and  the  IBM  PC  Compact 
Printer  ($175).  This  is  an  80-coIumn  thermal 
printer,  friction  or  tractor  feed,  which  prints  at  50 
characters  per  second. 

IBM  says  the  PCjr  will  be  sold  only  at  IBM 
Product  Centers  and  authorized  IBM  dealers,  not 
mass-marketed  through  department  stores  and 
discount  chains  like  other  home  computers. 

Because  of  its  narrower  distribution,  and  also 
because  of  its  much  higher  price,  it  seems  likely 
that  the  PCjr  will  split  the  home  computer  market 
into  two  levels.  With  Texas  Instruments  off  the 
scene.  Commodore  and  Atari  will  battle  for  domi- 
nation of  the  low-end  market.  Despite  ominous 
predictions  by  some  industry  observers,  the  PCjr 
should  not  significantly  cut  into  this  under-$300 
segment.  Instead,  it  will  compete  more  directly 
with  the  Apple  and  Atari's  announced  high-end 
models.  The  Coleco  Adam  probably  will  be  con- 
sidered a  low-end  computer  in  terms  of  price, 
because  a  complete  system  costs  less  than  a  bare 
PCjr  Entry  Model. 

Nevertheless,  the  PCjr's  impact  will  be  felt  at 
all  levels  of  the  home  market.  Those  in  search  of 
elusive  standards  may  settle  on  the  PCjr,  as  they 
seem  to  be  doing  with  the  PC.  It's  also  likely  that 
lower-priced  PCjr-compatibles  will  surface  before 
long,  perhaps  even  from  Commodore  or  Atari.  © 


INSTA 

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Micro  Mechanic 


Robert  L  Wright 


This  program  makes  it  easy  to  keep  up  with  automobile 
maintenance  schedules,  which  are  very  important  to 
your  car's  health  ami  well-being.  The  original  "ocrsion 
runs  on  all  Commodore  computers.  And  versions  for 
Atari,  T1-99/4A,  Apple,  and  Radio  Shack  Color  Com- 
puter are  included.  A  printer  is  required. 


Few  things  are  more  important  to  the  reliable 
operation  of  an  automobile  than  performing 
routine  maintenance  on  schedule.  Failing  to  regu- 
larly change  the  oil  or  check  the  brake  fluid  could 
lead  to  major  mechanical  problems  or  even  serious 
accidents.  Unfortunately,  most  drivers  have  diffi- 
culty keeping  up  with  just  what  should  be  done 
when.  That's  where  "Micro  Mechanic"  can  be  of 
assistance.  Your  computer  is  much  better  than 
you  at  remembering  such  details. 

When  RUN,  Micro  Mechanic  will  ask  for  the 
current  mileage  on  the  car.  It  will  then  find  when 
the  next  maintenance  is  scheduled  and  offer  to 
print  a  checklist  of  the  items  called  for  at  that 
mileage.  If  you  are  within  a  few  hundred  miles  of 
the  scheduled  mileage,  or  if  you've  gone  past  the 
scheduled  mileage,  you'll  want  to  print  a  copy. 
After  you've  completed  and  checked  off  all  the 
required  items,  the  list  can  serve  as  a  record  of 
the  maintenance.  These  records  could  then  be 
used  to  prove  that  you've  taken  good  care  of  your 
vehicle,  which  should  substantially  improve  its 
resale  value. 

Customizing  The  Program 

Micro  Mechanic  is  written  to  be  as  flexible  as  pos- 
sible. No  two  models  have  exactly  the  same 
maintenance  requirements,  so  you  will  almost 
certainly  have  to  modify  the  program  for  your 
own  needs.  In  fact,  if  you  have  more  than  one 
car,  you'll  probably  want  to  prepare  a  version  of 
Micro  Mechanic  for  each. 

52    COMPUni    January  1984 


You  can  find  the  information  for  customizing 
the  program  in  your  owner's  manual.  More  than 
likely,  it  contains  a  chart  explaining  when  certain 
types  of  maintenance  should  be  performed.  These 
should  occur  at  regular  intervals.  In  the  programs, 
these  intervals  are  defined  in  line  110  (lines  100- 
110  in  the  TI  Version). 

For  my  car,  the  basic  maintenance  interval 
(11)  is  7500  miles.  Every  7500  miles  my  car  requires 
a  change  of  oil  and  a  check  of  the  cooling  system. 
I  call  these  Interval  1  maintenance  items,  and  they 
are  defined  in  lines  with  numbers  in  the  4000 
range.  Every  second  7500  miles,  that  is,  every 
15000  miles  (12),  certain  additional  checkups  are 
required.  Call  these  Interval  2  maintenance  items; 
they're  defined  in  lines  with  numbers  in  the  3000 
range.  Then,  every  fourth  7500  miles  (every  30000 
miles  [13]),  other  maintenance  is  called  for  in 
addition  to  the  Interval  1  and  Interval  2  items. 
These  are  Interval  3  maintenance  items,  and  are 
defined  in  lines  with  numbers  in  the  2000  range. 
Note  that  the  program  assumes  that  12  and  13  are 
even  multiples  of  11,  but  for  most  cars  this  is  a 
valid  assumption. 

In  addition  to  the  maintenance  which  my  car 
requires  every  7500,  15000,  and  30000  miles,  other 
types  of  checks  are  called  for  at  50000  mile  intervals 
(14).  The  addition  of  an  interval  which  is  not  an 
even  multiple  of  the  basic  interval  (II)  complicates 
the  program  significantly.  If  your  car  requires  no 
maintenance  at  intervals  which  are  not  multiples 
of  II,  you  can  streamline  your  version  of  Micro 
Mechanic  by  omitting  lines  210-230,  340,  380  (ex- 
cept in  the  Tl  version),  400-420,  and  all  lines  with 
numbers  in  the  5000  range.  On  the  other  hand, 
use  these  lines  as  a  guide  if  additional  nonstandard 
intervals  must  be  included. 

To  customize  Micro  Mechanic  for  your  own 
use,  change  the  intervals  11-14  to  match  your  car's 
requirements.  Then  add,  delete,  or  modify  the 


Your  3  Best  Reasons 

ToOwnA 
Commodore  64" 


The  best  word  processing 
program  of  its  kind 

PaperClip*  is  the  program  that 
makes  word  processing  so  simple 
you'll  never  use  a  typewriter 
again.  Advanced  features  you 
might  only  expect  on  a  much 
more  expensive  system,  yet  so 
easy  to  use  even  a  novice  can 
get  professional  results. 


The  easy  file  manage- 
ment system  with 
awesome  capabilities 

Delphi's  Oracle'  is  like  a 
computerized  filing  cabinet 
with  a  brain.  Organize  your  files 
any  way  you  want.  Then  search, 
sort  and  analyse  your 
information  with  effortless 
speed.  So  versatile,  its  power 
will  amaze  you. 


The  interface  to  end  all 
interfaces 

BusCard*  is  a  magic  box  that 
lets  you  add  disk  drives,  hard 
disk,  virtually  any  printer,  and 
a  whole  range  of  other 
peripherals  without  any  costly 
additional  equipment.  Gives 
you  extended  BASIC,  and  other 
impressive  capabilities  your  64 
could  never  handle  before! 


BATTERIES 


INCLUDED 


'PaperClip,  Delplii's  Oracle  and  BusCard  have  been  developed  specifically  for 
Commodore  computers  by  Batteries  Included.  For  a  full-color  brochure  on  all  3  of  these  packages, 

write  to  Batteries  Included, 
186  Queen  St.  W.,  Toronto,  Ontario,  Canada  M5V  IZl,  or  call  (416)  596-1405. 


Gunmodorc  64  is  a  Trademark  of  Commodore  Business  Machines. 


Hear  at  last.  Games  with 


Alien  annihilation  never  sounded 
so  good. 

Because  we've  broken  the  sound  barrier 
on  home  computer  games.  With  music. 
You  heard  right.  Music. 

And  we're  not  talking  mamby- 
pamby  little  bleeps  here,  pal. 
We're  talking 

^         toe-tapping, 
finger-snapping, 
I-  Top-40  stuff.  Scored 

C^  just  for  our  newest  releases. 

^5^         And  playing  throughout. 
Which  ought  to  keep  a  Joystick  Jockey 
like  yourself  humming  right  along  through 
each  and  every  blast,  bomb  and  blow-up 
that  threatens  your  existence. 

From  strategy  games  to  shoot  'em  ups. 
Are  you  ready  to  face  the  music? 
If  Our  Music  Has  You  Hearing  Things, 
Wait  Till  You  See  This. 

Incredible,  arcade-quality  graphics. 

And  they're  so  great— how  great  are 

they?  They're  so  great  you'll  want  to  play 


them  again  and  again.  And  then  you'll  tell 
your  friends  about  them.  And  they'll  want 
to  play.  And  then  your  family  will  find  out 
and  they'll  all  want  to  play.  And  then  that 
fat  kid  down  the  block  will  want  to  play. 
And  all  your  sister's  friends.  And  their 
boyfriends.  And . . .  better  keep  our  newest 
releases  a  secret.  Or  get  Dad  to  pop  for 
another  Atari. 

The  First  Games  Ever,  That  Tell  You  What 
The  Heck  Is  Going  On,  Right  At  The  Start. 

It's  just  like  a  movie. 

Except,  instead  of  filling  both  hands  with 
buttery  popcorn,  you've  got  your  hand  on 
the  Joystick,  tensed  up  for  what's  to  come. 

And  while  you  wait,  poised,  ready,  eager, 
you'll  find  out,  through  the  terrific  screen 
titles,  the  objective  of  the  game,  the  char- 
acters and  the  scenario. 

You'll  find  out  what  planet  you're  on. 

What  the  fuss  is  all  about. 

Why  you're  involved. 

And  perhaps  of  singular  importance  to 
you ,  how  to  keep  from  being  obliterated. 


;fi,-r.-  -y*  ;V' ,'-■■■-■...,■■/•.  .,    ..  .1*:    -  's    ■-!,         T'l.M 


real  music  for  your  Atari; 


Our  star.  Our  Numero 
Uno.  The  Tail  of  Beta 
Lyrae.™  Changes  as  you 
play.  Will  drive  you  out  of 
_    your  mind  with  unex- 
pected switcheroonies.  No  one's  ever 
mastered  it.  But  you  sure  can  try. . . 

And  then  there's  Cosmic 
Tunnelsl"  Four  games  in 
one.  Meaning  four  times 
the  challenge.  Four  times 
the  chance  you  might  just 

get  blown  away.  The  graphics  are  sure  to 

blow  your  mind! 

Mr.  Robot  and  His 
Robot  FactoryJ"  Looking 
for  a  factory  job?  Here's  an 
opening.  Help  Mr.  Robot 
thwart  the  aliens.  Screens 
scream  with  color,  action  and  sound!  Plus, 
a  graphics  kit  to  design  your  own  game 
screens! 


auuijiijiiii 


^SSIL. 


Monster  Smash™  is 
the  gravest  game  to  ever 
hit  the  cemetery  And 
it's  filled  with  a  deathly 
SP  strategy.  What  do  you 

have  to  do?  Mash  the  monsters!  Let  the 

visitors  live. 

Cohen's  Tower™  gets  you 
used  to  life  in  the  Big  City 
fast.  Starting  you  off  in  a 
skyscraper.  But  the  boss  is 
really  watching.  So  work 
fast.  You  might  just  get  a 

raise ...  if  you  can  handle  the  action. 

Get  ready  to  bring  your  Atari  the  most 
playable,  the  most  graphically  involving 
new  games  it's  ever  screened.  Or  heard. 

It's  the  most  out  of  our  minds. 

And  together,  with  your  Atari,  we  make 
beautiful  music. 

DATAMOST 

The  most  out  of  our  mindsT 

TM  IP  a  regislered  trademark  nf  |>nL;iniosl.  Int",  fiH43  Fullbrigh):  Ave.,  Chntsworth.  CA  ^l,i\\ 
{2l;l)70y  1202  '.Atari  is  n  reKislt-red  (radi-mark  of  Atari  Computers  Inc.  C'Datamnsi  IVSjI 


Sample  Checklist  (VIC  Version) 

VEHICLE  MRIHTENflHCE  CHECKLIST  FOR  DODGE  COLT 

MILEAGE:  15238  DATE 

SCHEDULED  MFlINTENflNCE  FOR   15000  nlLE5 

I I  REPLACE  OIL  FILTER 

L_J  CHECK  VftLVE  CLEflRRHCE 

I I  CHECK  EXHAUST  SVSTEH 

t I  CHECK  CLUTCH  PEDAL  FREE  PLAV 

I I  CHECK  V-EELT  ADJ  &  CONDITION 

I I  CHECK  LIGHTS  AND  SWITCHES 

I 1  CHECK  HEADLIGHT  AIM 

I I  CHECK  UIHDSHIELD  WIPERS  «  NASHER 

I I  CHECK  BATTERV 

1 I  CHECK  CHARGING  «  STRRTINO  SYSTEM 

I I  CHECK  BRAKE  FLUID  LEVEL 

I I  CHECK  DRAKE  PADS 

I I  CHECK  EP-AKE  ABJ  ';PEDAL  HEIGHT) 

I I  CHECK  SRAKE  LINES  *  HOSES 

I I  CHECK  BRAKE  LIGHTS 

I I  CHECK  TIRES,  NEAR,  DAMAGE,  RIP  PRESSURE 

I I  CHECK  BALL  JOINT  4  TIE  ROD  LUST  SEALS 

I I  CHECK  STEERING  PLAV 

I I  CHECK  STEERIHG  GEAR  BOX  BOOTS 

I I  CHECK  WHEEL  CAMBER  ft  TOE 

,1 I  LUEF?ICATE  DOOR  HINGES  «  CHECKS 

I I  LUBRICATE  HOOD,  TRUNK  HINGES  H   LOCKS 


LUBRICATE  THROTTLE  LINKAGE, 
CHANGE  ENGINE  OIL 
CHECK  CODLING  SVSTEM 


CLUTCH  LINKAGE,  ETC. 


NEXT  MAINTENANCE  DUE  AT  22500  MILES 

PR1NT#  statements  to  properly  describe  the 
maintenance  which  must  be  performed  at  the 
various  intervals.  Note  that  the  line  after  the  last 
maintenance  item  in  the  4000  and  5000  line  ranges 
must  be  a  RETURN  statement  (see  hnes  4100  and 
5100  in  Program  1,  for  example). 

Program  1  will  work  on  all  Commodore  com- 
puters, except  for  the  graphics  characters  used  in 
the  PRINT#  statements  to  draw  the  boxes  on  the 
checkUst  and  for  the  underlining  in  line  1020, 
They  are  for  the  64  and  VIC-20,  and  will  have  to 
be  modified  for  PET/CBMs.  If  you  have  a  VIC  or 
64  with  an  RS-232  printer  attached  to  the  user 
port  as  device  2  (instead  of  to  the  serial  port  as 
device  4),  you'll  have  to  change  line  100  to  match 
your  configuration.  For  example,  if  your  printer  is 
set  for  600  baud  and  no  parity,  you  might  use: 

100  OPEN  1,2,0,CHRS(7)  +  CHR$(0) 

See  your  Progmiiinicr's  Reference  Guide  for  more 
information  on  setting  up  RS-232  communication. 

If  you  are  using  the  TI-99/4A  version  (Pro- 
gram 3),  you  may  need  to  change  the  OPEN  state- 
ment in  line  1000  to  suit  your  particular  printer 
configuration. 

Programming  Details 

After  setting  up  variable  values  and  asking  for 
initial  information  (lines  100-150),  the  program 
goes  through  a  loop  (lines  160-190)  to  determine 
the  nearest  multiple  of  II  mileage  for  which 
maintenance  is  scheduled.  The  current  mileage 
(MC)  can  be  as  much  as  1000  miles  greater  than  a 
scheduled  mileage  and  still  bo  within  range  (line 
170,  175  in  the  TI  version).  The  upper  limit  of  29 
on  the  variable  J  in  line  160  means  that  the  program 
will  work  for  cars  with  up  to  226000  miles.  This 
can  be  increased  if  necessary,  but  note  that  II 

56    COMPUTCI    Januofylfle'l 


times  the  maximiun  value  of  J  in  line  160  must  be 
roughly  equal  to  14  times  the  maximum  value  of  J 
in  lines  210  and  400,  so  you  will  have  to  adjust 
those  lines  as  well. 

Lines  210-230  check  to  see  if  some  multiple 
of  the  14  mileage  interval  lies  within  the  selected 
interval.  If  so,  the  scheduled  mileage  (MS)  is  ad- 
justed accordingly,  and  the  maintenance  schedule 
variable  (SC)  is  set  to  indicate  that  the  Interval  4 
list  of  maintenance  items  should  be  printed.  If  the 
current  mileage  is  greater  than  the  mileage  for  the 
scheduled  work,  line  240  sends  the  program  to  line 
260  to  print  the  appropriate  message.  Otherwise, 
line  250  tells  you  how  many  miles  until  the  next 
maintenance  is  due.  Lines  270-310  then  give  you 
the  option  of  printing  a  checklist.  If  you  do  not 
wish  to  print,  line  320  CLOSEs  the  channel  to  the 
printer  before  ENDing,  to  provide  an  orderly  exit. 

Line  330  calls  a  subroutine  at  line  1000  to  print 
a  heading  for  the  checklist,  then  lines  340-380 
determine  which  sets  of  maintenance  items  will 
be  printed.  Note  that  there  is  only  one  RETURN 
from  the  ON-GOSUB  in  line  390,  at  the  end  of  the 
Interval  1  items  in  line  4100.  This  means  that  for 
mileages  which  are  even  multiples  of  interval  12 
(SC  =  2),  both  the  Interval  2  items  (lines  3000-3220) 
and  Interval  1  items  (lines  4000-4010)  will  be 
printed.  For  13  intervals  (SC  =  3),  all  the  items 
from  lines  2000^010  are  printed. 

Line  340  will  cause  the  Interval  4  items  (lines 
5000-5080)  to  be  printed  if  necessary.  Placing  this 
statement  before  lines  350-370  insures  that  if  the 
14  interval  is  also  a  multiple  of  11  (as  is  the  case  for 
150000  miles  in  the  current  version  of  Program  1), 
the  Interval  4  items  will  be  printed  along  with  the 
Interval  1-3  items. 

Lines  400-450  contain  the  necessary  logic  for 
determining  the  next  mileage  at  which  mainte- 
nance is  scheduled  (MN).  The  result  is  printed  at 
the  bottom  of  the  checklist  as  a  reminder.  Line 
460  CLOSES  the  channel  to  the  printer  and  ENDs 
the  program. 

Program  1: 

Micro  Mechanic  For  Commodore  Computers 

100  OPEN  1,4 

110  11=7500:12=15000:13=30000:14=50000 

120  PRINT" {CLR] " SPRINT :PRINT"MICR0  MECHAN 

IC" : PRINT 

130  PRINT"MODEL  OP  CAR" : INPUT  M$ : PRINT 

140  PRINT"CURRENT  MILEAGE" : INPUT  MC 

150  PRINT: PRINT 

160  FOR  J=0  TO  29 

170  M1=I1*J:M2=I1*( J+l)+1000 

180  IF  MC>=M1  AND  MC<=M2  THEN  200 

190  NEXT 

200  MS=M1+I1;MN=MS 

210  FOR  J=l  TO  4:MT=I4*J 

220  IF  CMT+1000)>=MC  AND  MT<=MS  THEN  MS=M 

T:SC=4:G0T0  240 

230  NEXT 

240  IF  MOMS  THEN  260 


Last  Yiear  Over 
20,000  Americans  Vfere 

tf^^  ■■  ■         ■  mm      a  ■ 


Committed  To  Asylum. 


0 


Ince  people  enter 
Asylum,itiey  don't  wantto 
leave.  And  neither  will  you. 

Inside  this  thrilling 
adventure  game  from 
Screenplay"  challenges 
lie  around  every  comer, 
behind  every  door.  There 
are  hundreds  of  doors,  too! 

You've  gone  crazy 
from  playing  too  many  adventure  games. 
You've  been  placed  in  the  asylum  to  act  out 
your  delusions.  To  cure  yourself,  you  must 
make  good  your  escape. 

There's  no  one  you  can  turn  to  for  help. 
Almost  every  turn  leads  to  a  dead  end.  Or 
worse,  vigilant  guards  stand  in  your  way.  If 
you  can't  outmuscle  them,  can  you  outthink 
them?  Inmates  line  hallways  offering  help. 

Asylum  rum  in  48K  on  the  Atari,  Commodore  64  and  IBM  PC 
computers.  See  your  local  software  dealer.  $29.95.- 


But  can  they  be  trusted? 
While  getting  out  of 
■  the  asylum  may  take 

months,  you'll  get  into  our 
J  game  instantly. 

Smooth  scrolling  three 
dimensional  graphics  give 
you  a  very  eerie  sense  of 

f  reality.  This  feeling  is  also 
heightened  by  the  use  of 
full  sentence  commands. 

No  wonder  thousands  of  people  bought 
^5y/wm last  year,  and  PC  World  recently 
named  Asylum  one  of  the  top       «  v    i-  u 
tengamesforthelBMPC.        >        =:       ^ 

Play  ^^y/wm.  All  you  have  "Z 

to  be  committed  to  is  fun.  1^ 


screenplay 

Box3558,ChapelHmNC275W  800-334-5470 


scre9n(il^f_ 


You  could  win  $10,000 from  Screenplay  anywhere  our  games  are  sold. 


250  PRINT"MAINTENANCE  DUE  IN": PRINT  MS-MC 

r "MILES ": GOTO  270 
260  PRINT  MS; "MI  MAINTENANCE" : PRINT" IS" ; M 

C-MSf" MILES  OVERDUE" 
270  PRINT: PRINT"PRESS: " : PRINT: PRINT" 

{4  SPACES} {RVS}P{0FF}  TO  PRINT" :PRINT 

"{6  SPACESJCHECKLIST" 
280  PRINT: PRINT" (4  SPACES } (RVS) E[0FF}  TO 

{SPACE} END  PROGRAM" 
290  GET  K$:IF  K$=""  THEN  290 
300  IF  K$="P"  THEN  330 
310  IF  K$<>"E"  THEN  290 
320  CLOSE  1:END 
330  GOSUB  1000 
340  IF  SC=4  THEN  GOSUB  5000 
350  IF  INT(MS/I3)={MS/I3)  THEN  SC=3:G0T0 

[SPACE} 390 
360  IF  INT(MS/I2)=(MS/I2)  THEN  SC=2:G0T0 

{SPACE} 390 
370  IF  INT{MS/I1)=CMS/I1)  THEN  SC=1:G0T0 

{SPACE} 390 
380  GOTO  440 

390  ON  SC  GOSUB  4000,3000,2000 
400  FOR  J=l  TO  4:MT=I4*J 
410  IF  CMN+I1)>MT  AND  MN<MT  THEN  MN=MT : GO 

TO  440 
420  NEXT 
430  MN=MN-i-Il 
440  PRINT#1, "" :PRINT#1, "NEXT  MAINTENANCE 

[SPACE} DUE  AT";MNi"MILES" 
450  PRINT#1, "" 
460  CLOSE  liEND 

999  REM  **  HEADING  FOR  CHECKLIST 

1000  PRINT#1, "VEHICLE  MAINTENANCE  CHECKLI 
ST  FOR  "rM$ 

1010  PRINTtl 

1020  PRINT* 1, "MILEAGE: " rMC, "DATE: i 13  @3 

If 

1030  PRINT#1 

1040  PRINTS 1, "SCHEDULED  MAINTENANCE  FOR  " 

;MS,-"  MILES" 
1050  PRINT#1 
1100  RETURN 

1999  REM  **  INTERVAL  3  MAINTENANCE  ITEMS 

2000  PRINT*!, "L^gi^^  CLEAN  CARBURETOR  CH 
OKE  MECHANISM  &  LINKAGE" 

2010  PRINT#1,  "LE@g(a  REPLACE  AIR  FILTER" 
2020  PRINT#1, "Li@if  REPLACE  SPARK  PLUGS 

II 

2030  PRINT#1, "Lg@3@  REPLACE  V-BELT" 
2040  PRINT#1, "LE@i§  DRAIN  FLUSH  &  REFIL 

L  COOLING  SYSTEM" 
2050  PRINT#1,  "L8(ai_@  CHECK  BRAKE  FLUID  L 

EVEL  &  CHECK  FOR  LEAKS" 
2060  PRINT#1,  "LgiaEf  CHECK  REAR  BRAKE  LI 

NINGS  &  WHEEL  CYLINDERS" 
2070  PRiNT#l, "Lgg^l  CHECK  REAR  WHEEL  BE 

ARiNG  FOR  GREASE  LEAKS" 

2999  REM  **  INTERVAL  2  MAINTENANCE  ITEMS 

3000  PRINT#1, "LE^^I  replace  OIL  FILTER" 
3010  PR1NT#1,  "LE(?il  CHECK  VALVE  CLEARAN 

CE'^ 
3020  PRINT#1,  "LE@3_|  CHECK  EXHAUST  SYSTE 

M" 
3030  PRINT#1, "LE03§  CHECK  CLUTCH  PEDAL 

{SPACE} FREE  PLAY" 
3040  PRINT#1, "Lg@i|^  CHECK  V-BELT  ADJ  & 

{SPACE} CONDITION" 
3050  PRINT#1,  "LE(ai@  CHECK  LIGHTS  AND  SW 

ITCHES" 
3060  PR1NT#1, "L^eif  CHECK  HEADLIGHT  AIM" 
58  COMPUTE!  Januarv19e4 


3070  PRINT#1, "Lg@3@  CHECK  WINDSHIELD  WI 

PERS  &  WASHER^ 
"3080  PRINTtl, "Lg@3@  CHECK  BATTERY" 
3090  PRINTttl, "Li@3@  CHECK  CHARGING  &  ST 

ARTING  SYSTEM'^ 
3100  PRINTtl, "Li@i£  CHECK  BRAKE  FLUID  L 

EVEL" 
3110  PRINTtl, "LE03@  CHECK  BRAKE  PADS" 
3120  PRINT#l,"Li§|¥  CHECK  BRAKE  ADJ  ( PE 

DAL  HEIGHT)" 
3130  PRINT#l,"LSia3@^  CHECK  BRAKE  LINES  & 

HOSES" 
3140  PRINTil, "LE@3i  CHECK  BRAKE  LIGHTS" 
3150  PRINT#l,"LE@a@  CHECK  TIRES,  WEAR, 

{space} DAMAGE,  AIR  PRESSURE" 
3160  PRINT#1,"LE@3@  CHECK  BALL  JOINT  & 

{SPACE} TIE  ROD  DUST  SEALS" 
3170  PRINT#l,"LE@i§  CHECK  STEERING  PLAY 

ir 

3180  PRINT#l,"Li@3@  CHECK  STEERING  GEAR 

BOX  BOOTS" 
3190  PRINT#l,"Lg@31  CHECK  WHEEL  CAMBER 

{ SPACE }&  TOE" 
3200  PRINT#1, "LE§ii  LUBRICATE  DOOR  KING 

ES  6c  CHECKS" 
3210  PRINT#1,"LB@3@.  LUBRICATE  HOOD,  TRU 

NK  HINGES  &  LOCKS" 
3220  PRINT#l,"LE(a3i  LUBRICATE  THROTTLE 

{SPACE} LINKAGE,  CLUTCH  LINKAGE,  ETC. 

II 

3999  REM  **  INTERVAL  1  MAINTENANCE  ITEMS 

4000  PRINT#1, "LE@3@  CHANGE  ENGINE  OIL" 
4010  PRINT#l,"LE@i@  CHECK  COOLING  SYSTE 

M" 
4100  RETURN 

4999  REM  **  INTERVAL  4  MAINTENANCE  ITEMS 

5000  PRINT#1,"LE@E@  CHECK  IGNITION  TIMI 
NG  &  ADJ  AS  REQUIRED" 

5010  PRINT*  1,  "LEei@^  REPLACE  FUEL  FILTER 

II 

5020  PRINT#l,"Li@3ia  CHECK  FUEL  SYSTEM  F 

OR  LEAKS" 
5030  PRINT#1,"LE@3@  CHECK  IGNITION  CABL 

ES  &  REPLACE  AS  REQUIRED" 
5040  PRINTtl, "LE@§f  CHECK  FUEL,  WATER  & 

FUEL  VAPOR  HOSES  &  REPLACE  AS  REQUI 

RED" 
5050  PRINT#l,"LB(a|g  CHECK  CRANKCASE  EMI 

SSION  CONTROL  SYSTEM  &  CLEAN  AS  REQU 

IRED" 
5060  PRINT#l,"Li§3i  CHECK  EVAPORATIVE  E 

MISSION  CONTROL  SYSTEM  FOR  LEAKS/CLO 

GGING" 
5070  PRINTtl, "LE@3@  replace  CANISTER" 
5080  PRINT#1, "L§@if  REPLACE  BRAKE  FLUID 

(I 

5100  return' 

PrOQrCinn  2:  Micro  Mechanic — Atari  Version 

80  OPEN  tt  1  ,  4  ,  0,  "K:  "  :  TRAP  &000:REri  TU 

RN  ON  PRINTER 
90  DIM  DA* (30) , M* (35) , PR« ( 10) 
100  BRAPHICS  17:PDSITI0N  3,7:7  #6;"M 

icro  Hechani c " : FOR  T= 1  TO  1500:N 

EXT  T 
110  I  1=7500:  12=15000:  13  =  30000:  14  =  500 

00 
120  GRAPHICS  0:?  :?  "What  is  the  dat 

e  " : INPUT  DA* 
130  ?  :?  "What  model   is  your  car?  ": 

INPUT  M* 


^  Humpoii 
10  monslers, 

64  screens  and 

$10,000 


widiF^Joe. 

A  Mutated  Wonderwhisk  whisks  by.  ^^^  Keep  bouncing  Joe  to  original 


The  Spinninglbp  aknost  topples  him! 

Close.  But  Pogo  Joe 
bounces  back.  Bouncing 
from  cylinder  to  cylin-      Life  ■  game  are 
der,  screen  to  screen,        also  3-dimensional  and 
Pogo  Joe  racks  up  point    fully  animated.The 
after  point  graphics  almost  jump 

You  guide  him  from   off  the  screen,  leaving 
cylinder  to  cylinder,  changing  the  color  on       the  arcades  behind, 
top  of  each.  Change  the  top  of  each  cylinder 
on  a  screen, then  you're 
on  to  the  next 

The  more  screens 


Keep  bouncing  Joe  to  original 
music  on  realistic  3-dimensional 
cylinders.  All  the  characters  in 
this  rollicking , 


you  complete,  the 
nastier  the  monsters 
you  face,  and  the  faster 
they  attack. 

Press  the  fire 
button!  Jump  two  cylin- 
ders to  safety  Hop  into 
a  transport  tube,  and 
then  Tfl^oosh!  Pogo  Joe 
appears  across  the 
screen.  Jump  on  an 
escaping  monster.  Blam!  Ifs  gone  in  a  flash! 
Only  to  reappear  out  of  thin  air. 


Whafs  ahead  with  Pogo  Joe'  is  $10,000. 
Simply  teU  us  what  magic  word  appears 

after  Pogo  Joe's  tenlh 
screea  If  your  name 
is  drawn  from 
among  the  correct 
answers  you'll  win 
$10,000! 

No  purchase  is 
necessary  "Vbu'U 
find  entry  forms  at 
any  store  that  sells  Screenplay'"  games. 

But  if  you  don't  win  you  can't  lose.  Pogo 
Joe""  is  so  much  fun  you'll  jump 
for  joy  no  matter  what  _f?iw« » 


■screenplay 

Box  3558.  Chapel  Hill,  NC  27514  800-334-5470 


Pogo  Joe  in  48-64K  on  the  Atari  and  Commodore  64.  See  your  local  software  dealer. 


140  ?  :?  "What  15  your  current  mi  lea         ER" 

ge?  ": INPUT  MC  30  10  PRINT  «2,"C   ]:   CHECK  VALVE  CLEA 
15tl  PRINT  :PRINT  RANCE" 

160  FDR  3  =  0     TO  29  302CI  PRINT  #2,"C   D:   CHECK  EXHAUST  SY 
170  M1  =  I  1  *J:  M2=I1 *  {  J  +  1  > +1000  STEM" 

1B0  IF  MC;=M1  AND  MC<=M2  THEN  200  3030  PRINT  tt2,"E  1 '.      CHECK  CLUTCH  RED 
190  NEXT  J  AL  FREE  PLAY" 

200  MS  =  ril  +  I  1  :  inN  =  MS  3040  PRINT  tt2,"C   3:   CHECK  V-BELT  ADJ 
210  FOR  J=l  TO  4:MT=I4*J  .  !<  CONDITION" 

220  IF  CMT+1  000)  ::=MC  AND  MT<=MS  THEN  3050  PRINT  #2,  "I      3:   CHECK  LIGHTS  AND 

MS=MT: SC=4: GOTO  240  SWITCHES" 

230  NEXT  J  3060  PRINT  «2,"C   3:   CHECK  HEADLIGHT 
240  IF  MOhS  THEN  260  AIM" 

250  ?  "Maintenance  due  in  ";MS-MC;"  3070  PRINT  #2,"L      3:   CHECK  WINDSHIELD 

mileB":GOTD  270  WIPERS  S<  WASHER" 

260  ?  MS;"  Mile  maintenance":?  "is  "  3080  PRINT  tt2,":   3:   CHECK  BATTERY" 

;MC-MS;"  miles  overdue"  3090  PRINT  4*2,":   3:   CHECK  CHARGING  & 
270  ?  :?  "Press:   CP)   for  checklist"  STARTING  SYSTEM" 

280  ?  "Press:   (E)   to  end  program"  3100  PRINT  »2,"i:   3:  CHECK  BRAKE  FLUI 
290  GET  #1,K  D  LEVEL" 

300  IF  K=ASC("P")   THEN  325  3110  PRINT  »2,"t   3:  CHECK  BRAKE  PADS 
310  IF  K<>ABC("E">   THEN  290 

320  END  3120  PRINT  «2,"t   3:  CHECK  BRAKE  ADJ. 
325  OPEN  #2,3,0,  "P;"  (PEDAL  HEIGHT)" 

330  TRAP  6000:GOSUB  1000  3130  PRINT  #2,"C  3:   CHECK  BRAKE  LINE 
340  IF  SC  =  4  THEN  60SUB  5000  S  j,  HOSES" 

350  IF  INT(MS/I3)  =  (MS/I3)   THEN  SC  =  3:  3140  print  «2,"I:  3:   CHECK  BRAKE  LIBH 

SOTO  390  TS" 

360  IF  INT<MS/I2>=fMS/I2>  THEN  SC=2:  3150  PRINT  tt2,"[  3:  CHECK  TIRES,   WEfi 

GOTO  390  R,  DAMAGE.  AIR  PRESSURE" 

370  IF  INT<M5/I1>  =  (MS/I1)   THEN  SC=1:  31^,0  rrinT  tt2,"E   3:   CHECK  BALL  JOINT 

GOTO  390  o<  TIE  ROD  DUST  SEALS" 

380  GOTO  440  3170  PRINT  #2,"[   3:  CHECK  STEERING  P 
390  ON  SC  GOSUB  4000,3000,2000  LAY" 

400  FDR  J=l  TO  4:MT=I4*J  3130  PRINT  #2,"C  3:   CHECK  STEERING  G 
410  IF   (MN+I1)>MT  AND  MN<MT  THEN  MN=         EAR  BOX  BOOTS" 

MTiGOTO  440  3190  PRINT  #2,"C  3:   CHECK  WHEEL  CAMS 
420  NEXT  J  ER  S<  TOE" 

430  MN=MN+I1  3200  PRINT  «2,"C   3:  LUBRICATE  DOOR  H 
440  LPRINT  iLPRINT  "NEXT  MAINTENANCE  INGES  S<  CHECKS" 

DUE  AT  ";MN;"  MILES"  32  10  PRINT  #2,"C   3:   LUBRICATE  HSOD, 
450  PRINT  #2  TRUNK  HINGES  !<  LOCKS" 

460  CLOSE  tt2:END  3220  PRINT  #2,"C   3:   LUBRICATE  THROTT 

999  REM  ««  HEADING  FOR  CHECKLIST  **  LE  LINKAGE,   CLUTCH  LINKAGE,  ETC 

1000  PRINT  4t2.  "VEHICLE  MAINTENANCE  C 

HECKLIST  FOR  " ; M*  3999  REM  **  INTERVAL  1  MAINTENANCE  I 
1010  PRINT  «2  TEMS  ** 

1020  PRINT  «2, "MILEAGE:   ";MC;"  ON  ";  4000  PRINT  #2 , " I      1 :      CHANGE  ENGINE  01 

DA*  L" 

1030  PRINT  4t2  4010  PRINT  #2,"t   3:   CHECK  COOLING  SY 
1040  PRINT  *2, "SCHEDULED  MAINTENANCE  STEM" 

FOR  ";MS;"  MILES"  4  100  RETURN 

1050  PRINT  #2  4999  REM  »*  INTERVAL  4  MAINTENANCE  I 
1100  RETURN  TEMS  ** 

1999  REM  «*  INTERVAL  3  MAINTENANCE  I  5000  PRINT  #2,"i:   3:   CHECK  IGNITION  T 
TEMS  **  IMING  ?<  ADJ.   AS  REQUIRED" 

2000  PRINT  #2,"C  3:  CLEAN  CARBURETOR  5010  PRINT  tt2,"E   3:   REPLACE  FUEL  FIL 

CHOKE  MECHANISM  !<  LINKAGE"  TER" 

2010  PRINT  #2,"C  3:  REPLACE  AIR  FILT  5020  PRINT  #2,"C   3;  CHECK  FUEL  SYSTE 

ER"  M  FOR  LEAKS" 

2020  PRINT  «2,"C  3:  REPLACE  SPARK  PL  5030  PRINT  «2,"[   3:  CHECK  IGNITION  C 

UGS"  ABLES  ?(  REPLACE  AS  REQUIRED" 

2030  PRINT  «2,"E  3:  REPLACE  V-BELT"  5040  PRINT  «2,"E  3:   CHECK  FUEL,  WATE 
2040  PRINT  *2,"E   3:  DRAIN  FLUSH  S,  RE  R  &  FUEL  VAPOR  HOSES  S<  REPLACE 

FILL  COOLING  SYSTEM"  AS  REQUIRED" 

2050  PRINT  «2,"E  3:  CHECK  BRAKE  FLUI  5050  PRINT  #2,"E   3:  CHECK  CRANKCASE 

D  LEVEL  Zh     CHECK  FOR  LEAKS"  EMISSION  CONTROL  SYSTEM  !■<  CLEAN 

2060  PRINT  «2,"E   3:  CHECK  REAR  BRAKE  AS  REQUIRED" 

LINING  ?<  WHEEL  CYLINDERS"  5060  PRINT  tt2,"E   3:   CHECK  EVAPORATIV 
2070  PRINT  #2,"E  3:  CHECK  REAR  WHEEL  E  EMISSION  CONTROL  FOR  LEAKS/CL 

BEARING  FOR  GREASE  LEAKS"  06GING" 

2999  REM  **  INTERVAL  2  MAINTENANCE  I  5070  PRINT  »2,"E   3:  REPLACE  CANISTER' 
TEMS  **  5080  PRINT  #2,"E   3:   REPLACE  BRAKE  FL 

3000  PRINT  »2,"C   3:   REPLACE  OIL  FILT  UID" 
60  COMPUTE!  JanuaiylPM 


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screenplay 

Piviskm  of  Intelligent  statements 


VUP  GAMEWARE 


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51  C-igi 

600  0 


6010 


RETURN 

PRINT  :PRINT  "Please 

ur  printer,   and  then 

": INPUT  PR* 

GOTO  330 


turn  on  yo 
hit  RETURN 


Program  3: 

Micro  Mechanic — TI-99/4A  Version 


100 

102 
104 
1  10 
1  15 
1  20 
125 
130 
135 
140 
142 
144 
146 
150 
160 
170 
175 
180 
190 
196 
200 
210 
214 
218 

222 
223 
230 

240 
250 


255 
260 
265 
268 
270 
2S0 
290 
300 
310 
320 
330 
340 
350 
353 
356 
360 
363 
366 
370 
373 
376 
380 
390 
400 
404 
410 
412 
413 
415 


■'CURRENT  MILEAGE  ? "  :  MC 


M2)THEN  196 


11=7500 

12=15000 

13=30000 

14=50000 

CALL  CLEAR 

PRINT  TAB  ( 6)  ;  "M I  CRD  MECHANIC 

PRINT 

PRINT  "DATE  Ceg.,   10/25/1983; 

INPUT  DATE* 

PRINT 

INPUT  "MODEL  OF  CAR  ?":«AKE* 

PRINT 

INPUT 

PR  I  NT 

FOR  J=0  TO  29 

M1=I 1 »J 

M2=I  1  *  C J  +  l  )  +1000 

IF   (MC>  =  M1  >  »  (HC<: 

NEXT  J 

«S=M1 +1 1 

MN  =  MS 

FDR  a=l   TD  4 

MT=I4»J 

IF  (  iMT  +  1000)  >  =  MC)  *  (MT<=MS>  THEN 


NEXT  J 

GOTO  240 

MS  =  MT 

SC  =  4 

IF  MOMS  TH 

PRINT  "MAIN 

MC; "  MILES" 

PRINT 

GOTO  270 

PRINT  MS; " 

PRINT  MC-MB 

PRINT 

PRINT  "PRES 

PRINT  "PRIN 

CALL  KEY<0, 

IF  K=S0  THE 

IF  K0  69  TH 

STOP 

GOSUB  1000 

IF  SC=4  THE 

IF  INT<MS/I 

SC  =  3 

GOTO  390 

IF  INT(MS/I 

SC  =  2 

GOTO  390 

IF  INT<MS/I 

SC=1 

GOTO  390 

GOTO  440 

ON  SC  GOSUB 

FOR  J=l  TO 

MT=I4*J 

IF   ( (MN+I 1 ) 

NEXT  J 

GOTO  430 

MN  =  MT 


EN  260 

TENANCE  DUE  IN  ";MS- 


MILE  MAINTENANCE  IS' 
;  "  MILES  OVERDUE" 

S   <P)   FOR  CHECKLIST"   :^ 
T   (E)   TD  END" 

t<; ,  s ) 

N  330 
EN  290 


N  5000 

3)  <  XMS/ 13)  THEN  360 


2) < > CMS/12) THEN  370 


1  ) 


(MS/I1)THEN  380 


4000, 3000, 2000 
4 

>MT) « (MN<MT> THEN  415   3 


420  GOTO  440 
430  MN=MN+I 1 
440  PRINT  #1 
450  PRINT  #1:"NEXT  MAINTENANCE  DUE 

AT  " ; MN; "  MILES" 
460  CLOSE  4*1 
465  STOP 

999  REM   **  HEADING  FOR  CHECKLIST 

1000  OPEN  #1:"RS232" 

1005  PRINT  #1: "VEHICLE  CHECKLIST  FO 

R  ";MAKE« 
1010  PRINT  #1 
1020  PRINT  4t  1  :  "MILEAGE  :   "jMC;"  ON  " 

;DATE$ 
1030  PRINT  *1 
1040  PRINT  #1 : "SCHEDULED  MAINTENANC 

E  FOR  " ; MS; "  MILES" 
1050  PRINT '# 1 
1 100  RETURN 

1999  REM    **   INTERVAL  3  MAINTENANCE 

ITEMS  ** 

2000  PRINT  ttl:"(  i :  CLEAN  CARBURETO 
R  CHOKE  MECHANISM  !<  LINKAGE" 

2010  PRINT  #1;"(  ):  REPLACE  AIR  FIL 

TER" 
2020  PRINT  ttl:"(   ):   REPLACE  SPARK  P 

LUGS" 
2030  PRINT  #!:"<   ):   REPLACE  V-BELT" 
2040  PRINT  *1:"(   ):   DRAIN  FLUSH  Sc  R 

EFILL  CODLING  SYSTEM" 
2050  PRINT  #1:"<  ):  CHECK  BRAKE  FLU 

ID  LEVEL  S<  CHECK  FOR  LEAKS" 
2060  PRINT  #1:"(  ):  CHECK  REAR  BRAK 

E  LINING  &  WHEEL  CYLINDERS" 
2070  PRINT  #1:"<  ):  CHECK  REAR  WHEE 

L  BEARING  FOR  GREASE  LEAKS" 

2999  REM    *«   INTERVAL  2  MAINTENANCE 

ITEMS 

3000  PRINT  #1:"(  ):  REPLACE  OIL  FIL 
TER" 

3010  PRINT  ttl:"(  );  CHECK  VALVE  CLE 

ARANCE" 
3020  PRINT  ttl:"(  ):  CHECK  EXHAUST  S 

YSTEM" 
3030  PRINT  #1;"(   ):   CHECK  CLUTCH  PE 

DAL  FREE  PLAY" 
3040  PRINT  #!:"(   ):   CHECK  V-BELT  AD 

J  t<     CONDITION" 
3050  PRINT  #1:"(   ):  CHECK  LIGHTS  AN 

D  SWITCHES" 
3060  PRINT  4»1:"(  ):  CHECK  HEADLIGHT 

AIM" 
3070  PRINT  #!:"<  ):  CHECK  WINDSHIEL 

D  WIPERS  Si  WASHER" 
3080  PRINT  #1:"(  ):  CHECK  BATTERY" 
3090  PRINT  #!:"(  ):  CHECK  CHARGING 

&  STARTING  SYSTEM" 
3100  PRINT  #!:"(  ):  CHECK  BRAKE  FLU 

ID  LEVEL" 
3110  PRINT  ttl:"(   ):  CHECK  BRAKE  PAD 

S" 
3120  PRINT  »1:"(   >:   CHECK  BRAKE  ADJ 

(PEDAL  HEIGHT) " 
3130  PRINT  «1:"C  ) :  CHECK  BRAKE  LIN 

ES  &  HOSES" 
3  140  PRINT  #!:"(  ):  CHECK  BRAKE  LIG 

HTS" 
3150  PRINT  #!:"<  ):  CHECK  TIRES,  WE 

AR,  DAMAGE,  AIR  PRESSURE" 
3160  PRINT  #1:"(  ):  CHECK  BALL  JOIN 

T  S<  TIE  ROD  DUST  SEALS" 


62     COMPUTE!     JonLiQrv1984 


Five  Easy  Ways 
To  Clean  Up  Your  Finances 


actual  screen  display       'Indicates  function  being  shown 


Chart  d(  Accounts 
'Checkbook  Maintenance 
Check  Search 
Prints  Ctiecks 


'Detail  Budget  Analysis 
Summary  Budget 

Analysis 
Income/Expense 

Statements 
Net  Worth  Statement 


Appointments  Calendar 
Payments  Calendar 
•Color  Chart  Package 
Mailing  List 


'Spreadsheet 
Compatible  with 
Finance  1,  2  and  5 


'income  Tax 

Prints  forms 

Most  schedules 

Uses  Finance  1,  2  and  4 


^Complete  Personal  Accountant"  /^ 


Whether  you're  cleaning  up  at  home  or  around  the  of- 
fice, there's  NOW  a  COMPLETE  line  of  money  manage- 
ment software  that  will  attend  to  all  the  details,  while 
letting  you  see  the  whole  financial  picture.  The  Com- 
plete Personal  Accountant's  exclusive  combination  of 
easy  to  use  programs  give  the  wise  Investor  a  quick  and 
dependable  way  to  control  finances  and  plan  for  the 
future. 


FINANCE  1  gets  you  organized  with  a  standard  chart  of 
accounts  adaptable  to  any  situation.  The  Checkbook 
Maintenance  program  with  full  screen  ed/tingand  special 
'Help'  commands  let  you  find  any  check  by  any  field. 
You  can  flag  tax  deductibles,  reconcile  your  bank 
statement,  print  checks  and  more, 

FINANCE  2  tells  you  where  your  money  Is, 
where  it's  going  and  where  it's  coming 
from.  The  Detail  and  Summary  Budget  pro- 
grams show  exactly  where  you're  spending 
your  money.  The  Income/Expense  and  Net 
Worth  programs  provide  professional- 
looking  statements  that  can  be  printed 
with  any  30  column  printer. 

FINANCE  3  separates  the  CPA  from  the 
competition.  No  other  finance  package  lor 
the  home  or  small  business  gives  you  Ap- 


pointments and  Payments  Calendars  for  scheduling  your  time  and  money. 
Few  packages  offer  the  ability  to  chart  each  account  In  color.  And  only  the 
CPA  includes  a  mailing  list  with  a  1200  name  capacity*.  All  reports  are  print- 
able with  an  80  column  printer. 

FINANCE  4  lets  you  determine  the  "what  it's"  of  your  financial  future.  With 
this  easy  to  learn  spreadsheet  you'll  spend  more  time  making  decisions  and 
less  time  crunching  numbers. 

FINANCES,  The  Tax  Handler',  uses  yourfiies  from  Finance  1, 2  and4  to  com- 
plete your  taxes  in  a  fraction  of  the  normal  time. 

The  Complete  Personal  Accountant"  line  of  money  manage- 
ment software  Is  simply  the  most  comprehensive,  easy  to 
use  financial  software  available  anywhere. 


Dl«k 
39.95 
29.95 
29.95 
29.95 
59.95 


Cassette 
34.95 
24.95 
24.95 
24.95 
54.95 


74,9S 


Finance  1 

Finance  2 
Finance  3 
Finance  4 
Finance  5 
SAVE  wfien  yeu 
purcFiase  Finance  1, 
and  3  as  a  set 

Available  tor  Atari  400/30011200'-,  Commodore  64", 
IBM  PC;  TRS  60  Color  and  Vic  20" 

Prices  subject  to  change  without  notice.  Add  S3,0O 
for  postage  and  handling. 

Ask  you  local  deal  to  see  a  running  demo  or  call 
1-a00-334'SOFT  10  order  direct. 

'Varies  eccoidlng  to  computer. 


programmier'iEdBMM^         a  division  of 

p.o.  box  3470,  department  c,  chapel  hill,  north  Carolina  27514 


ffut:urehouse 


3170  PRINT  ttl:"(  ):  CHECK  STEERING 

PLAY  " 
3180  PRINT  »1:"(  ):  CHECK  STEERING 

GEAR  BOX  BOOTS" 
3190  PRINT  #!:"(  ):  CHECK  WHEEL  CAM 

BER  S(  TOE" 
3200  PRINT  «1:"(  ):  LUBRICATE  DOOR 

HINGES  St  CHECKS" 
3210  PRINT  #1:"(   >:  LUBRICATE  HDOD, 

TRUNK  HINGES  S<  LOCKS" 
3220  PRINT  #li"(  ):  LUBRICATE  THROT 

TLE  LINKAGE,  CLUTCH  LINKAGE,  E 

TC.  " 
3799  REM   **  INTERVAL  1  MAINTENANCE 

ITEMS 
4000  PRINT  #1:"<   ):   CHANGE  ENGINE  O 

IL" 
4010  PRINT  #!:"<   ):   CHECK  COOLING  S 

YSTEM" 
4020  RETURN 

4999  REM   »*  INTERVAL  4  MAINTENANCE 

ITEMS 

5000  PRINT  #!:"(  ):  CHECK  IGNITION 
TIMING  &  ADJ  AS  REQUIRED" 

5010  PRINT  #!:"<   ):   REPLACE  FUEL  FI 

LTER" 
5020  PRINT  #!:"<  ):  CHECK  FUEL  SYST 

EM  FOR  LEAKS" 
5030  PRINT  #!:"(  ):  CHECK  IGNITION 

CABLES  &  REPLACE  AS  REQUIRED" 
5040  PRINT  #!:"(   >:   CHECK  FUEL,   WAT 

ER  ?<  FUEL  VAPOR  HDSEB  Sc  REPLAC 

E  AS  REQUIRED" 
5050  PRINT  «!:"(  ):  CHECK  CRANKCA5E 
EMISSION  CONTROL  SYSTEM  S-  CLE 

AN  AS  REQUIRED" 
5060  PRINT  #!;"(  ):  CHECK  EVAPORATI 

VE  EMISSION  CONTROL  SYSTEM  FOR 
LEAKS/CLOGGING" 
5070  PRINT  #!:"<   ):  REPLACE  CANISTE 

R" 
S0S0  PRINT  #!:"(  ):  REPLACE  BRAKE  F 

L  U  I  D  " 
5100  GOTO  350 

Program  4:  Micro  Mechanic — Apple  Version 

110  n  -  7500:12  ■=  15000:13  =  30000:14  = 

50000 
120   HOME  :  INVERSE  ;  PRINT  :  PRINT  :  HTAB 

14:  PRINT  "MICRO  MECHANIC  ":  PRINT 

:  NORMAL 
130   INPUT  "ENTER  DATE  (IE.,  10/26/83) 

?  ";DA«:  PRINT  :  PRINT  :  INPUT  "MO 

DEL  OF  CAR  ?  ";M* 
140   PRINT  :  PRINT  i  INPUT  "CURRENT  MIL 

EAGE  ?  ";MC 
150   PRINT 

160   FOR  J  =  0  TO  29 
170  Ml  =  II  «  J;M2  =  II  «  <J  +  1)  +  100 

0 
1B0   IF  MC  >   =  Ml  AND  MC  <   =  M2  THEN 

200 
190   NEXT 

200  MS  =  Ml  +  I1:MN  =  MS 
210   FOR  J  =  1  TO  4:MT  ■=  14  »  J 
220   IF  (MT  +  1000)  >   =  MC  AND  MT  <   = 

MS  THEN  MS  =  MTiSC  -  4:  GOTO  240 
230   NEXT 

240   IF  MC  >  MS  THEN  260 
250   PRINT  "MAINTENANCE  DUE  IN  ";MS  -  M 

C; "  MILES":  GOTO  270 

M    COMPim!    January  19B'l 


260 


270 

280 
290 
300 
310 
320 
330 
340 
350 


PRINT  "YOUR  ";MS;"  MILE!  MAINTENANC 
E  ":  PRINT  :  PRINT  "IS  "jMC  -  MS;" 

MILES  OVERDUE" 
PRINT  :  PRINT  "PRESS:":  PRINT  :  PRINT 

P  TO  PRINT  CHECKLIST" 
PRINT  "     E  TO  END  PRCtGRAM" 
GET  KS:  IF  K«  =  ""  THEM  290 
IF  K«  =  "P"  THEN  330 
IF  K«  <   >  "E"  THEN  29i\ 
END 

PR#  1:  GOSUB  1000 
IF  SC  =  4  THEN   GOSUB  ;i000 

<MS1  /  13)  THEN 


=  (MSi  /  12)  THEN 


=  (M=l  /  ID  THEN 


IF   INT  (MS  /  13) 
SC  =  3:  GOTO  390 
IF   INT  (MS  /  12) 
SC  =  2:  GOTO  390 
IF   INT  (MS  /  ID 
SC  =  1:  GOTO  390 
GOTO  440 

ON  SC  GOSUB  4000,  3000,  ::000 
FDR  J  =  1  TO  4:MT  =  14  «  J 
IF  MT  <  (MN  +  ID  AND  MT  >  MN  THEN 
MN  =  MT;  GOTO  440 
NEXT 

430  MN  =  MN  +  II 

440   PRINT  :  PRINT  "NEXT  MAINTENENCE  DU 
E  AT  ";MN; "  MILES" 
PRINT 

PR#  0:  END 
REM  t*  HEADING  FOR  CHECKLIST 

PRINT  "VEHICLE  MAINTENANCE  CHECKL 
1ST  FDR  ";M* 

PRINT 

PRINT  "MILEAGE: ";MC, "DATE  ";DA« 

PRINT 

PRINT  "SCHEDULED  MAINTENANCE  FOR 

';MS;"  MILES" 

PRINT 

RETURN 

REM    «*  INTERVAL  3  MAINTENANCE  I 
TEMS 

PRINT  " (  > :  CLEAN  CARHURETOR  CHQK 
E  MECHANISM  Sc  LINKAGE" 

PRINT  "(  >;  REPLACE  AIIR  FILTER" 

PRINT  "<  ):  REPLACE  SPARK  PLUGS" 

PRINT  "  <  )  :  REPLACE  V--BELT" 

PRINT  "(  ):  DRAIN  FLU!>H  AND  REFIL 
L  COOLING  SYSTEM" 


360 

370 

360 
390 
400 
410 

420 


450 
460 
999 
1000 

1010 
1020 
1030 
1040 

1050 
1060 
1999 

2000 

2010 
2020 
2030 
2040 


2050   PRINT  "  t,     ):  CHECK  BRAHE  FLUID  LEV 

EL  &  CHECK  FOR  LEAKS" 
2060   PRINT  "(  ):  CHECK  REAFi  BRAKE  LIN  I 

N6S  «<  WHEEL  CYLINDERS" 
2070   PRINT  "(  ):  CHECK  REAR  WHEEL  BEAR 

INGS  FDR  GREASE  LEAKS" 

2999  REM  ««  INTERVAL  2  MAINTENANCE  ITE 
MS 

3000  PRINT  "(  ):  REPLACE  0;;L  FILTER" 
3010   PRINT  "(  ):  CHECK  VALVE  CLEARANCE 

3020   PRINT  "(  >:  CHECK  EXHAUST  SYSTEM" 

CLUTCH  PEDAL  FR 

v-bi:lt  adj  8c  CO 

LIGHTS  AND  SWIT 

HEAiJLIGHT  AIM" 
WINDSHIELD  WIPE 

BATTERY" 
CHARGING  Ic  STAR 


3030 

PRINT  "( 
EE  PLAY" 

}  i 

CHECK 

3040 

PRINT  "( 
NDITION" 

J  z 

CHECK 

3050 

PRINT  " ( 
CHES" 

J  z 

CHECK 

3060 

PRINT  "< 

)  * 

CHECK 

3070 

PRINT  "( 

)  z 

CHECK 

RS  &  WASHERS 

II 

3080 

PRINT  ■■  ( 

>: 

CHECK 

3090 

PRINT  "( 

)  : 

CHECK 

TING  SYSTEM" 

The  professional  vsrordprocessof  with 

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The  famous  programming  tool  with  powerful  basic  extentions  like  merge,  find, 
renumber,  dump,  trace,  enhanced  floppy-monitor  (disc-doctor)  and  high 
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trace  and  lots  of  mote  helpful  features.  Really  a  golden  tooll 


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This  index,sequential  file  manager  gives  you  a  new  dimension  on  direct  access 
files.  Up  to  40  keys,  various  length  for  each  record  and  up  to  10  files  can  be  handled 
at  the  same  time  by  this  sophisticated  module.  How  could  your  programs  survive 
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Dealer  inquiries  Invited, 


CHECK    BRAKE    FLUID    LEV  N     MS  =  MT     :  SC=  4  :  G0TD2  <V0 

230  NEXTJ 

CHECK    BRAKE    PADS"  240  IF     MS<MC     THEN     260 

CHECK    BRAKE    ADJ     <PEDA  250  PR  I  NT "  MA  I  NTENANCE     D  JE      IN     ":MS-M 

C;  '■     MILES"  :  GOTO270 

CHECK    BRAKE    LINES    &    H  260  PRINT     MS;  "MILE     M  A  I  N  r  ENANCE  "  :  PR  I 

NT"      IS     ";MC-MS;"     MI_E5     OVERDUE" 

CHECK    BRAKE    LIGHTS"  270  PR  I  NT  :  PR  I  NT  "  PRESS      <  =•  )      FOR     PRINT 

CHECK    TIRES,     WEAR,     DA  OUT'^ 

'^??f.'._'^^''    ^^^?^I:I?^"_..  .      .     _.  230  PRINT:  PRINT"PRESS     (E)      TO    END" 

290  K*=INKEY*:IF     K*=""T4EN290 

300  IF     K«="P"     THEN     330 

310  IF     K*<>"E"     THEN     290 

320  END 

330  GOSUB     1000 

340  IF     SC=4     THEN     GOSUB     5000 


3100 

PRINT 
EL" 

"  < 

): 

3110 

PRINT 

"< 

)    » 

3120 

PRINT 

"< 

\    • 

L  HEIGHT) ■ 

3130 

PRINT 
OSES" 

"  ( 

)  ; 

3140 

PRINT 

"  ( 

)  : 

3150 

PRINT 

"  ( 

)  : 

3160      PRINT    "C     ):    CHECK    BALL    JOINT    it    TI 

E    ROD    DUST    SEALS" 
3170       PRINT    "<     ):     CHECK    STEERING    PLAY" 
3180       PRINT    "(     ):     CHECK    STEERING    GEAR    B 

OX    BOOTS" 
3190      PRINT    "(     ):     CHECK    WHEEL    CAMBER    & 


TOE" 

3200      PRINT    "(     ):     LUBRICATE    DOOR    HINGES  ^50     IF     I  NT  <  MS/ I  3  )  =  (  MS/ I  3 )  THEN     SC  =  3: 

&    CHECKS"  GOTO390 

3210      PRINT    "(     ):     LUBRICATE    HOOD,    TRUNK  360     IF     I  NT  (  MS  /  I  2  )  =  <  MS/ I  2 )      THEN     SC=2 

HINGES    8c    LOCKS"  :  GOTO390 

3220      PRINT    "(     ):     LUBRICATE    THROTTLE    LI  370     IF     I  NT  (  MS/ I  1  )  =  (  MS/ I  1  )  THEN     SC=1: 
NKAGE,    CLUTCH   LINKAGE,    ETC,  "  6OTO3V0 

3999  REM       INTERVAL    1    MAINTENANCE    ITEMS  380     GDTO440 

390     ON     SC     GOSUB     4  000,30  00,2000 

4000  PRINT    "(     >:     CHANGE    ENGINE    OIL"  400     FDR     J=  1  T04  :  MT=  I  4 » J 

4010       PRINT    "(     )!     CHECK    COOLING    SYSTEM"  4  10      IF      <MN-H1)>MT     AND     MNsMT     THEN     MN 

=MT:GOTO     440 

4020      RETURN  *  420     NEXT     J 

4999  REM    ««    INTERVAL    4    MAINTENANCE    ITE  430     MN=MN+I1 

MS  440     PRINT     #-2: PRINT#-2, "NEXT     MAINTE 

5000  PRINT    "(    ):    CHECK    IGNITION    TIMING  NftRQE    DUE    AT     "iMN;"     M.IJ.£S" 
&    ADJ    AS    REQUIRED"  450     PRINT     «-2,"" 

5010      PRINT    "(     >:    REPLACE    FUEL    FILTER"  455     PRINT     #-2,  "63999     £UD" 

5020      PRINT    "(    ):    CHECK    FUEL    SYSTEM   FOR  4  60     END 

LEAKS"  999     rem     **     HEADING     FOR     CHECKLIST 

S030      PRINT    "<     ):    CHECK    IGNITION    CABLES  1000     PR  I  NT«-2 ,  "  VEH I  CLE     MAINTENANCE 

J,    REPLACE    AS    REQUIRED"  CHECKLIST     FOR     "  ;  M« 

5040       PRINT    "C     ):     CHECK    FUEL,     WATER    8<    F  1010     prjnT#-2 

UEL    VAPOR    HOSES    &    REPLACE    AS    REQUI  1020     PRINT*-2     "MILEAGE"      "  ■  MC  ■  "      ON     " 


;  DA$ 
1030     PRINT«-2 
1040     PRINT#-2, "SCHEDULED     MAINTENANC 

E     FOR     " ;MS; "     MILES" 
1050     PRINT*-2 
1100     RETURN 


Program  5: 


RED" 
5050  PRINT  "(  ):  CHECK  CRANKCASE  EMISS 
ION  CONTROL  SYSTEM  &  CLEAN  AS  REQU 
I  RED" 
5060  PRINT  "(  ):  CHECK  EVAPORATIVE  EMI 
SSION  CONTROL  SYSTEM  FOR  LEAKS/CLO 
GGING" 

5070      PRINT    "(     >:    REPLACE    CANISTER"  ^'^^'^     REM     »«     INTERVAL     3     MAINTENANCE 
5080       PRINT    "<     >:     REPLACE    BRAKE    FLUID"  ITEMS 

5090      RETURN  2000     PRINT     #~2,"(      ):     CLEAN     CARBURET 

OR     CHOKE     MECHANISr-     8c     LINKAGE" 
2010     PRINT#-2,"<      ) :     REPLACE     AIR     FIL 
TER" 

Micro  Mechanic — TRS-80  Color  Computer  2020   print#-2,"(    ):    reflace   spark   p 
Version  lugs" 

100  CLS  2030  PRINT  «-2,"(  ):  RE:PLACE  V-BELT 

110  11=7500:12=15000:13  =  30000:14  =  50  2040  PRINT  *-2,"<   ):   DFAIN  FLUSH  !( 

000  REFILL  COOLING  SYSTEM" 

120  PR  INT:  PRINT:  PRI NT"MICRO  MECHANI  2050  PRINT  «-2,"(   ):   CHECK  BRAKE  FL 

C":PRINT  UID  LEVEL  &  CHECK  FOR  LEAKS" 

130  PRINT"WHAT  IS  THE  DATE   (IE.,   10  2060  PRINT  *"2,"(   >:   Ct-iECK  REAR  BRA 

/25/S3:)  ";:  INPUT  D  A*  :  PR  I  NT  :  I  NPUT         KE  LINING  S;  WHEEL  CYLINDERS" 

"MODEL  OF  CAR  "  ;  M*  2070  PRINT  tt-2,"C  ):  ChlECK  REAR  WHE 
140  PRINT: INPUT"CURRENT  MILEAGE  ";M         EL  BEARING  FOR  GREASE  LEAKS" 

C  2999  REM  **  INTERVAL  2  MAINTENANCE 
150  PRINT:PRINT  ITEMS 

160  FOR  J  =  0TD29  3000  PRINT  4*-2,"<   ):   REiPLACE  OIL  FI 
170  Ml  =  I  1  *sl  ;  M2=  I  1  *  (  J-i-3  )  +1000  LTER" 

180  IF  MC>=M1  AND  MC<=M2  THEN  200  3010  PRINT  #-2,"(   ):   CHECK  VALVE  CL 
190  NEXTJ  EARANCE" 

200  MS  =  M1  +  I  1  :MN  =  MS  3020  PRINT  #-2,"(   )-  Ci-ECK  EXHAUST 
210  FOR  J=1T04: MT=I4*J  SYSTEM" 

220  IF  <MT+1000) >=MC  AND  MT<=MS  THE  3030  PRINT  #-2,"(  >:  CHECK  CLUTCH  P 
66  COMPOTi!  JanuO[y198'l 


304SI 

3050 

3  til  6  0 

3  07  0 

3030 

3090 

3  1  00 

3  110 

3120 

3  1  30 

3140 

3  1  5  £1 

3  1  6  et 

3  1  7  f^t 

3180 

3190 

3200 

32  10 

CHECK  V-BELT  A 
CHECK  LIGHTS  A 
CHECK  HEADLIGH 


EDAL  FREE  PLAY 
PRINT  tt-2,  "  (  ) 
DJ  Sv  CONDITION 
PR  I  NT  tt-2  -  "  (  > 
WD  SWITCHES" 
PRINT  tt-2, " C   > 

T  A  I  M  '■ 

PRINT  tt-2,"i   !:  CHECK  WINDSHIE 

LD  WIPERS  S<  WASHEF?" 
PRINT#-2,"<   >:   CHECK  BATTERY" 
PRINT  «-2,"{   ):   CHECK  CHARGING 

S<  STARTING  SYSTEM" 
PRINT  »-2,"(   ):   CHECK  BRAKE  FL 
UID  LEVEL" 

PRINT  #--2,"(  ):  CHECK  BRAKE  PA 
DS" 

PRINT  *-2,"(  >:  CHECK  BRAKE  AD 
J   (PEDAL  HEIGHT) " 

PRINT  #-2,"(   >:  CHECK  BRAKE  LI 
NES  S<  HOSES" 

PRINT  «-2,"(   ):  CHECK  BRAKE  LI 
GHTS" 

PRINT  tt-2."(   ):   CHECK  TIRES,   W 
EAR,   DAMAGE,   AIR  PRESSURE" 
PRINT  tt-2,"C  ):  CHECK  BALL  JDI 
NT  Si  tie  ROD  DUST  SEALS" 
PRINT  «-2,"C  ):  CHECK  STEERING 

PLAY" 
PRINT  #-2,"(  >:  CHECK  STEERING 

GEAR  BOX  BOOTS" 
PRINT  «-2,"f   >:   CHECK  WHEEL  CA 
MBER  .?<  TOE" 
PRINT  #-2,"(  )i  LUBRICATE  DOOR 

HINGES  !,  CHECKS" 
PRINT  #~2,"(  ):  LUBRICATE  HOOD 


3220 

3999 
4000 

4  0  1  0 

4  1  00 
4999 

500  0 

50  10 

5020 
5030 
50  4  0 

5  05  0 

5060 

5070 
5080 
5100 


,   TRUN 
PR  I  NT 
TTLE  L 
ETC.  " 
REM  »* 
I  TEMS 
PRINT 
OIL  " 
PRINT 
SYSTEM 
RETURN 
REM  ** 
I  TEMS 
PRINT 

TIMIN 
PRINT 
ILTER" 
PRINT 
TEM  FO 
PRINT 

CABLE 
PRINT 
TER  S< 
CE  AS 
PRINT 
e  EMIS 
EAN  AS 
PRINT 
IVE  EM 
R  LEAK 
PRINT 
ER" 
PRINT 
FLUID" 
RETURN 


K  HINGES  &  LOCKS" 

#-2,"(   >:  LUBRICATE  THRO 

INKAGE,  CLUTCH  LINKAGE, 

INTERVAL  1  MAINTENANCE 

«-2,"(   ):  CHANGE  ENGINE 

tt-2, " <   ) :   CHECK  CDQLINB 

INTERVAL  4  MAINTENANCE 

#-2, " (   ):   CHECK  IGNITION 
G  8<  ADJ  AS  REQUIRED" 
#-2,"(  ):  REPLACE  FUEL  F 

«-2,"(   ):   CHECK  FUEL  SYS 

R  LEAKS" 

#-2,"(  ):   CHECK  IGNITION 

S  S<  REPLACE  AS  REQUIRED" 

#-2."f   >:  CHECK  FUEL,  WA 

FUEL  VAPOR  HOSES  S<  REFLA 

REQUIRED" 

#-2,"<   ):   CHECK  CRANKCAS 

SION  CONTROL  SYSTEM  &  CL 

REQUIRED" 
#-2,  ■'  <   >:  CHECK  EVAPORAT 
ISSION  CONTROL  SYSTEM  FO 
S/CLOGGING" 
#~2,"<   ):  REPLACE  CANIST 

»-2,"(   ):  REPLACE  BRAKE 


1  ,.'^$$^^ 


Demons 
Of  Osiris 


Steve  Haynal 


You  must  defend  ijour  fleet 
of  base  ships  against  wave 
after  wave  ofliglitning-fast 
Osirian  attackers  as  they 
weave  and  dodge  through 
your  covering  fire.  The 
Osirians  do  not  descend 
blindly;  they  counter  your 
evasive  moves  and  seek  you 
out.  Theirs  is  a  maniacal 
mission.  Written  for  the 
unexpanded  VIC,  'versions 
are  included  for  64  and 
Atari. 


"Demons  of  Osiris"  is  a 

fast-paced,  arcade-style 

machine  language  game. 

The  object  is  to  shoot 

the  falling  Osirians,  but  at  the  same  time  they'll 

use  their  intelligence  to  try  to  destroy  you.  You 

can  choose  from  240  speed  levels,  with  level  1 

being  the  fastest.  You  may  also  choose  between 

1-240  base  ships.  Be  prepared  to  battle  as  many 

as  eight  Osirians  at  a  time. 

Your  base  ship  is  located  at  the  bottom  of  the 
screen.  You  control  its  functions  as  follows:  Press 
T  to  move  left,  U  to  move  right,  and  SHIFT  to 
fire.  Pressing  the  SHIFT-LOCK  key  will  give  you 
rapid  fire.  When  the  screen  flashes  red  it  means 
you  have  lost  a  base  ship. 

Simple,  But  Effective 

The  Osirians  have  a  simple  but  effective  strategy. 
They  have  two  moves,  a  defensive  and  an  offen- 
sive move.  On  a  defensive  move,  the  Osirians 
will  dodge  your  oncoming  bullet,  moving  either 
right  or  left.  On  the  offensive,  they  will  move  to 
one  side  of  your  line  of  fire.  They  do  not  come 

68    COMPUTE!    Jonuorv1''34 


The  player  defends  against  descending  demons  in  the  VIC 
version  of  "Demons  of  Osiris." 


down  directly  above  you 
because  it  would  increase 
their  chances  of  being  hit. 
The  Osirians  can  destroy 
your  base  ship  by  being 
in  the  space  directly 
above  your  base  ship, 
directly  above  you  and 
to  the  right,  and  directly 
above  you  and  to  the 
left.  On  some  occasions 
they  will  activate  a 
special  defensive  mech- 
anism which  triggers 
evasive  action  around 
your  missiles. 

The  strategy  is  to 
keep  moving  and  fire 
rapidly.  At  slow  speeds 
(25-240),  try  to  aim  as 
much  as  possible.  At  fast  speeds  (1-24),  things 
move  so  quickly  it's  best  just  to  try  to  dodge  the 
Osirians. 

You'll  Need  To  Abbreviate 

The  machine  language  portion  of  Demons  of  Osiris 
takes  696  bytes  and  the  BASIC  part,  which  runs 
with  the  machine  language  portion,  is  only  three 
hnes  long.  The  machine  language  portion  is  in 
the  form  of  DATA  statements  which  are  POKEd 
into  memory.  The  whole  program,  including  the 
DATA  statements,  takes  all  of  an  unexpanded 
VIC-20's  memory. 

Because  of  the  VIC's  limited  memory,  most 
of  the  program  lines  are  quite  long.  You  may  need 
to  abbreviate  some  BASIC  keywords  (see  Appen- 
dix D  of  Personal  Computing  on  the  VIC-20,  which 
came  with  your  computer).  In  particular,  you 
should  use  the  abbreviation  for  DATA,  D  and 
SHIFT-A,  in  lines  35-190. 


Doif  t  let  price  get  in  the  way 
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And,  of  course,  the  STX-80  comes  with  Star 
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The  STX-80  thermal  printer  from  Star 
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CHOPUFTER* 

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Sixty-lorn  Americans  are  being  held 
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to  safety  It  may  be  a  suicide  mission, 
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For  the  Commodore  VIC-20. 

Three  huge  and  evil  red  snakes  are 
slithering  through  the  corridors  of  a  burnt- 
out  city,  closing  in  on  your  good  blue 
serpent  from  alt  sides  Move  fast,  watch 
your  tail,  and  try  to  survive  long  enough 
to  let  your  eggs  hatch  into  reinforce- 
ments. Swallow  the  magical  frogs  or 
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timcmmcsBfTtum 


After  typing  the  program,  be  sure  to  SAVE  it 
before  you  RUN  it.  One  mistake  in  the  DATA 
statements  might  cause  a  crash,  and  you  would 
have  to  type  the  program  again. 

When  you  run  it,  there  will  be  a  short  wait 
while  the  computer  reads  the  DATA,  It  will  then 
ask  you  for  yovir  speed  and  the  number  of  base 
ships  you  want.  Both  of  these  can  be  from  1  to 
240.  An  average  game  would  use  60  for  speed 
and  5  for  ships.  There  will  again  be  a  short  wait, 
to  allow  you  time  to  position  vour  fingers  on  the 
T  and  U  keys.  Press  SHIFT-LOCK  at  this  time  if 
you  want  rapid  fire.  Otherwise,  use  SHIFT  for 
normal  fire.  When  the  game  is  finished,  it  will 
display  your  score  and  will  repeat  the  cycle  at  the 
point  where  it  asks  for  the  speed. 

If  you  don't  want  to  type  this  program  into 
your  computer,  I  will  make  you  a  copy  of  it  on 
tape  (VIC  version  only).  Send  S3  and  a  self- 
addressed  stamped  mailer  to: 

St  roc  Haynal 
1325  OIweAve. 
Redlmids,  CA  92373 

Program  1:  Demons  Of  Osiris  For  VIC 

10  POKE52 , 27 : POKE56, 27 : P0KE51 , 71 : POKE55  ,  7 

1 : PRINT" [CLR}" : FORA=6984T07679 : READS : P 

OKEA,B:NEXT 
15  POKE649, 10: INPUT "SPEED"; A: INPUT "SHIPS" 

;B:IFA>240ORB>240ORA<1ORB<1THEN15 
20  POKE7074,A:POKE7039,B:POKE649, 0:FORB=0 

T02 000: NEXT 
25  SYS6984 : POKE36869 , 240 : PRINT" {CLR] SCORE 

: " PEEK ( 248) +PEEK( 249 ) *  256 : G0T015 
35  DATA162, 10, 169, 0, 149, 247 , 202,  208,  251 , 1 

68,169,59,157,0,30,15  7,0,31,232,208,24 

7,141,15 
40  DATA144, 169, 255, 141, 5, 144, 169, 15, 141,1 

4,144,138,157,0,150,157,228,150,232,20 

8,247 
45  DATA169, 6, 16 2, 22, 15 7, 22 7, 15 1,202, 208, 2 

50,169,5,133,2  5  3,200,208,2  5  3,23  2,208,2 

53,169 
50  DATA238, 133, 2 51, 169, 31, 133, 252, 169, 63, 

145,251,165,197,201,50,240,31,201,51,2 

40,13 
55  DATA140,13, 144,162,63,200,208,253,202, 

208,250,240,41,165,2  51,201,249,240,237 

,32,202 
60  DATA27, 230, 251, 76, 196,  27,  165,  251,  201,  2 

28,240,223,32,202,27,198,251,169,63,14 

5,251 
65  DATA208, 215, 169, 129, 141, 13, 144, 169, 59, 

145,251,96,169,1,44,141,2,240,44, 162,6 

6,  189 

70  DATA161, 31, 201,61, 240, 3  5, 202, 208, 246, 1 
65,251,56,233,22,133,2  51, 169,61,145, 25 
1,165 

75  DATA251,24, 105,22,133,251,140,13,144,1 
69,160,141,11,144,141,10,144,232,208,2 

53,169 
80  DATA30, 133, 255, 169, 21, 133, 254, 162, 21,1 

60,22,177,254,201,61,208,29,32,246,28, 

177,254 
72    COHPUTI!    Januarv198'l 


85  DATA201, 59, 240, 9, 32, 14, 29, 32, 232, 28, 76 
, 50,28,169,61,145,2  54,32,232,28, 169,59 
,145 
90  DATA254, 136, 208, 218, 32, 232, 28, 202, 208, 
210,162,22, 189, 255,29,201,61,208,5,169 
,59,157 
95  DATA2 55, 29, 202, 208, 241, 140, 10, 144, 140, 
11,144,162,66,189,255,29,201,62,240,21 
,202,208 
100  DATA246, 32,86,29,165,141,162,0,232,56 

,233,12,176,250,169,62,157,255,29 
105  DATA169, 31, 133, 255, 169, 227, 133, 254, 16 

0, 22,17  7,254,201,6  3,240,3,136,208,247 
110  DATA132,2  50,32, 246,28,177,254,201,62, 

208,6,169,59,145,254,16, 27,136,177, 25 

4,201,62 
115  DATA208, 7, 169, 59, 145, 254, 200, 16, 13, 20 

0,200,177,254,201,62,208,24,169,59,14 

5,254,136 
120  DATA32, 2  32, 28, 32, 4, 29, 169, 59, 160, 22,1 

53, 227, 31, 136, 208, 2  50, 76, 130, 27, 160, 2 

2,169,59 
125  DATA145,2  54,I36,208, 251,162,21,32,246 

,28,160,22, 177,2  54,201,62,208,3,32,  11 

3,29,136 
130  DATA208, 244, 202, 208, 236, 76, 148, 2  7, 165 

,2  54,24,105,22,133, 254,165,255, 105,0, 

133,255,96 
135  DATA165,254,56,233,22,133,254, 16  5,255 

,233,0,133,255,96,177,254,201,63,240, 

12,201,61 
140  DATA208,67, 230, 248, 208, 13, 230, 249, 208 

,9,169,42, 141,15,144,198,253,240,69,1 

69,60,145 
145  DATA254, 165, 255, 24, 105, 120, 133, 255, 17 

7,254,72,169,2,145,254,169,22  2,141,13 

, 144,230 
150  DATA146,208,252,206, 13, 144,48,247,104 

, 145,254,165,2  5  5,56,233, 120,133,255,1 

69,59,145 
155  DATA254, 141, 15, 144, 96, 169, 62, 145, 254, 

96,72,138,72,152,72, 32, 148,224,104,16 

8, 104, 170 
160  DATA104,96, 160 , 0, 140, 14, 144,169,27, 14 

1,15,144, 104,104,96, 169,240,141, 12,14 

4,169,59 
165  DATA145,254, 32,86,29,32,232,28,138,24 

,105,32,10, 10,197,141,16,42,177,254,2 

01,59,208 
170  DATA6, 169, 62, 145, 254, 16, 58, 169, 48, 197 

,141,16,12, 192,1,240,8,136,169,62,145 

,254,200 
175  DATA16,40, 192,22,240,240,200,169,62,1 

45,254,136,16,28,196,250,240,228,48,1 

2, 136, 196 
180  DATA250, 208, 1,200, 169,62,145,254,16,1 

0, 200, 196, 250, 208, 1, 136, 169, 62, 145,25 

4,169,0 
185  DATA141, 12, 144, 76, 246, 28, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0, 

0,0,4,168,214,72,37,170,80,20,0,16,56 
190  DATA40, 40, 40, 56, 16, 60, 90, 255, 126, 36, 6 

6,66,36,16,16,16,16,56,124,124,254 


BEGINNING  PROGRAMMERS 
If  you're  new  to  computing,  please  read  "How 
To  Type  COMPUTES's  Programs"  and  "A 
Beginner's  Guide  To  Typing  In  Programs." 


^1«* 


The  world  may  be  short  of  oil.  And  short  of  jobs.  But  there's  no  shortage  of  entertainment. 
Arcades.  Movies.  Amusement  parks.  TV  Concerts.  Records.  You've  got  your  choice.  And  every  day, 
more  of  you  are  choosing  Hesware™ computer  games. 

That's  because  only  the  best  games  earn  the  HesWare  title.  Tough,  challenging,  arcade  quality 
action  games  like  Gridrunner,™  Predator,™  Retro  Ball,™and  Robot  Panic™ 

Mind-bending  strategy  and  role  playing  adventures 
like  Pharaoh's  Curse™  and  Oubliette!" 

Zany  new  titles  that  have  to  be  seen  to  be  believed. 
Would  you  believe  Attack  of  the  Mutant  Camels™?? 

You  don't  need  an  expensive  computer  to  enjoy 
HesWare  action,  either.  HesWare  programs  are  available 
on  cartridge,  diskette  or  cassette  for  VIC  20}"  Commodore  647 
Atari®  ana  IBM®  personal  computers. 

When  you  pick  up  a  HesWare  game,  you  know  it's  ready 
for  the  toughest  test  of  all:  beating  out  the  tough  competition 
for  your  attention. 

HesWare  games.  Just  one  of  the  ways  HesWare  is 
expanding  the  computer  experience.  Look  for  them  at  your 
favorite  software  retailer. 


Pleases  the 

tough 
customeK 


HesWarB. 


VIC  20  and  Commodore  64  are  trademarks  of  Commodore  Electronics  Lid,  Atari  Is  a  registered  trademark  of  Atari,  Inc. 
IBM  PC  Is  a  registered  trademark  of  International  Business  Machines.  Pharaoh's  Curse  Is  a  trademark  ot  Synapse  Software. 
Oubliette  is  a  trademark  of  ISA  Software. 


nein 
150  North  flill  Drive 
Brisbane,  CA  94005 
800-22y-6703 
{in  California 
800  632-7979) 
Dept.  C20 


Qidnlnner        R^Bali         Synthesound    S;S.= 


Gridamer 


Shamd 


-  mi 


Programming  Notes,  64  Version 


Gregg  Peele,  Assistant  Progromming  Supervisor 

The  64  version  of  "Demons  of  Osiris"  (Pro- 
gram 2)  uses  seven  sprites  for  the  demons 
which  swoop  down  relentlessly  toward  your 
base.  There  are  six  levels  of  difficulty  in  this 
version,  and  you  may  choose  the  number  of 
base  ships  you  want — up  to  99  ships  per  play. 

You  may  use  either  a  joystick  (plugged 
into  port  2)  or  the  keyboard  (press  T  to  move 
left  and  U  to  move  right)  to  move  your  base 
and  evade  the  descending  demons.  Either 
press  the  joystick  fire  button  (trigger)  or  one 
of  the  SHIFT  keys  to  shoot  at  the  demons. 
SHIFT  LOCK  can  be  used  for  continuous  fire. 
Press  the  f7  function  key  to  freeze  the  pro- 
gram, then  press  any  other  key  to  continue 
play. 

UseMLX 

To  enter  the  64  version  of  Demons  of  Osiris, 
you  must  first  LOAD  and  RUN  MLX,  the 
Machine  Language  Editor  (which  can  be 
found  elsewhere  in  this  issue).  When  the 
MLX  program  asks  for  the  starting  and 
ending  addresses  of  Demons,  enter  49152 
and  51005,  respectively.  After  you've  entered 
Demons  with  MLX  and  SAVEd  it  to  tape  or 


disk,  you  can  get  it  back  by  typing  LOAD 
"DEMONS",!,]  (for  tape)  or  LOAD  "DE- 
MONS",8,l  (for  disk).  Type  SYS  49152  to 
start  the  game. 

Demons  of  Osiris  was  written  enfirely  in 
machine  language  using  modular  program- 
ming. The  program  consists  of  a  series  of 
routines  (modules)  which  are  executed  from 
a  main  or  "master"  loop.  This  programming 
technique  allows  you  to  test  roufines  as  indi- 
vidual units.  Once  you  decide  that  one  routine 
works  correctly,  then  you  can  start  on  the 
next  routine.  Modules  used  within  this  pro- 
gram include  a  routine  to  detect  collision 
between  sprites  and  other  sprites,  routines 
to  detect  collision  between  characters  and 
sprites,  and  a  routine  to  let  any  of  the  eight 
sprites  cross  the  notorious  seam  on  the  right 
of  the  screen  (sprite  X-position  255). 

The  demons  appear  to  wiggle  their  claws 
as  they  descend  toward  your  base.  This  is 
accomplished  by  changing  the  pointer  which 
defines  the  location  in  memory  of  a  particular 
sprite  image.  Each  of  two  areas  contains 
slightly  different  "pictures"  of  the  demons. 
By  alternating  rapidly  between  these  pictures 
(by  changing  the  sprite  pointers),  we  can 
easily  animate  the  crab-like  demons. 


Program  2:  Demons  Of  Osiris  For  The  64 

Version  by  Gregg  Peele,  Assistant  Programming  Supervisor 


49152 
49158 
49164 
49170 
49176 
49182 
49188 
49194 
49200 
49206 
49212 
49218 
49224 
49230 
49236 
49242 
49248 
49254 
49260 
49266 
49272 
49278 
49284 
49290 
49296 


!l69, 
:212, 
:19a, 
a69, 
:000, 
(141, 
:169, 
:206, 
:247, 
!l69, 
!l92, 
:141, 
:032, 
:032, 
:209, 
:20e, 
:207, 
:105, 
:036, 
:141, 
il08, 
:207, 
:169, 
:165, 
:141, 


000, 
202, 
169, 

147, 
141, 
142, 
000, 
157, 
169, 
000, 
141, 
039, 
080, 
010, 
207, 
024, 
105, 
036, 
141, 
106, 
207, 
169, 
144, 
141, 
001, 


162,024, 
208,250, 

001,141, 
032,210, 

102,003, 
003,141, 
162,255, 
000,207, 
225,141, 
141,097, 
248,007, 
208,032, 
196,032, 
194,169, 
169,255, 
169,000, 
036,141, 
141,102, 
104,207, 
207,105, 
105,036, 
002,141, 
032,210, 
000,207, 
207,169, 


157, 
032, 
033, 
255, 

169, 
143, 
157, 
202, 
096, 
207, 
169, 
017, 
181, 
000, 
141, 
141, 
100, 
207, 
105, 
036, 
141, 
092, 
255, 
169, 
015, 


000, 
019, 
208, 
169, 
000, 
003, 
000, 
208, 
207, 
169, 
001, 
196, 
196, 
141, 
021, 
098, 
207, 
105, 
036, 
141, 
110, 
003, 
169, 
000, 
141, 


000 
161 
250 
232 
183 
091 
011 
254 
109 
069 
050 
187 
021 
112 
062 
218 
124 
030 
225 
082 
059 
228 
087 
052 
050 


49302 
49308 
49314 
49320 
49326 
49332 
49338 
49344 
49350 
49356 
49362 
49368 
49374 
49380 
49386 
49392 
49398 
49404 
49410 
49416 
49422 
49428 
49434 
49440 
49446 
49452 
49458 
49464 


;024, 
;212, 
il69, 
1005, 
;003, 
1173, 
;032, 
r032, 
il72, 
;032, 
!032, 
r032, 
!206, 
:186, 
;000, 
:207, 
1029, 
:016, 
:016, 
t000, 
(000, 
:054, 
:016, 
:001, 
!096, 
•.000, 
;000, 
:002, 


212, 
169, 
005, 
212, 
169, 
030, 
230, 
168, 
083, 
075, 
046, 
191, 
102, 
192, 
207, 
189, 
032, 
208, 
208, 
208, 
207, 
193, 
208, 
208, 
254, 
247, 
191, 
000, 


169, 
248, 
141, 
169, 
000, 
208, 
192, 
193, 
003, 
194, 
195, 
195, 
003, 
162, 
233, 
001, 
207, 
061, 
189, 
076, 
157, 
013, 
189, 
202, 
000, 
000, 
000, 
004, 


017, 
141, 
000, 
020, 
141, 
173, 
032, 
032, 
140, 
032, 
032, 
032, 
208, 
014, 
000, 
207, 
176, 
039, 
000, 
028, 
000, 
016, 
096, 
202, 
253, 
239, 
127, 
000, 


141,005 
006,212 
212,141 
141,152 
032,208 
031,208 
069,193 
209,193 
102,003 
108, 194 
059,195 
227, 197 
233,076 
056, 189 
157,032 
233,001 
018,173 
193, 141 
207,157 
193,189 
208,189 
208,141 
207,157 
016,194 
000,251 
000,223 
001, 000 
008, 000 


206 
120 
062 
099 
215 
235 
166 
251 
189 
071 
001 
066 
026 
003 
095 
054 
113 
142 
011 
190 
007 
133 
131 
087 
124 
241 
113 
070 


74    COMPUTE!    January  198J 


DOHTLAUm 

Fmmmts  ofalley-oops 

ANDYOUWONIBEABLE 
TO  TAKE  YOUR  EYES  OFF  n 

Oh  sure— it  might  look  silly  now.  But  wait'll  it's  hurtling  toward  you, 
threatening  to  destroy  your  perfect  game.  You'll  take  it  seriously  then. 
And  bowling  shoes  won't  be  your  only  worry.  You'll  also  have  to 
watch  for  diabolical  beer  bottles,  evil  pin  sweeps  and  vicious  gum  spots. 

Sound  strange? 

Sure.  But  battling  such  weird  objects  is  exactly 
what  makes  Alley-Oops  so  original.  And  so  incred- 
ibly fun  to  play. 

Alley-Oops  is  real  arcade  stuff,  in  fact,  it's  a 
challenge  just  to  get  to  the  next  level  of  play.  And 
there  are  8  levels,  the  last  one  being  the  nearly  impossible  Challenge 
Round. 

There  are  all  kinds  of  ways  to  play  Alley-Oops— try  to  mount  up 
points,  score  a  perfect  game  or  reach  that  highest  level.  Whichever 
way  you  choose,  you'll  have  endless  fun  playing  Alley-Oops. 

Just  remember— don't  take  the  bowling  shoes  lightly.  After  years 
of  being  kicked  around  bowling  alleys,  they're  out  to  get  even. 

Alley-Oops"-^— A  new  arcade  game  from  Artworx®  Designed  by  Jeffrey  Godisi:  and  Brian  Harkins;  programmed  by 
Leonard  Bertoni  and  David  Pompea.  For  the  Commodore  64  and  Atari  (1 6K)  computers.  Cassette/diskette  $29.9d. 
Artworx  Software  Co.,  Inc.,  150  North  Main  St.,  Fairport,  N.Y.  14450.  For  a  free  catalos  of  Artworx  software  write  or 
call  800-828-6573. 


To  survive  .Mley-Oops, 

you'll  have  to  conlerid 

wilh  diabolical  beer 

bottles,  evil  pin  sets, 

and  vicious  gum  spols, 


So  you  can  play. 


Atari atid  Cotmnodoif  ^4 
AT  trtiittttrd  rrudrmarkM. 


64  version  of  "Demons  of  Osiris." 


49470 

49476 
49482 
49488 
49494 
49500 
49506 
49512 
49518 
49524 
49530 
49536 
49542 
49548 
49554 
49560 
49566 
49572 
49578 
49584 
49590 
49596 
49602 
49608 
49614 
49620 
49626 
49632 
49638 
49644 
49650 
49656 
49662 
49668 
49674 
49680 
49686 
49692 
49698 
49704 
49710 
49716 
49722 
49728 
49734 
49740 
49746 

76    COMPUTEI     JanuarvTOS^ 


016,000,032 

,000,064 

000, 

128,173,000 

,220,041 

008, 

240,006,165 

,197,201 

030, 

208,036,056 

,173,000 

207, 

233,060,141 

,062,003 

173, 

001,207,233 

,001,013 

062, 

003,176,017 

,024, 173 

000, 

207,105,008 

141,000 

207, 

173,001,207 

105,000 

141, 

001,207,173 

000,220 

041, 

004,240,006 

165,197 

201, 

022,208,036 

056,173 

000, 

207,233,026 

141,064 

003, 

173,001,207 

233,000 

013, 

064,003,144 

017,056 

173, 

000,207,233 

008,141 

000, 

207,173,001 

207,233 

000, 

141,001,207 

096,173 

000, 

207,141,192 

207,173 

001, 

207,141,193 

207,056 

173, 

192,207,233 

012,141 

192, 

207,173,193 

207,233 

000, 

141, 193,207 

160,003 

078, 

193,207,110 

192,207 

136, 

208,247,096 

173,076 

003, 

201,004,144 

043,173 

000, 

220,041,016 

173,000 

220, 

041,016,240 

012, 169 

000, 

141,076,003 

173,141 

002, 

041,001,240 

019,162 

023, 

172,192,207 

024,032 

240, 

255,169,079 

032,210 

255, 

169,000,141 

076,003 

032, 

173,195,238 

076,003 

096, 

173,162,003 

141,249 

007, 

141,250,007 

141,251 

007, 

141,252,007 

141,253 

007, 

141,254,007 

141,255 

007, 

169,000,141 

033,208 

169, 

002,141,040 

208,169 

004, 

141,041,208 

169,007 

141, 

042,208,169 

009,141 

043, 

208,169,010 

141,044 

208, 

169,001,141 

045,208 

169, 

005,141,046 

208,096 

169, 

255,141,015 

212,169 

128, 

141,018,212 

169,000 

141, 

174 
126 
145 
248 
246 
097 
235 
004 
225 
246 
167 
111 
040 
255 
091 
229 
211 
014 
067 
129 
135 
177 
208 
221 
241 
009 
120 
190 
254 
210 
085 
224 
163 
017 
233 
045 
055 
065 
242 
092 
241 
152 
070 
029 
223 
228 
251 


49752 
49758 
49764 
49770 
49776 
49782 
49788 
49794 
49800 
49806 
49812 
49818 
49824 

49830 
49836 
49842 
49848 
49854 
49860 
49866 
49872 
49878 
49884 
49890 
49896 
49902 

49908 
49914 
49920 
49926 
49932 
49938 
49944 
49950 
49956 
49962 
49968 
49974 
49980 
49986 
49992 
49998 
50004 
50010 
50016 
50022 
50028 
50034 
50040 
50046 
50052 
50058 
50064 
50070 
50076 
50082 
50088 
50094 
50100 
50106 
50112 
50118 
50124 
50130 
50136 
50142 
50148 
50154 
50160 


!209 

,207 

,024 

,173 

,027 

,212, 

:105 

,045 

,141 

,208 

,207 

,173, 

:209 

,207 

,105 

,000 

,141 

,209, 

!207 

,096 

,174 

,092 

,003 

,189, 

;096 

,207 

,201 

,025 

,176 

,033, 

:138 

,074 

,170 

,173 

,162 

,003, 

:157 

,248 

,007 

,138 

,010 

,170, 

:173 

,208 

,207 

,157 

,000 

,207, 

:173 

,209 

207 

,157 

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:189 

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193 

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:141 

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:207 

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:237, 

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:189, 

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001, 

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173, 

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:201, 

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144, 

005, 

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002, 

:141, 

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003, 

096, 

173, 

031, 

:208, 

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000, 

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173, 

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:208, 

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096, 

162, 

:006, 

173, 

000, 

206, 

061, 

166, 

:195, 

240, 

071, 

189, 

249, 

007, 

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195, 

240, 

064, 

238, 

142, 

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003, 

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157, 

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:007, 

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166, 

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169, 

032, 

162, 

;000, 

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:244, 

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188 
228 
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115 
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193 
001 


Sixgomes  that'll  moke  your  ATAKI 

le  of  vour  eve. 


«   •]  • 


Playins  sames  is  probably  one  of  the 

main  reasons  you  bought  an  ATARI*  home 
computer.  When  it  comes  to  games,  there 
are  none  more  sophisticated,  thousht- 
provoking,  challenging  —  and  just  plain  fun 
-  than  the  strategy  games  from  SSI. 


This  historical 
simulation  of 
four  sreat 
World  War  II 
carrier  battles 

is  so  BXJTOU^ 

and  reaiistic, 
it  takes  into 
account  every 
last  ship  and 
plane!  It  is 
one  monster 
of  a  game  in 
scale,  yet  it 
is  so  easy  to 
play- 
On  40K  disk. 
$59.95 


A  simple  and 
fast  strategy 
game  of 
power  and 
conquest 
that's  right  up 
there  wifri  the 
classics  such 
as  chess. 
When  you 
play  ttie 
computer,  it 
actual!/  learns 
from  you  and 
imprcMSS  with 
time  to  be- 
come the 
ultimate 
opponent 
On  40K  disk. 
$34.95 


ATARI  is  a  resistered  trademari;  of  Atari,  Inc. 
'PLE  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Apple  Computer,  Im 


We  made  our  considerable  reputation 
by  producing  some  of  the  finest  games  for 
the  Apple®  To  make  sure  all  you  ATARI 
owners  out  there  don't  get  left  out,  we're 
converting  as  many  of  our  games  to  your 
favorite  computer  as  we  possibly  can. 


Here's  a  real- 
time wa!5ame 
that  gh/ss  you 
the  speed  of 
arcade  games 
and  sophis- 
tication of 
stratesy 
games  It  Is 
one  of  the 
finest  and 
fastest  tank- 
battle  games 
ever  made, 
you  can 
choose  from 
over  70  tanks, 
from  the  Nazi 
Tiger  to  the 
Abrams  M-1. 
On  40K  disks 
40K  cassette. 
$39.95 


Finally,  a  true 

video  pinbal! 

game  for  all 

you  pinball 

fanatics.  It 

boasts  all  ttie 

features  of  a 

real  pinbal! 

game  -  from 

sequentiai 

play  right 
down  to  the 

bells  and 
buzzers.  We 

must  fore- 
warn you:  it 
is  totally 

addictive 

On  48K  disk 

$34.95 


CUMBflT 
LEAIIER 


Here  are  just  six  of  our  ever-increasing 
line  of  ATARI  games.  Best  of  all,  the/ re  alt 
waiting  for  you  at  your  nearest  computer/ 
software  or  game  store  —  today! 

Our  games  are  covered  under  a  14-day 
"satisfection  or  your  money  bacl^'  guarantee. 


Take  to  the 

skies  wflth 
your  trusty 
Sop  with 
Camel  or 
Fokker  DR-1 
or  any  num- 
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War  I  planes. 
you  can  set 
up  duels 
between  tw., 
planes  oi 
stage  grand 
dogfights 
involving  as 
many  as  20 
planes. 
On  40K  disk 
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The  army  of 
the  future  is 
comprised 
not  of  men 
but  of 
machines:  the 
Cybernetic 
Electronic 
De/ices.  They 
are  deadly 
but  mindless 
It  Is  up  to 
■  you  as  the 
Cytron  Master 
to  lead  them 
to  victory  in 
this  arcade- 
style  game. 
On  48K  disk, 
$39,95;  and 
32K  cassette, 
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Screen  displays  are  not  necessarify  from  the  Atari® 
Games  are  for  the  A&ri®  400/800/1200, 


STRATeOlIC  SINUIATIOnS  II 


If  there  are  no  convenient  stores  near  you,  VISA  &  AAastercard  holders 
can  order  direct  by  calling  800-227-1617,  ext  335  (toll  free).  In 
California,  call  800-772-3545,  ext.  335. 


To  order  by  mail,  send  your  check  to:  STRATEGIC  SIMULATIONS  INC, 
883  Stieriin  Road,  BIdg.  A-200,  Mountain  View,  CA  94043.  ( California  resi- 
dents, add  6.5%  sates  tax.) 


WRITE  FOR  A  FREE  COLOR  CATALOG  OF  ALL  OUR  GAMES. 


50166 

50172 
50178 
50184 
50190 
50196 
50202 
50208 
50214 
50220 
50226 
50232 
50238 
50244 
50250 
50256 
50262 
50268 
50274 
50280 
50286 
50292 
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50316 
50322 
50328 
50334 
50340 
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50358 
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50370 
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50400 
50406 
50412 
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50442 
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50454 
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50568 
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50580 

78     COMPUTE!     January  1984 


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Bettha  Cant  Play  Just  One! 


9*-c>f 


Drol 


TM 


You  will  soon  come  to  expect  the  unexpected 
in   the   hilarious  and  challenging   underground 
dream  world  of  Drol.  A  little  red-headed  girl  and 
her  propeller-beanied  brother  have  been  lured  by 
a  witch  doctor's  curse  into  the  multi-leveled  ruins  of 
a  lost  civilization.  It's  your  task  — as  a  hero  equipped 
with  a  rocket  backpack  and  full-screen  radar  scope- 
to  dodge  hopping  scorpions,  monsters  and  snakes,  fly- 
ing turkeys,  swords,  daggers,  arrows,  magnets,  witch 
doctors,  and  vacuum  cleaners(!)  in  your  attempts  to  rescue  the  children 
and  reunite  them  with  their  mother.  Each  new  level  of  game  play  is 
full  of  surprises. 

Drol's  wry  sense  of  humor  and  amazingly  detailed  cartoon  im- 
agery, make  this  game  a  charmer! 

For  the  Apple  ll/ll-i-/l!e,  Atari,  and  Commodore  64  iiome  com- 
puters in  disk  format. 


Gumball 


TM 


■*C 


c 


^^ 


Hours  of  fun  await  you  at  the  Sticky 
Sole  Gumball  Factory  — where  you'll  be  work- 
ing against  the  clock  to  sort  a  tasty  collec- 
tion of  colorful  gumballs. 

Your  job  may  seem  sweet  at  first,  but  after 
you've  discovered  the  explosive-laced  gumballs 
{placed  by  over-zealous  dental  assistants)  or  met 
your  irritating  supervisor  (who  is  eager  to  undo  your  best  efforts),  you  may  feel 
that  you  have  bitten  off  more  than  you  can  chew. 

If,  against  all  odds,  you  meet  your  day's  quota,  you'll  be  promptly  rewarded 
with  a  promotion  (to  a  more  challenging  position)  and  an  amusing  cartoon  show- 
ing your  higher  standard  of  living. 

Gumball  — a  new  fast  action  game  filled  with  colorful  and  delicious  surprises. 
For  the  Apple  N/l I -H /He. 

Irresistible  Fun  From  Brrjderbund! 

Ask  your  Brederbund  dealer  for  Sneak  Previews. 

BroderbundSoftuiare" 

Discover  the  Difference 

17  Paul  Drive,  San  Rafael,  California  94903,  Telephone  (415)  479-1170 

Apple  llflt  +  /lle.  Alan,  and  Commodore  64  are  trademarks  of  Apple  Computer,  Inc.,  Atari,  Inc.,  Commodore  Elsctronica  Ltd.,  respectlveSy. 


Programming 
Notes,  Atari  Version 

John  Krause.  Assistant  Technicol  Editor 

The  Atari  version  of  "Demons  of  Osiris" 
(Program  3)  is  similar  to  tfie  VIC  version. 
The  only  major  difference  is  in  controlling 
the  base  ship.  The  ship  is  controlled  using 
the  joystick  plugged  into  port  1.  The  joystick 
fire  button  launches  the  missiles.  Hold  down 
the  button  for  rapid  fire.  When  you  RUN  the 
program,  you  will  have  to  wait  a  few  seconds 
for  the  computer  to  POKE  in  the  machine 
language  (ML)  portion  of  the  game.  Then  it 
will  prompt  you  to  enter  the  speed  of  play 
and  number  of  base  ships.  Enter  a  speed 
from  0  (fastest)  to  255  (slowest)  and  specify 
from  1  to  255  ships. 

Press  the  fire  button  to  start  the  game. 
Pressing  the  space  bar  will  pause  the  game 
until  you  press  any  othei-  key.  When  a  demon 
hits  your  ship,  the  ship  will  be  destroyed, 
the  screen  will  flash,  and  another  ship  will 
appear  at  the  middle  of  the  screen.  Each 
demon  you  hit  with  your  missiles  is  worth 
ten  points.  After  all  your  ships  are  destroyed, 
the  final  score  will  be  displayed. 

The  program  consists  mostly  of  machine 
language,  which  line  20  READs  from  the 
DATA  statements  and  POKEs  into  the  buffer 
at  locations  14592-15380.  Lines  130-160  con- 
tain the  information  for  the  redefined  char- 
acters. BASIC  is  used  for  things  that  do  not 
require  the  speed  of  machine  language,  such 
as  the  input  prompts  and  displaying  the  final 
score.  The  speed  and  number  of  ships  are 
POKEd  into  memory  so  the  ML  rouHne  can 
access  this  information  during  play.  Line  70 
executes  the  ML  routine.  When  the  game 
ends,  line  80  will  calculate  the  score  from  the 
values  stored  by  the  ML  routine. 


Program  3:  Demons  Of  Osiris  For  Atari 

Version  by  John  Krause,  Assistant  Technical  Editor 


10 

15 
17 
18 
20 


50 


POKE  106, 64: GRAPHICS  0 

7  "Demons  of  Osiris" 

IF  PEEK { 14592) =169  THEN  50 

?  :?  "Please  wait  15  seconds. 

RESTORE  14592:F0R  1=14592  TO 

0;READ     A:C  =  C  +  A:POKE     I,A:I\IEXT 

SUB     100 

IF  C< >9a549  THEN  ?  "Error  in 

"  :  END 

POKE  764,255:TRAP  50:?  "Speed 

NPUT  I : POKE  208,  I 


1538 
I  :  GO 

DATA 
■I  .  .  t 


60  TRAP  60 

THEN  6 

61  POKE  20 

62  ?  :?  "P 

64  IF  STRI 

65  POKE  7  1 
70  POKE  75 

KE  756, 

80  GRAPHIC 

27) +256 

90  GOTO  50 

100  RESTOR 

110  FOR  1= 

OR  J  =  0 

XT  J:N 

120  RETURN 

130  DATA  a 

6  ,  19  5 
140  DATA  9 
150  DATA  3 

e- 

160  DATA  0 

14592  DATA 

14S98  DATA 

14604  DATA 

14610  DATA 

14616  DATA 

14622  DATA 

14628  DATA 

14634  DATA 

14640  DATA 

14646  DATA 

14652  DATA 

14658  DATA 

14664  DATA 

14670  DATA 

14676  DATA 

14682  DATA 

14688  DATA 

14694  DATA 

14700  DATA 

14706  DATA 

14712  DATA 

14718  DATA 

14724  DATA 

14730  DATA 

14736  DATA 

14742  DATA 

14748  DATA 

14754  DATA 

14760  DATA 

14766  DATA 

14772  DATA 

14778  DATA 

14734  DATA 

14790  DATA 

14796  DATA 

14802  DATA 

14808  DATA 

14814  DATA 

14820  DATA 

14826  DATA 

14832  DATA 

14838  DATA 

14844  DATA 

14850  DATA 

14856  DATA 

14862  DATA 

14868  DATA 

14874  DATA 

14880  DATA 


'Ships' 


INPUT  I : IF  1=0 


0 

7,  I    

ress  ti*^:33;  "  ; 
G(0)  THEN  64 
0,  0 

2,1:?  CHR« ( 1 25) 
4: I=USR ( 14592) 
S  0: ?  "Score:  "  ; 
0*PEEK ( 13526) 


TRAP  80: PD 


10«PEEK ( 135 


E  130 

1  TO  4:READ  A : A=  1  024  +  A«a : F 
TO  7:READ  B:POKE  A+J,B:NE 
EXT  I 

4, 24, 126, 219, 255, 126, 102, 6 

2, 0,0, 24, 24, 24, 24, 0,0 
5, 24 , 24, 24, 60, 60, 60, 126, 25 

,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
169, 52, J33, 204, 1 
133, 203, 168, 145, 
192, 0, 208, 249, 23 
166, 204, 224, 57, 2 
169, 63,  133, 204,  1 

133. 203. 169. 20. 1 
52, 160, 0, 152, 145 

173. 120. 2.41.4.2 
12, 173,223, 32,20 
240, 5, 206, 223, 52 
203, 173, 120,2,41 
208, 12, 173, 223,5 
39, 240,5, 238, 223 
230, 203,  169, 33,  I 
145, 203. 238, 222. 
2, 205, 222, 52, 16. 
140,222,52, 173, 1 
201 , 1 , 240, 49, 174 
52, 189,0,53, 201 , 
240, 39, 173, 222, 5 

2,48,32, 169, 1 , 15 
0,53,  165, 204,  157 
53, 165, 203, 56, 23 
157, 16, 53, 238, 22 

169. 7. 205. 221 . 52 
4,  152,  141 , 221 , 52 
0, 142, 217, 52, 189 
53, 201 , 0, 240, 40, 
16, 53, 133, 205, 18 

53. 133. 206. 152. 1 
32, 222, 59, 145, 20 
8, 53, 201 , 60, 208, 
189, 1 6, 53, 201 , 0, 
1 1 , 20  1 , 104, 16,7, 
157, 0, S3, 76, 48, 5 
189, 16, 53, 56, 233 
157,  16 j  53,  176, 3, 
8, 53, 133, 205, 189 
53, 133,206,32,22 
177, 205, 141,216, 
2, 16, 26, 189, 16,5 

133. 205. 189. 8. 53 

206. 169. 92. 145. 2 
222, 59, 138, 24, 10 
145, 205, 76, 48,58 
157, 0, 53, 174, 216 
202,  157, 232, 52,  1 
52, 133,205, 189, 2 
133, 206, 152, 145, 


69,  0 

203. 200 

0,  204 

08,241 

69, 236 

41 , 223 

,  203 

08 

1,0 

,  198 

,8 

2,  201 

,52 

60,  0 

52, 169 

3 

32,2 

,  221 

1 

2,  201 

7 

,8 

3,40 

1,52 

,  16 

,  162 

,0 

189 

9,8 

45, 205 

5,  189 

18 

48 

152 

8 

,40 

222 

,a 

2,59 

52, 201 

3 

,  133 

05,  32 

5,9 

,152 

,52 

89,248 

40,52 

205,32 

80    COMPUTE!    January  1984 


of  Tlie  Hundreds  of  Reasons 
You  Ought  To  Be  A  COMPUTEI 

Magazine  Subscriber: 


li^om  "The  Editor's  Feedback"  Card,  a  monthly  part  of  our  continuing 
dialogue  with  readers  of  COMPUTE!.  These  are  responses  to  the  question, 

"What  do  you  like  best  about  COMPUTE!  ?" 

l."The  coverage  of  educational  uses  of  computers  for  kids."  8, "Clear,  clean  layout, 
good  presentation..."  3, "Educational  software  reviews...  'Friends  of  The  Turtle'..."  4. 
"Written  so  a  newcomer  to  computers  can  understand..."  S. "Cover  to  cover,  and  all  in 
between..."  6."Reviews  of  software  and  hardware..."  7.  "Good  balance  of  application 
and  technical  articles..."  8."It  is  the  best  source  of  info  about  various  levels  of  VIC/ 
PET/CBM  machines  and  applications..."  9.  "The  large  niunber  of  well-explained  pro- 
grams..." 10,  "I  like  programs  that  can  be  typed  into  a  computer,  run,  and  then  used 
right  away  (a  program  without  bugs!)..."  11.  "That  it  is  organized  well,  and  covers  a 
broad  range  of  information  concerning  Atari.  Keep  it  up,  please!  I'm  learning..."  IS. 
"Table  of  Contents  listings  and  computer  guide  to  articles  is  a  great  idea.  Best 
magazine  for  personal  home  computer  users..."  13."Best  I  have  found  for  VIC  info..." 
14. "Informative  articles;  'Secrets  of  Atari',  Game  programs,  especially  programs 
that  teach  the  reader  about  the  Atari..."  15. "I  like  all  the  articles  and  programs  for  my 
computer,  the  PET.  I've  learned  and  found  out  things  about  it  that  I  never  even 
thought  existed.  Other  magazines  don't  have  too  much  material  for  the  PET  and,  for 
that  reason,  I  find  COMPUTE!  invaluable..."  16.  "The  up-to-date  hardware  reviews..." 
17,  "Educational  and  game  programs...  ready  to  type  in..."  18.  "Utility  and  apphcations 
program  listings  very  helpful..."  19. "I'm  a  computer  beginner  and  COMPUTEI  didn't 
scare  me  away...  it  made  me  more  interested  in  learning  more  about  computers..."  20. 
"I  really  enjoy  (since  I  am  one)  the  Beginner's  Page..."  81,"The  attention  it  gives  to 
Atari  and  the  easy-to-understand  language  it's  written  in..."  88,  It  is  concerned  with 
explaining  programs,  not  just  listing  them.  It  is  the  best  VIC  magazine  I  could  buy..." 
83,"The  new  Table  of  Contents 'Guide  to  Articles  and  Programs'  is  excellent,  particu- 
larly the  indication  of 'multiple  computer'  items... "84,  Broad  range  (sophistication) 
of  programs..."  85."It's  easy  to  understand  yet  pushes  you  to  a  'higher  level'. 

Whether  you're  just  getting  staxted  with,  personal  computers,  or  very  advanced,  you'll  find 
useful,  helpful  information  in  every  issue  of  COMPUTE!  Magazine.  We  specialize  in  supporting 
the  Atari,  PET/CBM,  Commodore  VIC-20  and  64,  TI-99/4A,  and  Apple  computers.  Editorial 
coverage  also  mcludes  the  Timex/Sinclair  and  the  Radio  Shack  Color  Computer. 

Every  issue  of  COMPUTE!  brings  you  user-friendly  articles,  applications  programs,  and 
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order  a  sample  issue,  use  the  attached  reply  card  or  call  our  toll-free  niraiher.  COMPUTE!... 
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1  year,  twelve  issue  subscription:  $24.00  In  the  US. 


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COMPUTE!  Magazine  is  a  publication  of  COMPUTE!  Publications,  Inc. 
606  Edwardia  Drive,  P.O.  Box  5406,  Greensboro,  NO  27403 


Atari  vey^ion  of  "Deiiions  of  Osiris. 


14886  DATA  222  ,  5<?  ,  1  45  ,  205  ,  32  ,  2 

14892  DATA  60,32,243,59,238,2  17 

14898  DATA  52,174,217,52,224,8 

14904  DATA  240,3,76,160,57,173 

14910  DATA  10,210,201,0,16,48 

14916  DATA  174,220,52,169,1,221 

14922  DATA  232,52,240,38,157,232 

14928  DATA  52,169,60,157,240,52 

14934  DATA  173,10,210,41,31,24 

14940  DATA  105,4,157,224,52^24 

14946  DATA  105,64,157,248,52,233 


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14952 

DATA 

220,52, 169, 7, 205, 220 

14958 

DATA 

52, 16,3, 140, 220, 52 

14964 

DATA 

162, 0, 14  2, 2  17, 52, 189 

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DATA 

232, 52, 201 , 0, 208 , 3 

14976 

DATA 

76, 17  2, 59, 189, 2  4  0, 52 

14982 

DATA 

20  1 , 63, 203, 100, 189, 24  8 

14988 

DATA 

52, 201 ,0. 16, 93, 201 

14994 

DATA 

176, 48,89,  152,  157,232 

15000 

DATA 

52, 189, 248,52, 133, 205 

15006 

DATA 

189, 24  0, 52, 133, 206, 152 

15012 

DATA 

145, 205, 32. 222, 59, 145 

15018 

DATA 

205, 189,224, 52, 24, 105 

15024 

DATA 

1 , 205,223,52, 16,3 

15030 

DATA 

76, 172, 59, 56, 233, 3 

15036 

DATA 

205,223,52, 48, 3. 76 

15042 

DATA 

17  2, 59, 169, a, 14  1 , 198 

15048 

DATA 

2,  198,207,32,2,60 

15054 

DATA 

152, 141 , 198,2, 152, 145 

15060 

DATA 

203, 169, 63, 133, 204, 169 

15066 

DATA 

236, 133, 203, 169,20, 141 

15072 

DATA 

22  3, 52, 169, 33, 14  5, 203 

15078 

DATA 

196,207, 240, 3,76, 172 

15084 

DATA 

59,96, 140, 219,52, 189 

15090 

DATA 

224, 52,205, 223, 52,208 

15096 

DATA 

8, 152, 205, 10,210, 16 

15102 

DATA 

13, 48, 27, 173, 223, 52 

15108 

DATA 

24, 105, 1 , 22  1 ,224, 52 

15114 

DATA 

16,5, 169, 255, 141 ,219 

15120 

DATA 

52, 189, 224, 52,24, 105 

15126 

DATA 

1  ,  205,223,  52,  16,5 

15132 

DATA 

169,  1  ,  141,219, 52,  152 

15138 

DATA 

205, 10,210, 16,3, 141 

15144 

DATA 

219, 52, 189, 224, 5  2, 24 

15150 

DATA 

109, 2  19, 52, 157, 224, 52 

15156 

DATA 

189,243,52, 133,205, 189 

15162 

DATA 

2  40, 52, 133, 206, 152, 145 

15168 

DATA 

205, 32, 222, 59, 1 45, 205 

15174 

DATA 

173, 219, 52, 24, 105, 40 

15180 

DATA 

24, 12  5, 248, 52, 157, 248 

15186 

DATA 

52, 14  4, 3, 254, 24  0, 52 

15192 

DATA 

189, 248, 52, 133, 205, 189 

15198 

DATA 

240, 52, 133, 206, 32, 222 

15204 

DATA 

59, 177, 205, 1 4 1 , 216, 52 

15210 

DATA 

201 , 9, 16, 23, 138, 24 

15216 

DATA 

105, 1 , 145, 205, 189, 248 

15222 

DATA 

52, 133, 205, 189, 240. 52 

1  5228 

DATA 

133, 206, 169,84, 145, 205 

1  5234 

DATA 

76, 172, 59, 152, 157, 232 

15240 

DATA 

52, 17  3, 216, 52. 56, 233 

15246 

DATA 

9, 170, 152, 157, 0, 53 

1  5252 

DATA 

189, 16,53, 133, 2  05, 189 

15258 

DATA 

a, .5 3,  133,  20  6,  152,  145 

15264 

DATA 

205, 32, 2  22, 59, 14  5, 205 

15270 

DATA 

32,  2, 60,  32,  243,  59 

15276 

DATA 

238, 217, 52, 17  4, 217, 52 

15282 

DATA 

224, 8, 240, 3, 76, 121 

15288 

DATA 

58, 165, 208, 32, 2  00, 59 

15294 

DATA 

173, 252, 2, 2 01, 33, 240 

15300 

DATA 

249, 76, 39, 57,  141 j  213 

15306 

DATA 

52, 162, 255, 160, 0, 200 

15312 

DATA 

192. 0, 208. 25  1 , 232, 236 

15318 

DATA 

213, 52, 208, 245, 174, 217 

15324 

DATA 

52, 96, 165, 206, 56, 233 

15330 

DATA 

7, 133, 20  6, 165, 205,56 

15336 

DATA 

233, 40. 133, 205, 176, 2 

15342 

DATA 

198, 206, 169,0.96, 173 

15348 

DATA 

215,52,24, 105, 1 , 141 

15354 

DATA 

215, 52, 144, 3, 238, 214 

15360 

DATA 

52, 96, 169, 15,141,1 

15366 

DATA 

210,  169,20,  141  ,0,210 

15372 

DATA 

169,64,32,200,59, 140 

15378 

DATA 

1, 210,96 

New 


BOOKS  for  ATARI  400/600XL/800XL 
1200XL 

ATARI  BASIC  -  Lsaming  by  Using 
An  excelleni  book  tor  the  beginner. 
Many  short  programs  and  learning  exer- 
cises. All  important  features  of  the 
ATAHI  computers  are  described  (screen 
drawings,  special  sounds,  keys,  paddles, 
joysticks,  specialized  screen  routines, 
graphics,  sound  applications,  peeks,  pokes, 
and  special  stuff). 

Order-No.  164  67.95 

Games  for  the  ATARI  Computer 
This  book  describes  advanced  program- 
ming techniques  like  player-missile- 
graphics  and  use  of  tiie  hardware-registers. 
Contains  many  ready  to  run  programs  in 
BASIC  and  one  called  GUNFIGHT  in 
machine  language. 
Order-No.  162  £7.95 

How  10  proQram  your  ATARI  in  €502 

Macliine  Language 

Introduction  to  machine  language  for  the 

BASIC  programmer. 

Order-No.  169  S9.9S 

FORTH  on  tlie  ATARI  -  Uaming  by 
Uilng 

Introduction,     programs,     applications, 

learning  exercises. 

Order-No,  170  £7.95 

All  programs  from  book  No.  170  on  disk. 
Order-No.  7319  £22,00  onlyl 

A  Look  into  the  Future-ASTROLOGY 

on  your  ATARI  800.  How  to  calculate 
your  own  horoscope.     Including  listing  of 
the  program. 
Order-No.  171  £9.95 

HACKERBOOK  for  your  Atari  computer 
Tips+tricks-Very  important  subroutines 
in  6502  machine  language.  How  to  make 
bootable  cassettes,  disks,  and  EPROMs. 
Complete  construction  article  and  soft- 
ware on  how  to  build  an  EPROM  burner. 
Order-No.  172  £9.95 

SMALL  BUSINESS  SOFTWARE  FOR 
ALL  ATARI  COMPUTERS 

SUPERMAIL  (500  addresses  on  1  disk) 
Completely  wriuen  in  FORTH.  Comes  on 
autoboot  disk.  No  cartridge,  no  DOS.no 
FORTH  language  required. 
Order-No.  7312  849.00 

SUPERINVENTORY  (1000  items  p.ditkl 
Completely  written  in  FORTH,  Same  as 
above.  (Disk  onlyl 
Order-No.  7320  £49.00 

BUSIPACK-1  (written  in  FORTH).  Com- 
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invoicing.  (Disk  only). 
Order-No.  7313  £98.00 

Microcomputer  Hardware  Handbook 
Order-No.  29  E  14.95 


ATCASH 

Convert  your  ATARI  800  into  a  powerful 

cash  register.  (Disk  only). 

Order-No.  7303  £49.95 

Invoicing  program  in  BASIC 

Order-No.  7201  (C)  £29.95 

Order-No.  7200  (D)  £39.95 

Mailing  List  in  BASIC 

Order-No.  7212  (C)  £19.95 

Order-No.  7213  (D)  £24.95 

Inventory  control  in  BASIC 

Order-No.  7214  (CI  £19.95 

Order-No.  7215  (Dl  £24.95 

SOFTWARE  IN  MACHINE  LANGUAGE 

FOR  ATARI 

ATMONA-1 

Machine    language    monitor. 

Order-No.  7022  (CI  £19.95 

ATIIflONA-2 

This  is  a  tracer  (debugger)  that  lets  you 
explore  the  ATARI  RAM/ROM  area. 
Vou  can  stop  at  previously  selected 
address,  opcocia,  or  operand.  Also  very 
valuable  in  understanding  the  micropro- 
cessor. At  each  stop,  all  registers  of  the 
CPU  may  be  changed. Includes  Atmona-1. 
Order-No.  7049  cassette  E49.95 
Order-No.  7050  disk  £54.00 

ATMAS 

Macro-Assembfer  for  ATARI-800/48K. 
One  of  the  most  powerful  editor 
assemblers  on  the  market.  Versatile  editor 
with  scrolling.  Up  to  17k  of  source-code. 
Very  fast,  translates  5k  source-code  in 
about  5  seconds.  Source  code  can  be 
saved  on  disk  or  cassette  ( lncl.Atmona-1 1 . 
Order-No,  7099  disk  £89.00 

Order  No.  7999        cartridge       £129.00 
ATMS  APPLICATION  DISK 
AM  programs  and  machine  language  sub- 
routines from  Book  No. 169  on  disk. 
Order-No.  7311  £20.00 

ATAS 

Same   as    ATMAS   but   without   macro- 
capability.  (32K  and  4BK  RAM) 
Order-No.  7098  £49.95 

ATEXT-1 

This  wordprocessor  is  an  excsllent  buy 
for  your  money.  It  features  screen  oriented 
editing,  scrolling,  string  search  (even 
nested),  left  and  right  margin  justification. 
Over  30  commands.  Text  can  be  saved  on 
disk  or  cassette. 

Order-No,  7210  cassette  £29.95 
Order-No.  721 G  disk  £34.95 

Order-No.  7217  cartridge         S69.00 


FORTH  for  the  ATARI 
FORTH  from  ELCOMP  PUBLISHING, Inc- 
is  an  extended  Ftg-Forth-version,  Editor 
and  I/O  package  included.  Utility  package 
includes  decompiler,  sector  copy,   Hex- 
dump  (ASCII),  ATARI  filehandling,  total 
graphic  and  sound,  joystick  program  and 
player  missile.  Extremely  powerful! 
Order-No.705S(Dl  reg.fi99.005alo  £39.95 
Floating  point  package  with  trigonometric 
functions  (0-900), 
Order-No.  7230  disk  £29.95 

Learn  FORTH 

A  subset  of  Fig-Forth  for  the  beginner. 
On  disk  (32k  RAM)  or  cass.  (16k  RAM). 
Order-No.7053  reg.  79.00       sale  £19.95 

HARDWARE-ADD-ONs  for  ATARI 

PRINTER  INTERFACE 
This  construction  article  comes  with 
printed  circuit  board  and  software.  You 
can  use  the  EPSON  printer  without  the 
ATARI  printer  interface.  (Works  with 
gameport  3  and  4). 

Order-No.  7211  £19.95 

300   Baud   serial   interface    (RS232'i-5V) 
Software  with   connector  and  construc- 
tion anicle. 
Order-No.  7291  619.95 

EPROM  BURNER  for  ATARI  400/800 
KIT.  Printed  circuit  board  incl.  software 
and  extensive  construction  article. 
Order-No.  7292  £49.00 

EPROM  BOARD  (CARTRIDGE) 
Holds  t^vo  4k  EPROMs  (2532).  EPROMs 
not  included. 

Order-No.  7043  £29.95 

EPROM  BOARD  KIT 
Same  as  above  but  bare  board  only  with 
description. 

Order-No.  7224  £14.95 

Astrology  and  Biorhythm  for  ATARI 
Order-Nol  7223         OK  829.95 

Birth  control  with  the  Atari  (Knaus  Oginol 
Order-No.  7222  disk  onlyl  £29.95 
The  APPLE  in  your  Hand,  BRAND  NEW! 
Book  includes  introduction  to  6502 
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Order-No.  178  (200  pages)  612.95 
CP/M  -MBASIC  and  the  OSBORNE 
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Business  Applications,  compl.  listings  of 
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Order-No,  177  S9.95 


SUPERSOFTWARE  f.the  Commodore-64 
BLIZTEXTI  -  The  best  wordprocessor 
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mail. 

Order-No.  4965(62  pages  manual  IES9.00 
MACROFIRE  -  Editor/Assembler  for 
the  C-64 

The  best  macroassembler  you  can  buy! 
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COLOR  BOT 


John  R  Dondzila 


"Colorbot"  is  an  exciting  game  for 
the  unexpatided  VIC-20,  Commodore 
64,  or  Atari  which  features  extensive 
use  of  midticolor  graphics  and 
sound  effects.  The  game  is  for  one 
player  and  requires  a  joystick.  The 
longer  the  game  is  played,  the  harder 
it  becomes  tozvin. 


In  the  year  1987  man  has  over- 
populated  the  world  with  TVs, 
videogames,  home  computers, 
and  every  electronic  device 
manufacturable. 

Through  an  incredible 
genetic  experiment,  all  of  these 
surplus  electronics  have  mutated 
into  the  Colorbots,  a  hyper- 
intelligent  race  of  robots  who  are 
capable  of  thinking  on  their  own. 
The  Colorbots  have  concluded 
that — according  to  their  alien 
logic — man  is  inferior  and  must  be  destroyed. 

After  noting  man's  vulnerability  to  electricity 
and  then  supercharging  Earth  with  a  high-voltage 
proton  forcefield,  these  creatures  of  man's  inven- 
tion have  turned  all  matter  into  glowing  debris. 

You  and  some  others,  however,  have  some- 
how become  partially  immune  to  the  Colorbot 
forces.  Armed  with  a  supply  of  stolen  Electron 
Frisbees,  you  will  try  to  destroy  the  Colorbots 
before  they  destroy  all  of  mankind. 

Defeating  The  Colorbots 

You  are  positioned  in  the  center  of  the  playfield. 
Positioned  elsewhere  on  the  playfield  are  three 
Colorbot  warriors.  You  can  move  your  man  in 
any  direction  by  positioning  the  joystick  in  that 

SA    COMPUTE!    January  1984 


Three  robots  pressure  the  player  in  the  VIC  version  of  "Colorbot." 


direction.  (Use  joystick  2  on  the  64  and  joystick  1 
on  the  Atari.)  To  fire  an  Electron  Frisbee,  simply 
hold  down  the  fire  button  and  push  the  joystick 
in  the  direction  that  you  want  to  fire. 

Also  on  the  playfield  is  a  random  display 
of  flashing  high-voltage  walls,  which  neither 
you  nor  the  Colorbots  can  walk  into  without  being 
destroyed. 

The  Colorbots  are  programmed  to  follow  you. 
Try  to  lead  the  robots  into  the  walls  so  that  they 
destroy  themselves.  Whenever  a  Colorbot  is  de- 
stroyed (whether  by  you  or  its  own  foolish 
bravado),  you  gain  ten  points  and  a  new  Colorbot 
appears  somewhere  else  on  the  screen.  The 
walls  gradually  decrease  in  number  as  the  game 
progresses. 


first;  the  good  news. 


w 


i 


X 


First  Star  Has  4 


few  Games. 


Fernando  Herrera,  the  designer  of  ASTRO CfU!S  (1984  Superior  graphics,  real-time  animations^",  multiple  screens, 

Science  Fiction /Fantasy  Computer  Game  of  the  Year*)  and  intermissions,  arcade- quality  sound,  innovative  gaming, 

our  design  team  again  define  "State  of  the  Art."  challenge  and  excitement— we  deliver  it  all! 

THE  BAD  NEWS?  You  cant  play  them  all  at  once. 


Bomer 

Designed  by  Alex  Leavers 
■   k  Shirley  A.  Russell 
jS«-    Atari  VCS  2600 


A 


BRISTLES 

Starring  Peter  the  Painter 


FLIP  and  FLOP    PANIC  BUTTON 


^y^  Designed  by  ^^!UdMig^^w««- 
^        Atari  Home  Computers 
\m     Commodore  by  Paul  Kanevsiy 


A 

ATARI 


Designed  by  Jim  Nangano 
Atari  Home  Computers 
Commodore  by  Adam  Bellin 


O  THS-aO  Colo:  Computer 
*^      by  Paul  Kanevsky 
^5  Commodore  Computers 


'Electronic  Games  Magazine  1934  Game  Of  The  Year  Award 


hut,  VciS  ud  TltSK  Cauc  tn  1M  npuru  irUMaAAi  rl  Aia.*  lac 
riiiiiii>iii  Bij«s4*i  UtftiL-wf  be  u^  Tisiif  Ccricnimi  t^a^taar^ 
Un  CbkH  Ir^sJM  lUjr.rd  F<Mr  '^  fxioit  hif  uA  Tof  fuat  ^i/aiA 
■wsr  VI  trUniHrU  ct  nm  Sue  Scrnatn  Ide  ^nouil  a  ttU 
tt  n|su  nHTTH  t  :M3  rvn  Sui  So^.LM  UK 


nRSF 

OFTUJRREINC 


"When  being  first  counts.. .we  re  number  one!" 

22  East  41st  Street,  New  York,  NY  10017 

Distnbutor  and  Dealer  Inquiries  lDvttedy212  532-4666 


Every  now  and  then  a  Colorbot  leaves  behind 
a  small  Colorbomb,  which  is  fatal  if  you  walk  on 
it.  The  more  Colorbots  destroyed,  the  faster  they 
will  get.  After  a  while  only  one  or  two  Colorbots 
will  chase  you,  and  they  chase  fast. 

When  you  begin  the  game,  you  are  given 
four  men.  If  you  are  destroyed  you  lose  a  man. 
Lose  all  of  your  men  and  the  game  is  over  and 
mankind  is  doomed  to  extinction.  You  lose  a  man 
if  you  walk  into  anything  that  is  glowing  or 
flashing  in  different  colors.  You  receive  a  free 
man  plus  100  bonus  points  if  you  score  200  or  800 
points. 

Using  The  Programs 

Colorbot  is  written  entirely  in  BASIC  except  for 
one  small  machine  language  routine  installed 
right  on  top  of  the  custom  character  set.  This 
routine  is  used  to  continuously  change  the  aux- 
iliary color  set  without  delaying  the  game. 

Please  note  that  you  must  first  type  in  Pro- 
gram 1  and  SAVE  it.  This  program  installs  the 
custom  character  set  and  machine  language 
routine.  After  saving  it,  type  NEW  and  enter  the 
second  program.  Save  this  on  tape  right  after  Pro- 
gram 1.  You  may  now  LOAD  and  RUN  Program 
1 .  It  will  perform  its  task  and  then  LOAD  and  run 
Program  2  automatically. 

If  you  have  a  disk  drive,  tvpe  in  Program  1 
(delete  line  140)  and  SAVE  it.  then  ENTER  Pro- 
gram 2  and  SAVE  it.  RUN  Program  1  to  define 
the  custom  characters.  When  it  is  finished,  LOAD 
and  RUN  Program  2. 

One  last  thing:  There  are  lots  of  sound  effects 
in  this  program,  so  make  sure  you  have  the  TV 
volume  turned  up.  This  program  also  has  the  best 
visual  effect  on  a  color  TV  or  monitor. 


BEGINNING  PROGRAMMERS 
If  you're  new  to  computing,  please  read  "How 
To  Type  COMPUTE! 's  Programs"  and  "A 
Beginner's  Guide  To  Typing  In  Programs." 


Program  1:  vie  character  Loader 

10    POKE55,0:POKE56,29jCLR 

15  P0KE36869, 240: POKE36879, 10 : PRINT" { CLR) 
{ 2  DOWN } { CYN } COLORBOT " 

20  PRINT" {2  DOWN) [WHT} LOADING  THE":PRINT" 

MAIN  CHARACTER  SET" 
25  DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 
30  DATA56,84, 56,84,146,40,  104,  12 
35  DATA56,84,56,84,146,40,44,96 
40  DATA0,0, 32, 184,32,0,0,0 
45  DATA4,8,63,63,46,38,4,21 
50  DATA0,0, 48, 48, 0,0,0,0 
55  DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 255, 255, 170 
60  DATA224, 224, 224, 224, 224, 224, 224, 224 
65  DATA11,11,11,11,11,11,11,11 
86  COMPUTE!  Jonuorv1984 


70  DATA170, 255, 255, 0,0, 0,0,0 

75  DATA170, 170, 190, 190, 190, 190, 170, 170 

80  DATA141,25  3,29,238, 255,29,17  3,255 

85  DATA29, 201, 255, 208,6, 173, 253, 29 

90  DATA76, 191, 234, 238, 254,  29, 173, 254 

95  DATA29, 201, 2, 208, 240, 169,0, 141 

100  DATA254,29,24,173,14,144,105,16 

105  DATA141, 14, 144, 76, 104,  29,  14,  144 

110  DATA201,224,48,5,169,15,141,  14 

115  DATA144,174,252,29,76,104,29 

120  FORI=0TO150:READX 

125  POKE7424+I,X:NEXTI 

130  PRINT" {CLR) {2  DOWN 3  DONE,  NOW  LOAD  THE 

": PRINT" MAIN  PROGRAM..." 
135  PRINT 
140  POKE19B,l:POKE631,131:END 

145  REM  IF  YOU  ARE  USING  A  DISK  DRIVE  DEL 
ETE  LINE  140 

146  REM  THEN  LOAD  &  RUN  PART  2 

Program  2:  vie  eolorbot,  Main  Program 

10  POKE7679, 1:P0KE7678,1 

15  POKE37158,200:POKE37159,200 

20  POKE37166, 128:POKE788,88;POKE789, 29:PO 

KE37166,192 
25  POKE36878,15:POKE36869,255:POKE36879,1 

0 
30  DIMX(3),Y(3),2(4) :P0RI=1T03 :DEFFNP( I )= 

7680+X{I)+22*Y{l) 
35  A=0:C=30720:DEFFNQ(A)=7680+X+22*Y:X1=3 

3:SL=10:S1=5:S2=15:MN=4 
40  FORI=lT04:READZ(l) :NEXT; DATA150, 160 , 18 

0,200 
45  PRINT" {CLR}" :F0RI=1T0S2 ; R=7724+RND ( 1 ) * 

374: POKER, 42 :POKER+C, 11+RND(1)*3 
50  POKE36876, 200+RND( 1 ) *50 :NEXT : POKE36876 

,0 
55  FORI=7702TO7723:POKEI,38:POKEI+C, 14:P0 

KEI+462,41:POKEI+C+462, 14tNEXT 
60  FORI=7724T08142STEP22 ; POKEI , 39 : POKEI+C 

, 14 : POKEI+21 , 40 : POKEI+C+21 , 14 : NEXT 
65  POKE646, 14:PRINT" [HOME] {5  DOWN} 

{3  RIGHT)****{3  LEFT} {DOWN) {LEFT}* 

{DOWN} (left}* {DOWN} {LEFT}*" 
70  PRINT" (6  DOWN} {18  RIGHT) *{ DOWN) { LEFT}* 

{DOWN} {LEFT)*{doWN} {LEFT}*{4  LEFT)**** 

II 

75  POKE646,0 

80  H=0:X=10:Y=10 

85  F0RI=1T03:X(I)=INT(RNDC1)*18)+3:Y{I)=I 

NT  C  RND ( 1 ) *  19 ) +3 : NEXTI 
90  GOSUB430:POKE37154, 127 
95  F0RI=1T03:P0KEFNP(I) , 36 : POKEFNP( I ) +C,  1 

3 : NEXT 
100  POKEFNQ(0) ,X1:POKEFNQ{0)+C, l:FORI=128 

T02  5 4  :  POKE3 68 74 ,  I :  NEXT :  POKE36874 ,  0  :  Z 1 

=  1 
105  F0RI=1T03:P0KEFNP(I) ,36;POKEFNP(I)+C, 

13: NEXT 
110  POKEFNQ(0) ,X1:POKEFNQ{0)+C,  1 
115  GOSUB440 
120  IFF=1THEN205 

125  IFJ0=1THENGOSUB475:GOSUB450 
130  IFJ1=1THENGOSUB485:GOSUB450 
135  IFJ2=1THENGOSUB495:GOSUB450 
140  IFJ3=1THENGOSUB505:GOSUB450 
145  POKE36875,0 
150  IFH=1THEN325 
155  R=INT ( RND ( 1 ) * SL ) +1 : IFR>  3THENGOTO105 


Wargames 

Not  the  movie  ....  the  real  things! 

The  Avalon  Hill  Game  Company,  America's  premiere  strategy  game  maker, 

has  combined  their  years  of  experience  designing  military  strategy  board  games 

with  the  latest  in  artificial  intelligence  for  home  computers.  The  resulting  computer  games 

are  designed  to  assist  you,  the  player,  with  combat  results,  lines  of  fire  and  double  hidden  movement 

in  two  player  games  and  provide  a  worthy  opponent  in  solitaire  games. 


TacUcal  lx\ 


IM 


—0 


Paris  in  Danger:  A  simulation  of  Napoleon's  1814  campaign  in 
France.  One  of  Napoleon's  finest,  against  the  invading  Allied  Armies. 
[Austrian,  Prussian  and  Russlan|.  You  can  choose  to  take  the  role  as 
Napoleon,  Commander  Schwarzenbcrg,  or  play  both  sides  to  re-create 
the  actual  campaign.  PARIS  IN  DANGER  is  unique,  in  that  it  allows 
the  players  to  compete  on  both  the  strategic  and  tactical  levels,  on  a 
full-color  scrolling  map  of  France  and  surrounding  countries. 

For  all  Atari  Home  Computers,  48K  Disk:  S35.00 


T.A.C.:   Tactical  Armor  Command  during  World  War  II.  You 
control  individual  tanks,  anti-tank  guns,  and  infantry  squads.  For  one 
or  two  players  featuring  outstanding  Hi-Resolution  graphics,  enhanced 
sound,  and  stimulating  challenge.  Five  different  scenarios  arc  available 
from  Meeting  Engagement,  Rear  Guard,  and  Static  Defense,  to 
Breakout  and  Stalemate.  The  players  control  up  to  eight  vehicles,  guns 
and  squads  simultaneously,  utilizing  the  equipment  of  either  the 
German,  British,  Russian  or  American  forces. 
Atari  &  Apple  Disks  (48K):  $40.00 


LEGIONNAIRE  (by  Chris  Crawford): 

Consumer  Electronics  Showcase  Award  for  Innovative  Programming 

Wargame  of  the  Year,  VIDEO  GAMES  PLAYER  Magazine 

Nominee  for  Wargame  of  the  Year,  Game  Manufacturers'  Association 

"On  a  scale  of  1  to  100,  this  is  a  95"  SOFTLINE  Magazine,  March  '83. 
"Legionnaire  is  a  wonderful  game  that  combines  the  graphics  and  move- 
ment of  arcade  games  with  the  depth  of  strategy  games"  BYTE,  March  '83. 
"An  entertaining,  attractive  game  in  which  thinking  is  more  important 
than  fast  reflexes"  COMPUTE!,  July,  '83. 

For  all  Atari  Home  Coinptitcrs,  I6K  Cassette:  $35.00 
32K  Disketle  for  Atari  Home  Computers:  S40,00 
Apple  n  Computer  Diskette  (48K):  $40.00 

Tradernarks  of  WariiLT  ConiiiMinicatiotis,  ApplL.  Ciinipultfrs  Inc.  and  'I'aiidy  Ctiriinraliun, 


Atari  4/800  |40K|,  TRS-80  (48K) 
cassettes:  $30.00 

Apple  H  (48K) 

Atari  Home  Computers  |48K] 
TRS-80  I/HI  |48K) 
diskettes:  S35.00 


CLOSE 

ASSAULT: 

Advanced  wargame  of  tactical  infantry  combat.  Russian,  German,  and 
American  forces  are  represented  in  this  WWII  simulation  which  blends 
the  allure  of  computerization  with  tabletop  gaming.  CLOSE  ASSAULT 
permits  original  scenario  development  or  pre-programmed  ones. 
Features  include  double  hidden  movement,  solitaire  or  two  player 
option,  morale  factors,  and  most  unique,  a  game  system  that  actually 
lets  you  control  squad  level  units  in  life-like  situations. 


AVAILABLE  AT  LEADING 
COMPUTER  GAME  STORES 
EVERYWHERE 

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A  DIVISION  OF 

The  Avalon  Hill  Game  Company 

4517  Harford  Road  •  Baltimore,  MD  21214  •  (301)  254-5300 


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200 

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415 


POKEFNP(R) , 32:POKE36874, 128+(R*20) 

IFINT ( RND ( 1 ) * SI ) =1THENP0KEFNP C R )  ,  37  :  P 

0KEFNP(R)+C,44 

IFX<X(R)THENX(R)=X(R)-1 

IFX>X(R)THENX(R)=X(R)+1 

IFY<Y(R)THE!SrY(R)=Y(R)-l 

IFY>Y(R)THENY(R)=Y(R)+1 

POKE36874,0:IFX(R)=XANDY(R)=YTHENGOTO 

325 

IFPEEK(FNP(R) )=42THENFORI=254TO240STE 

P- . 8 : POKE36874, I :NEXT: POKE36B74, 0 : I=R 

:GOTO290 

GOTO105 

B=X : D=Y 

IFJ0=0ANDJ1=0ANDJ2=0ANDJ3=0THEN155 

GOTO 2 25 

POKE7680+B+22*D,  32 

IFJ0=1THENB=B+1 

IFJ1=1THEND=D+1 

IFJ2=1THENB=B-1 

IFJ3=1THEND=D-1 

IFPEEK(7680+B+22*D)>35THEN260 

POKE7680+B+22*D, 35 : POKE38400+B+22*D,  1 

5 

F0R0=1T02 : NEXT : G0T02  20 

P=7680+B+22*D:P1=PEEKCP) 

IFP1>37THEN155 

FORO=250TO210STEP-3:POKE36B77,O;POKEP 

,RND(1)*255:NEXT:POKE36877,0 

IFP1=37THENP0KEP, 32:GOT0155 

POKEP  ,32: F0RI  =  1 T03 : IFX ( I ) =BANDY ( I ) =DT 

HEN 290 

NEXT: GOTO 155 

X ( I }  =  INT ( RND  Cl)*18)+3;Y(I)=INT( RND ( 1 ) 

*19)+3 

SC=SC+10:IFSC=200ORSC=800THENGOSUB415 

GOSUB430 : FORO=1TO400 : NEXT : POKEFNP ( I )  , 

36:P0KEFNP{I )+C, 13 :FORO=250TO140STEP- 

8 

P0KE36876,O:NEXT;P0KE36876, 0 

SL=SL- . 2 : IFSL< 1THENSL=1 

S1=S1- . 2 : IFS1<2THENS1=2 

GOT0155 

MN=MN-1 : GOSUB430 

FORQ1=1TO16:FORQ2=1B0TO240STEP6:POKE3 

6876 , Q2 :NEXT : POKEFNQ ( 0) +C, 1+RND ( 1 ) *B 

NEXT 

POKE36876,0:POKEFNQ(0) , 32 

S2=S2-5 

IFMNO0THEN45 

POKE646, 10 

PRINT" [HOME) " r :FORI=lT022:PRINT"***** 

*****************". ;NEXT;F0RI=8164T08 

185:POKEI,42 

POKEI+C, 10:NEXT 

P0KE36879, 14: PRINT" fWHT} {HOME) 

{5  DOWN} {6  RIGHT }{RVS] GAME {2  SPACES}0 

VER" 

PRINT" [2  DOWN} {2  RIGHT} { RVS } PLAY  AGAI 

N{ SHIFT-SPACE} (Y/N) {SHIFT-SPACE } ?" 

F0RQ1=128T0254 : POKE36a7  5, Ql : POKE3687  5 

,Q1-10:NEXT;POKE36875,0 

POKE37154,255 

GETA$ : IFA$  <  > " Y" ANDA?  <  > "N"THEN390 

IFA$="Y"THENRUN 

SYS65418 

POKE37158, 137;POKE371S9,66 

P0KE36879, 27 : POKE36869 , 240 j PRINT" 

{CLR} {BLU}":END 

MN=MN+1 : SC=SC+100 : GOSUB430 


420 


425 
430 


435 
440 


445 

450 
455 
460 
465 
470 
475 

480 
485 

490 
495 

500 

505 

510 


FORQ1=1TO10:POKE36876, 240 :FORQ2=1TO80 
: NEXT : POKE  36876 , 0 : FORQ2  =  1TO80 : NEXT : NE 
XT 

RETURN 

PRINT" {HOME} {YEL} [RVS}  SCORE; {CYN}";S 
C;"  {YEL} MEN: { PUR) "; MN; "{ SHIFT-SPACE} 
{OFF}"; 
RETURN 

P=PEEK (37152) ANDl 28 : J0=- ( P=0 ) : P=PEEK ( 
37151)  ;  Jl=-_(  (PAND8)=0)  :  J2=-(  (PAND16)  = 

0) 

J3=-( {PAND4)=0) :F=-( (PAND32)=0) :RETUR 

N 

Xl=Xl+l:IFXl>34THENXi=33 

Z1=Z1+1:IFZ1>4THENZ1=1 

P0KE36875,ZCZ1) 

IFPEEK ( FNQ ( 0 ) ) >  34THENH=1 

POKEFNQ ( 0 ) , XI : POKEFNQ ( 0 ) +C , 1 : RETURN 

POKEFNQ(0) ,32:X=X+1:IFX>20THENX=X-1:H 

=  1 

RETURN 

POKEFNQ(0) , 32:Y=Y+1 :IFY>21THENY=Y-1 :H 

=  1 

RETURN 

POKEFNQ ( 0 ) , 32 :X=X-1 : IFX< 1THENX=X+1 : H= 

1 

RETURN 

POKEFNQ(0) , 32;Y=Y-1:IFY<2THENY=Y+1:H= 

1 

RETURN 


Program  3:  Colorbot  For  The  64 

Translation  by  Kevin  Martin,  Editorial  Programmer 


PC 


4 
5 
7 
8 

20 

25 

30 
35 

45 

50 

55 

60 

65 


70 


80 

85 

90 


POKE52,48:POKE56,48:CLR: POKE53280, 15 

KE53281,0 

PRINT" {CLR} {WHT} {12  DOWN} {9  RIGHT }REDEP 

INING{2  SPACES) CHARACTERS" 

PRINT" {home} {7  DOWN) {16  RIGHT) COLORBOT" 

:GOSUB1000 

DIMX ( 3 ) , Y  C  3 ) , Z ( 4 ) : X=RND ( 0 ) 

Z ( 1 ) =1 50 : Z ( 2 )=160 : Z ( 3 )=180 : Z ( 4 )=200 

C=5427  2:FORI=CTOC+24:POKEI,0:NEXT 

POKEC+24, 15:POKEG+5, 17 : POKEC+6 , 240: POKE 

C,100 
POKE56333 , 127 : POKE788, 88:POKE789 , 49 : PO 
KE56333,129 

POKE53280, 2;POKE53281,0 

F0RI=1T03 : DEFFNP ( I )=1024+X( I )+40*YC I ) 
A=0:DEFFNQ(A)=1024+X+40*Y:X1=33:SL=10: 
S1=5;S2=15:MN=4 

PRINT" {CLR 3 " :FORI=ITOS2:R=1104+RND(1)* 
880 : POKER, 42 : POKER+C, 1 1  +  RND ( 1 ) *  3 
POKEC+1,  100+RND(l)*'50:POKEC+4,  17:  NEXT: 
POKEC+4, 16 

FORI=1064TO1103 : POKEI, 38; POKEI+C, 14;P0 
KEI+920,41:POKEI+C+920, 14: NEXT 
FORI  =  1104TO1944STEP40:POKEI,  39: POKEI+C 
, 14:POKEI+39,40:POKEI+C+39, 14:NEXT 
PRINT"{HOME}E7g{5  DOWN) (3  RIGHT}**** 
{3  LEFT) {DOWN} { LEFT} *{ DOWN} {LEFT}* 
{DOWN} {LEFT}*" 

PRINT" 673 {7  DOWN} {33  RIGHT} *{ DOWN) 
{LEFT}*{D0WN} {left}* {DOWN} {LEFT)* 
{4  LEFT)****" 
H=0:X=20:Y=10 

F0RI=1T03:X(I)=INT(RND{1)*36)+3:Y(I)=I 
NT ( RND (1 ) * 1 9 ) +3 : NEXTI 
GOSUB430 


88    COMPUTEI     January  1984 




Dow  Jones  Has  Powerful  Connections, 


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Copyright  C1983  Dow  Jones  &  Co.,  Inc.  All  rights  rtserved. 


95  F0RI  =  1T03 : POKEFNP ( I ) , 36  t  POKEFNP ( I ) +C, 1 

3: NEXT 
100  POKEFNQ(0) ,X1:POKEFNQ{0)+C, 1 :Z1=1 
105  F0RI  =  1T03 : POKEFNP ( I )  ,  36 : POKEFNP (I ) +C, 

1 3 : NEXT 
110  POKEFNQ(0) ,X1:POKEFNQ(0)+C,  1 
115  GOSUB440 
120  IFF=1THEN205 

125  IFJ0=1THENGOSUB475:GOSUB450 
130  IFJ1=1THENGOSUB485:GOSUB450 
135  IFJ2=1THENGOSUB495:GOSUB450 
140  IFJ3=1THENGOSUB505:GOSUB450 
145  POKEC+4,16 
150  IFH=1THEN325 

155  R=INT(RND(1)*SL)+1:IFR>3THENGOTO105 
160  POKEFNP(R) , 32:POKEC+l, 80+(R*20) : POKEC 

+4,17 

i65  IFINT{RND(l)*Sl)=lTHENPOKEFNP(R),37:P 

0KEFNP(R)+C,44 
170  IFX<X(R)THENX(R)=X(R)-1 
175  IFX>X(R)THENX(R)=X{R)+1 
180  IFY<Y(R)THENY(R)=Y{R)-1 
185  IFY>Y(R)THENY(R)=Y(R)+1 
190  POKEC+4, 16: IFX( R) =XANDY( R)=YTHENGOT03 

25 
195  IFPEEK{FNP(R) )=42THENI=R; GOTO290 
200  GOTO105 
205  B=X;D=Y 

210  IFJ0=0ANDJ1=0ANDJ2=0ANDJ3=0THEN155 
215  GOT0225 

220  POKE1024+B+40*D,32 
225  IFJ0=1THENB=B+1 
230  IFJ1=1THEND=D+1 
235  IFJ2=1THENB=B-1 
240  IFJ3=1THEND=D-1 

245  IFPEEK( 1024+B+40*D) >35THEN260 
250  POKE1024+B+40*D, 35 : POKE55296+B+40*D, 1 

5 
255  FORO=1TO2:NEXT:GOTO220 
260  P=1024+B+40*D:P1=PEEK(P) 
265  IFP1>37THEN155 
270  FORO=250TO210STEP-3 : POKEC+1 , 0: POKEC+4 

,129: POKEP , RND { 1 ) *  2  5  5 : NEXT : POKEC+4 ,  1 6 
275  IFP1=37THENP0KEP, 32:GOT0155 
280  POKEP ,32: F0RI=1T03  s IFX (I ) =BANDY ( I ) =DT 

HEN290 

285  NEXT:GOT0155 

290  X(I)=INT(RND(1)*36)+3:Y(I)=INT(RND(1) 

*19)+3 
295  SC=SC+10 : IFSC=200ORSC=800THENGOSUB415 
300  GOSUB430:FORO=1TO400:NEXT:POKEFNP(I)  , 

36: POKEFNP ( I )+C,  13 
305  FORO=250TO140STEP-8: POKEC+1 , 0: POKEC+4 

, 17; NEXT: POKEC+4, 16 
310  SL=SL-.2:IFSL<1THENSL=1 
315  S1=S1-.2:IFS1<2THENS1=2 
320  GOT0155 
325  MN=MN-1:GOSUB430: POKEC+1, 100: POKEC+4, 

129 
330  FORQ1=1TO16:POKEFNQ(0)+C,  l+RND(l)*a 
335  NEXT: POKEC+4,  128 
340  POKEC+4, 16: POKEFNQ(0)  ,  32 
345  S2=S2-5 
350  IFMN>0THEN45 

360  PRINT" [HOME} E13" r ; F0RI=1T024 : PRINT" 

************************************* 

***"; :NEXT 
362  FORI=1984TO2023:POKEI,42 
365  P0KEI+C,8:NEXT 


' .  * 


64  version  ofColorbot." 


370    POKE53280,6:PRINT"{WHT)  {HOMEHS    DOWN} 

{16  RIGHT} {RVS} GAME E 2  SPACES} OVER" 
372  PRINT" {WHT) {home} {8  DOWN} {16  RIGHT} 

{RVS} GAME (2  SPACES] OVER" 
375  PRINT" {4  DOWN} {12  RIGHT} {RVS } PLAY  AGA 

IN{ SHIFT-SPACE] (Y/N) { SHIFT-SPACE] ? " 
380  FORQi=128T0254: POKEC+1 , Ql : POKEC+4, 17 : 

NEXT: POKEC+4, 16 
390  GETA$:IFA5<>"Y"ANDA$<>"N"THEN390 
395  IFA$="Y"THENCLR: PRINT" (CLR} " : G0T04 
400  P0KE53272, 21 :POKE53270,PEEK( 53270) AND 

239 
410  POKE53280, 14 : P0KE53281 , 6 : PRINT" {CLR} 

E7E"; :END 
415  MN=MN+1:SC=SC+100;GOSUB430 
420  RETURN 

430  SC$=STR$(SC) :MN$=STR$(MN) 
433  PRINT" [HOME} {YEL} {RVS}  SCORE: {CYN} "; S 

C?;"  {YEL}MEN; {PUR}";MN$;" 

{ SHIFT-SPACE} {OFF} " ; 
435  RETURN 

440  PQ=PEEK(56320) : P=PQAND15 :P1=PQAND16 

441  J0=-( (P=7)0R(P=6)0R(P=5) ) : Jl=-C (P=13) 
0R(P=5)0R(P=9) ) 

445  J2=-( (P=11)OR(P=9)OR(P=10)) :J3=-( ( P=l 

4)OR(P=10)ORCP=6) ) :F=-(P1=0) :RETURN 
450  X1=X1+1:IFX1>34THENX1=33 
455  Z1=Z1+1:IFZ1>4THENZ1=1 
460  P0KEC+1,Z(Z1) :P0KEC+4, 17 
465  IFPEEK(FNQ(0) ) >34THENH=1 
470  POKEFNQ(0) ,X1 : POKEFNQ( 0 )+C, 1: RETURN 
475  POKEFNQ(0) , 32 :X=X+1 : IFX>38THENX=X-1 :H 

=  1 
480  RETURN 
485  POKEFNQ(0) , 32 : Y=Y+1 : IFY>23THENY=Y-1 :H 

=  1 
490  RETURN 
495  POKEFNQ(0) , 32 :X=X-1 : IFX< 1THENX=X+1 :H= 

1 
500  RETURN 
505  POKEFNQ{0),32:Y=Y-1:IFY<2THENY=Y+1:H= 

1 
510  RETURN 
1000  POKE56334,PEEK(56  3  34)AND254:POKEl,PE 

EK(1)AND251 
1010  FORI=12288T01 2288+256*8 :POKEI, PEEK (I 
+40960) :NEXTI 


90    COMPUTE!    JonuaryWB^ 


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extended  disk  and  I/O  commands. 

ir  The  ability  to  have  several  64s  on  line  together  -  sharing  common   IEEE 
devices  such  as  disks  or  printers  with  Spooling  Capability. 

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if  A  built-in  terminal  or  modem  program  which  allows  the  system  to  communi- 
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Contact  your  local  Commodore  Dealer  or  RTC. 


Copyright)  and  Tradtmarki 

C64  Is  aeopyrlflht  of  CommodorB  Business  Machines, 
Inc.  C64-LINK  Is  a  Copyright  of  RIchvale  Telo- 
communlcations,  CP/M  is  a  registered  trademark  of 
Digital  Research.  POWER  Is  a  trademark  of  Pro- 
fessional Software.  PAL  Is  a  copyright  of  Brad 
Tempi  eton. 


1020  FORI=l 2288+32 *8T01 2288+1 50+32*8: READ 

X:P0KEI,X:NEXT1 
1030  POKEl, (PEEK{1)0R4) :POKE56334, CPEEK(5 

6334)0R1) 
1040  POKE53272, ( PEEK( 53272 )AND240)+12 
1045  POKE53270,PEEK(53270)OR16 
1050  RETURN 

2000  DATA0, 0,0, 0,0,  0,0,0 
2010  DATA56, 84, 56, 84, 146 , 40, 104, 12 
2020  DATA56,84,56,84, 146,40,44,96 
2030  DATA0.,0,  32, 184,  32,0,0,0 
2040  DATA4,8,63,63,46,38,4,21 
2050  DATA0,0,48,48,0,0,0,0 
2060  DATA0,0, 0,0, 0,255, 255, 170 
2070  DATA224, 224, 224, 224, 224, 224, 224, 224 
2080  DATA11,11,11,11,11,11,11,11 
2090  DATA170, 255, 255, 0,0, 0,0,0 
2100  DATA170,170,190,190, 190, 190, 170 , 170 
2110  DATA141,0,192,2  38,2,  192, 173,2 
2120  DATAl 92, 201, 2 5 5, 208, 6, 173, 0,192 
2130  DATA76, 49,  234,  238  ,  1 ,  192  ,  173,  1 
2140  DATA192,201,5,208,240, 169,0,141 
2160  DATAl, 192, 24, 173,35, 208, 105,  1 
2170  DATA141, 35, 208, 76, 101 , 49, 14, 144 
2180  DATA201,224,48,5,169, 15,141,14 
2190  DATA144,174,252,29,76,104,29 

Program  4:  Atari  coiorbot 

Translation  by  Kevin  Ivlartin,  Editorial  Programmer 


LOR  1 

EN  #1  , 4, 0,  "K:  " 
M  X  <  3  )  ,  Y  <  3  )  ,  Z  <  4 
OSUB  1000 
CRN=PEEK {B3) +25 
OR  1=1  TO  3 
=0: X1=129:SL=10 
OR  I=SCRN  TO  SC 
XT  I : FDR  1=1  TO 

1 ) *360: POKE  R, 1 
OUND  1 , RND  < 1 )  *5 
: SOUND  1,0,0,0 
OR  I=SCRN+20  TO 
POKE  1+440, 9:NE 
OR  I=SCRN+40  TO 
POKE  1,7: POKE  I 
OR  I=SCRN+103  T 
10 : POKE  1+310,  1 
OR  I=SCRN+123  T 
: POKE  I ,  10: POKE 
=0: X=10: Y=12 
OR  1  =  1  TO  3:  X  (  I 
:  Y  <:  I  >  =  INT  (RND  (  1 
OSUB  430 
OR  1=1  TO  3:GDS 
EXT  I 

GOSUB  560: POKE 
FOR  1=1  TO  3:60 
:NEXT  I 

GOSUB  560: POKE 
GOSUB  440 
IF  STRIG(0)=0  T 
IF  QQ=7  OR  QQ=6 
UB  475: GOSUB  45 
IF  QQ=13  OR  QD= 
SUB  435:G0SUB  4 
IF  GG=11  OR  QQ= 
OSUB  49S:G0SUB 
IF  QQ=14  OR  DD= 
OSUB  505: GOSUB 


2  COI 

3  DPI 

5  1 

DII 

\0 

G( 

20 

SI 

30 

Fl 

35 

ft: 

45 

F 

E 

< 

50 

S 

I 

55 

F 

60 

F 

65 

F 

, 

70 

F 

0 

80 

H 

85 

F 

9  0 

6 

95 

F 

N 

100 

10 

5 

1  10 

1  1 

5 

12 

0 

1  2 

5 

13 

0 

13 

5 

140 

>  , A*  <  1  ) 

6*PEEK (39) 

:  Sl=5:  S2=15:  f1N=4 
RN+479:POKE  I,0:N 
S2: R=SCRN+40+RND 

0 

0+100, 10, 15: NEXT 

SCRN+39: POKE  I , 6 
XT   I 

SCRN+440  STEP  20 
+1 9, 8: NEXT  I 
0  SCRN+ 107: POKE  I 
0:NEXT  I 
0  SCRN+163  STEP  2 

1+234, 10: NEXT  I 

) =INT  (RND  <  1  >  *  16)  + 
)*20>-i-3:NEXT  I 

UB  S50:POKE  P,6a: 

Q, X 1 : Z 1=1 

SUB  550:  POKE  P,68 

Q,  X  1 

HEN  205 

OR  QQ=5  THEN  GOS 
0 

5  OR  QD=9  THEN  GO 
50 

9  OR  QQ=10  THEN  B 
450 

10  OR  QQ=6  THEN  G 
4  50 


Atari  version  of  "Coiorbot." 


145 

SOUND 

150 

IF  H=l 

155 

R=INT ( 

05 

160 

GOSUB 

) *50+l 

165 

IF  INT 

50:PDK 

170 

IF  X  <  X 

175 

IF  X  ;:  X 

180 

IF  Y<Y 

185 

IF  Y>Y 

190 

SOUND 

(R>  =Y) 

195 

BOSUB 

:  GOTO 

200 

GOTO  1 

205 

B=X: D= 

207 

QQ=STI 

210 

IF  aQ  = 

215 

GOTO  2 

220 

POKE  S 

225 

IF  OQ  = 

+  1 

230 

IF  QQ  = 

D+1 

235 

IF  QQ  = 

=  B-1 

240 

IF  QQ  = 

=  D-1 

245 

IF  PEE 

250 

POKE  S 

255 

GOTO  2 

260 

P=SCRN 

265 

IF  Pl< 

270 

SOUND 

275 

IF  Pl  = 

2E0 

POKE  P 

)   AND 

2B5 

NEXT  I 

290 

X  ( I >  =1 

ND ( 1 ) « 

295 

SC=SC+ 

THEN 

30  0 

GOSUB 

GOSUB 

305 

FOR  0  = 

,0, 10, 

1,0,0,0 

THEN  325 
RND ( 1 > *5L) +1 : IF  R>3  THEN  1 

570: POKE  P,0: SOUND  1  , RND ( 1 

00,  10,  1 5 

(RND (  1  )  *S1 ) =1  THEN  GOSUB  5 

E  P, 1 97 

(R)   THEN  X (R ) =X (R) -1 

(R)  THEN  X (R) =X (R) +1 

(R)  THEN  Y(R)=Y(R>-1 

(R)  THEN  Y (R )  =Y  (R>  +1 

1,0,0,0:IF  (X(R)=X)  AND  (Y 

THEN  325 
570:IF  PEEK(P)=10  THEN  I=R 
290 
05 
Y 

CK(0> 

15  THEN  155 
25 

CRN+B+20*D, 0 
7  OR  DQ=6  OR  QQ=5  THEN  B=B 

13  OR  QQ=5  OR  GD=9  THEN  D= 
11  OR  QQ=9  OR  QD=10  THEN  B 

14  OR  QQ=10  OR  QQ=6  THEN  D 

K  (SCRN  +  B  +  20*D)  :;  3  THEN  260 

CRN+B+20*D, 3 

20 

+B+20*D:P1=PEEK(P) 

>197  AND  P1^;>6S  THEN  155 

l,RND(l)*100-i-100,0,  15 

197  THEN  POKE  P,0:6DTO  155 

,0:FOR  1=1  TO  3: IF  ( X < I ) =B 

(  Y  ;  I  ) =D)   THEN  290 

: GOTO  155 

NT (RND ( 1 ) *16) +3: Y ( I ) =INT (R 

2  0  )  +  3 

10:  IF   (SC  =  200)   OR  <SC  =  B00) 

GDSUB  415 

430:FaR  0=1  TO  400:NEXT  0: 

550: POKE  P,68 

250  TO  140  STEP  -9:SDUND  1 

15:NEXT  C:SOUND  1.0.0.0 


92    COMPUTll    January  1984 


310 
315 

320 
325 
330 


340 
345 
350 
360 


■•7  0 


39  0 

3<?5 
400 

415 
420 
430 

440 

450 
455 
460 
465 
470 
475 

480 
485 

490 

495 

500 
505 

510 
550 

555 
560 
570 

57  5 
1000 


SL=SL-0.2:IF  SL<1  THEN  SL=1 

S1=S1-0.2:IF  Sl<2  THEN  Sl=2 

GOTO  155 

MN=MN-1 : GQSUB  430 

FDR     1=50     TO     100     STEP     5:S0UIMD     l.I 

,10,1S:GOSUB  560;POKE  Q,RND(1)*2 

55 

NEXT  I 

SOUN.D  1  ,  0,  0,  0J  GOSUB  550:  POKE  P,0 

S2=S2-5 

IF  MN<:;0  THEN  45 

FOR  Q2=SCRN  TO  SCRN +479 : POKE  Q2, 

138:NEXT  Q2 

POSITION  5,8:7  lt6;"GAHE   OVER" 

POSITION  1.16:7  #6;"PLAY  AGAIN  I 

Y/N3  7" 

GET  #1 , A: fl*=CHR* { A) : I F   <A«<>"Y") 

AND  (AS<>"N")  THEN  390 
IF  A$="Y"  THEN  RUN 


POKE 
END 
MN  =  HN 
RETUR 
POSIT 

prwTFi" 

GQ  =  ST 
:  RETU 
X1  =  X1 
Z1  =  Z1 
SOUND 
GOSUB 
BOSUB 
GOSUB 

THEN 
RETUR 
GOSUB 

THEN 
RETUR 
GOSUB 
THEN 


106, PEEK ( 1 

+  1  ; SC  =  SC+1 

H 

ION  0,0:? 

; MN; "  " ; 

ICK (0) : PDK 

RN 

+  1  :  I  F  X  1  >  1 

+  1  :  IF  Z 1 >4 
1  ,  50tRND  < 
560: IF  PE 
560: POKE 
560: POKE 
X=19: H=l 

N 
560: POKE 
Y=22: H=l 

N 
560:POKE 

X=l : H=l 


06) +5: GRAPHICS  0: 
00: GOSUB  430 

#6;  "asnii^" ;  SC;  " 

E  708, PEEK (53770) 

30  THEN  Xl=129 

THEN  21=4 
1 ) +100, 1 0, 15 
EK (0) >2  THEN  H= 1 
Q, X 1 : RETURN 
Q,0:X=X+1:IF  X>19 

D, 0: Y=Y+1 : IF  Y>22 

Q,0:X=X-1:IF  X<1 


1005 

1007 
1008 
1009 

1010 

1015 
1020 

1030 

1040 
2000 
2010 
2020 


RETURN 
GOSUB  5 
THEN  Y= 
RETURN 
IF  I<  4 
RETURN 
RETURN 
Q=SCRN+ 
IF  R  <  4 
RETURN 
RETURN 
IF  PEE 
EK  i 106 
756,  C 
POKE  1 
7 

POSITI 
PDSITI 
POSITI 
T" 

CHSET= 
POKE  7 
FOR  X  = 
EK  v573 
FOR  1  = 
+  I  ,  X  :  N 
RETURN 
DATA  5 
DATA  5 
DATA  0 


60:POKE  Q,0:Y=Y-1:IF  Y<2 
2:  H=l 

THEN  P  =  SCRN  +  X  <  I  )  +20«Y  !  I  >  : 


X+20*Y: RETURN 

THEN  P=SCRN+X (R) +20*Y (R) 


K(106)=155  THEN  CHSET=(PE 
)  +1  )  *256:  GRAPHICS  17-POKE 
HSET/256: RETURN 
06, PEEK < 106) -5: GRAPHICS  1 

ON  5,5:7  #6; "redefining" 
ON  5,10:7  »6;  "SHiEniaiMia" 
ON  4,15:7  *>6;"PLEASE   WAI 

(PEEK  <  106)  +1  )  *256 
56, CHSET/256 

0  TO  1023:PDKE  CHSET+X,PE 
44+X) : NEXT  X 

a  TO  a7:ReAD  XjPOKE  chset 
EXT  I 

6, 84, 56, 94, 146,40,44,96 
6, 84, 56, 84, 146, 40, 104, 12 
, 0, 0, 24, 102, 24, 0, 0 


2030  DATA  24,36,255,255,189,153,24,1 
26 

2040  DATA  0,0,0,24,24,0,0,0 

2050  DATA  0,0,0,0,0,0,255,255 

2060  DATA  192,192,192,192,192,192,19 

2,192 
2070  DATA  3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3 
2080  DATA  255,255,0,0,0,0,0,0 
2090  DATA  255,255,195,195,195,195,25 

5,255  O 


Use  the  handy 

reader  service  cards 

in  the  back  of  the 

'  magazine  for 

information  on 

products  advertised  in 

COMPUTE! 


VIC      SOFTWARE      64 

More  Games,  Chcdlenging  Problems 

and  Programs  Than  You  Can 

Shake  A  Joystick  At! 

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FREE  PROGRAMS 

Write  for  Details. 

|ConipUterMat  •?  O.  Box  1664C  'Lake  HavdSuCny.Anzona 864031 

January  1984     COMPUTE!     93 


On  The  Road  With  Fred  D'Ignazio 


The  Robot  Teddy  Bear 


Just  about  this  time  last  year  my  three-year-old 
son,  Eric,  and  I  went  to  the  World  Science  Fiction 
Convention  in  Chicago.  It  was  an  experience 
neither  of  us  will  ever  forget. 

The  hotel  where  the  convention  took  place 
was  filled  with  over  7,000  science  fiction  movie 
makers,  writers,  hucksters,  and  fans.  Most  of  the 
fans  were  in  costume. 

Since  the  fans  were  in  costume,  Eric  and  1 
decided  to  wear  costumes,  too.  We  went  with 
three  friends  we  were  staying  with  in  Chicago. 
Hope  (8  years  old)  dressed  as  a  bride.  Felicity  (10) 
as  a  princess,  Hugh  (6)  as  an  Indian,  Eric  was  the 
Lone  Ranger,  and  I  went  in  the  most  bizarre  cos- 
tume of  all — a  business  suit  with  a  narrow  tie, 
dark  shoes,  and  a  briefcase. 

The  kids'  costumes  fit  right  in,  but  my  cos- 
tume got  a  lot  of  surprised  and  baffled  stares. 
Each  time  someone  stared  at  me  in  wonder,  I  se- 
cretly patted  myself  on  the  back  for  my  originality. 

You  Will  Always  Be  In  My  Memory 
Bank 

Eric  and  I  returned  to  the  convention  on  another 
day  by  ourselves.  That's  when  Eric  met  Denby,  a 
show  robot  from  the  International  Robotics  Cor- 
poration in  Dearborn,  Michigan.  Denby  was  about 
six  feet  tall  and  all  white  except  for  a  "billboard" 
advertisement  on  the  front  of  his  cylindrical  body 
that  advertised  two  of  the  leading  science  fiction 
magazines. 

Denby  was  a  real  character.  When  he  spotted 
Eric,  he  rolled  over  and  greeted  him.  "What's 
your  name,  young  man?"  he  asked. 

Eric  told  him  his  name.  He  also  told  Denby 
about  his  mother,  his  sister,  and  his  black  cat, 
Mowie.  He  told  Denby  he  had  seen  Darth  Vader 
and  Yoda  at  the  convention,  and  that  he  had  worn 
his  Lone  Ranger  outfit  last  time  he  was  there. 

Denby  told  Eric  that  he  was  the  nicest  little 

<?4    COMPUTE!    Jonuarv1'?S4 


boy  he  had  seen  at  the  entire  convention. 

Eric  shook  Denby's  hand  and  gave  him  a  big 
hug.  Denby  got  so  excited  he  started  bouncing 
around  the  floor,  spinning  his  head,  and  blinking 
his  baby-blue  eyes.  "Whooweee!"  he  said. 

Denby  told  Eric  good-bye  and  rolled  off 
across  the  convention  floor.  That  didn't  shake 
Eric.  He  followed  Denby  around  the  convention, 
up  an  elevator,  and  into  a  conference  room.  He 
didn't  miss  an  opportunity  to  engage  Denby  in 
further  conversation,  shake  his  "gripper"  hand, 
and  give  him  kisses  and  hugs.  (Eric  couldn't  reach 
more  than  a  third  of  the  way  around  Denby's 
barrel  waist,  so  he  hugged  Denby's  leg.) 

Denby  was  a  nice  robot.  Every  time  Eric 
appeared  he  acted  really  happy  to  see  him.  I 
think  he  must  have  realized  that  he  had  stolen 
Eric's  heart. 

Eric  finally  said  good-bye  to  Denby,  but  not 
before  he  had  collected  a  Polaroid  photo  of  himself 
and  Denby  in  front  of  the  OMNI  magazine  booth, 
and  another  8x10  color  photo  of  Denby,  complete 
with  Denby's  personalized  autograph.  On  the 
photo  Denby  wrote:  "To  Eric,  You  will  always  be 
in  my  memory  bank." 

Now,  a  year  later,  the  photos  are  still  among 
Eric's  prized  possessions.  One  hangs  on  his  bed- 
room wall;  the  other  sits  on  his  dresser  and  often 
gets  taken  to  bed. 

Eric  Meets  Little  Denby 

Big  Denby  made  such  an  impression  on  Eric  that 
when  1  saw  a  little  toy  robot  at  one  of  the  booths 
at  the  convention,  I  immediately  picked  it  up. 

The  new  robot  became  known  as  "Little 
Denby,"  then  simply  as  "Denby." 

From  the  first  night  he  got  him,  Eric  began 
taking  Denby  to  bed  with  him,  like  a  mechanical 
teddy  bear. 

Denby  does  not  look  like  a  teddy  bear.  He 


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Written  by  Bill  Wilkinson, 
designer  of  Atari's  Disk 
Operating  System,  this 
book  provides  a  detailed 
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structure. 


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194  pages,  paperback. 

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[SBN  0-942386- 15-9 


The  Atari  BASIC 
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each  BASIC  command  is 
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Authors  Bill  Wilkinson, 
Kathleen  O'Brien,  and  Paul 
Laughton,  the  people  who 
actually  wrote  Atari  BASiC. 
have  compiled  a  complete 
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296  pages,  paperback. 

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COMPUTEI's  First  Book 
of  VIC.  The  essential  refer- 
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users  of  Commodore  VIC- 
20,  the  computer  in  more 
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First  Book  of  VIC  features 
games,  educational  pro- 
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memory  maps,  and  more. 


212  pages,  paperback. 

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Buying  A  Personal  Com- 
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English  for  prospective 
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and  a  buyer's  guide  to  35 
computers. 


90  pages,  paperback. 

Revised  and  updated  1983  editii 


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Every  Kid's  First  Book  Of 
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This  book  uses  turtle 
graphics  to  introduce  kids 
to  robots  and  computers. 
Includes  exercises  for  com- 
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COMPUTEI's  First  Book 
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fifteen  commercial  quality 
game  programs,  ready  to 
type  into  an  Atari.  The 
book  contains  fast 
machine  language  games 
that  require  quick  reflexes 
as  well  as  brain  testers 
that  feature  strategy  and 
logic.  As  a  bonus,  many 
programming  techniques 
are  explained  in  depth,  so 
Atari  owners  can  adapt 
them  to  their  own  games. 


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Home  Energy 
Applications 

On  your  PcrsHHl  Computer 


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ISBN  0-942386-10-8 


232  pages,  paperback. 

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243  pages,  paperback. 

Spiral  bound  for  easy  access  to 


Home  Energy  Applica- 
tions On  Your  Personal 
Computer.  Written  for 
homeowners  who  want  to 
analyze  energy  costs.  In- 
cludes many  computer 
programs  for  adding  up 
the  costs  and  benefits  of 
home  improvements  — 
weatherstripping,  insula- 
tion, thermostat  timers, 
air  conditioning,  storm 
windows,  and  so  on.  Pror 
grams  will  run  on  all 
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programs. 


New  Releases  October-December  1983 


COMPUTEt's  first  Book  OJ  Tl  Games 
J12.95 

ISBN  0-94238fi- 17-5 

29  ready-to-rype-in  games,  including  mazes,  chase  games,  thinlting 
games,  creacive  games,  and  many  explanations  of  how  the  programs 
work. 

COMPUTEI's  Second  Book  Of  Atari  Graphics 
$12.95 

ISaNO-942386-28-0 

Dozens  of  easy-to-understand  explanations  of  rainbow  grapfiics, 
animation,  player-missile  graphics,  and  more  —  along  with  artists 
utilities  and  advanced  techniques. 

Creating  Arcade  Games  On  The  VIC 
S12.95 

ISBN  0-942386-25-6 

Everything  you  need  to  know  to  write  exciting  fast-action  games  in 
BASIC  on  rlie  VIC.  from  game  design  to  techniques  of  animation,  in- 
cluding complete  example  games. 

VIC  Games  For  Kids 
tl2.95 

ISBN  0-942386-35-3 

30  games  written  just  for  kids  (though  adults  will  enjoy  them  too).  Ac- 
tion games  and  garnes  to  teach  math,  geography,  history  —  learning 
has  never  been  more  fun. 

COMPUTEI's  First  Book  Of  64  Sound  &  Graphics 
S12.9S 

ISBN  0-942386-2  1-3 

Clear  explanations  to  help  you  use  all  the  64's  powerful  sound  and 
video  features.  Plus  great  programs  for  musk  synthesis,  high-res  art, 
and  sprite  and  character  design. 

COMPUTEI's  Third  Book  Of  Atari 
$12.95 

ISBN  0-942386- 1 8-3 

Continues  the  COMPUTE!  tradition  of  useful  and  understandable  infor- 
mation, with  programs  from  games  to  a  word  processor.  Plus  utiiities 
and  reference  tables. 

COMPUTEI's  First  Book  Of  Commodore  64  Games 
$12.95 

ISBN  0-942386-34-5 

Packed  full  of  games:  Snake  Escape.  Oil  Tycoon,  Laser  Gunner,  Zuider 
Zee.  Arcade-action  machine  language  games  for  fast  hands:  strategy 
games  for  sharp  minds. 


COMPUTEI's  Reference  Guide  To  64  Graphics 
$12.95 

ISBN  0-942380-29-9 

A  complete,  step-by-step  tutorial  to  programming  graphics.  You'll  like 
the  clear  writing,  the  example  programs,  and  the  full-featured  sprite, 
character,  and  screen  editors. 

Programmer's  Reference  Guide  To  The  Color  Computer 
$12.95 

ISBN  0-942386- [9- 1 

An  essential  reference.  Every  command  in  regular  and  extended  BASIC 
is  fully  defined,  with  Ideas  and  examples  for  using  them.  Plus  chapters 
on  planning  programs. 

Creating  Arcade  Games  On  The  64 
$12.95 

ISBN  0-942386-36- 1 

The  principles  and  techniques  of  fast-action  game  design,  including 
custom  characters,  movement,  animation,  joysticks,  sprites,  and 
sound.  With  complete  example  game  programs. 

Commodore  64  Games  For  Kids 
$12.95 

ISBN0-942386-37-X 

Dozens  of  games  for  kids  of  all  ages,  making  this  an  instant  library  of 

educational  software.  Learning,  creativity,  and  excitement . 

Things  To  Do  In  4K  Or  Less 
$12,95 

ISBN  0-942386-38-8 

Many  entertaining  and  intriguing  programs  for  smalt-memory  com- 
puters like  the  unexpanded  VIC.  Color  Computer,  and  TI-99/4A,  with 
tips  and  hints  for  your  own  4K  programs. 

Creating  Arcade  Games  On  The  Timex/Slnclair 
$12.95 

ISBNO-942386-26-4 

Features  five  ready-to-type-In  games,  along  with  the  principles  of 
game  design.  Also  serves  as  an  excellent  Introduction  to  BASIC  pro- 
gramming on  the  Timex/Slnclair. 


Coming  Soon  (Early  1984) 


•  The  VIC  Tool  Kit:  KernalS.  BASIC 

•  Mapping  The  VIC 
^*    Mapping  The  64 
'•    The  64  Tool  Kit:  Kernal&.  BASIC 


•  Creating  Arcade  Games  On  The  TI-99/4A 

•  All  About  The  64:  Volume  I 

•  Tl  Games  For  Kids 

•  The  Anything  Machine:  Ti-99/4A 


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TOPO  the  robot  flanked  by  D' Igmzio  famiiy  {from  left):  Catie,  Fred,  Janet,  Eric 
Credit:  Roanoke  Times  &  World-News.  Plwto  b\j  Wnyne  Deel 


is  made  of  hard,  black  plastic.  And  his  eyes 
flash  when  he  is  turned  on.  But,  to  Eric,  Little 
Denby  is  like  a  teddy  bear.  He  is  Eric's  link  to  his 
friend  Big  Denby.  And  few  people — biological  or 
mechanical — ever  made  as  deep  an  impression  on 
Eric  as  Big  Denby. 

My  Best  Wishes  To  Everybody! 

Learning  to  live  intimately  with  a  robot  has  not 
exactly  been  easy. 

When  Eric  and  I  returned  from  Chicago,  he 
continued  taking  Little  Denby  to  bed  with  him 
every  night.  I  remember  nights  when  I  would 
wake  up  and  hear  Eric  crying  in  his  bedroom.  I 
would  rush  in  and  Eric  would  sob  and  tell  me 
"Denby  hit  me"  or  "Denby  stuck  me."  Eric  had 
rolled  over  on  Denby  in  his  sleep.  Denby  is  hard 
with  lots  of  angles  and  bumps.  He  is  not  the 
kind  of  robot  you  can  snuggle  with  and  escape 
unbruised. 

One  night  shortly  after  Eric  and  I  returned 
from  Chicago,  my  wife  Janet  and  I  were  sound 


asleep  in  our  room  when  I  heard 
a  loud  clunk!  come  from  Eric's 
bedroom. 

Then  came  a  loud,  shrill 
air-raid  siren. 

Janet  and  I  sat  up  in  bed, 
alarmed  and  confused.  We  began 
climbing  out  of  bed,  and  the 
siren  stopped.  Then,  real  loud,  a 
buzzing,  mechanical  voice  an- 
nounced, "I  am  the  atomic  robot! 
My  best  wishes  to  everybody!" 

It  was  Denby.  He  had  fallen 
out  of  Eric's  bed  and  landed  on 
his  head.  On  Denby's  head  is  a 
yellow  button.  When  you  press 
the  button  (even  when  Denby  is 
turned  off),  Denby  makes  an  air- 
raid siren  noise  and  tells  every 
one  who  he  is  and  wishes  them 
his  best.  And  Denby  doesn't  just 
say  these  things.  He  blasts  them 
out  like  a  bullhorn. 

This  is  an  okay  feature  for  a 
robot  to  have  during  the  daylight 
hours,  but  when  a  robot  does 
this  at  two  in  the  morning  it  can 
make  you  come  unglued. 

One  further  qualification: 
Robots  should  only  be  seen  and 
not  heard  in  the  middle  of  the 
night  or  in  a  car.  I  don't  know 
how  many  car  trips  we've  taken 
where  we  have  had  to  confiscate 
Denby  from  Eric  and  my  daugh- 
ter Catie.  When  Denby  shouts 
out  his  greetings  from  the  back 
seat,  and,  worse,  when  his  alarm  goes  off  unex- 
pectedly, it  takes  all  the  self-control  I've  got  to 
keep  from  swerving  the  car  into  a  tree. 

The  One-Armed  Robot 

When  children  fall  in  love  with  dolls,  blankets, 
and  stuffed  animals,  they  carry  them  around 
everywhere.  Eventually  the  object  of  the  child's 
affection  begins  to  take  on  a  very  different  look.  It 
looks  more  and  more  faded,  pummelled,  mauled, 
unpleasant,  and  unhygienic. 

My  daughter,  for  example,  had  a  mouse 
{"Mousie")  that  had  been  hugged  and  carried  so 
much  its  skin  grew  so  thin  that  its  stuffing  started 
leaking  through.  And  she  had  a  blue  blanket  ("Ni- 
Ni")  that,  despite  frequent  washings,  took  on  a 
greasy  gray  color  and  looked  more  like  a  shredded 
garbage  bag  than  a  child's  blanket. 

The  same  is  true  of  robots.  Except  they're 
more  sturdy.  Eventually,  however,  all  that  love 
and  affection  begins  to  get  to  them.  After  a  while 
they  begin  to  look  as  ragged  as  a  favorite  stuffed 

January  1984    COMPUTE!    <W 


doll  or  blanket. 

Denby  is  a  very  tough  little  robot.  For  several 
months  he  continued  to  look  as  good  as  new. 
Then,  one  day,  Eric  decided  to  "walk"  Denby 
down  the  basement  stairs.  Denby  is  only  ten  in- 
ches high,  and  he  has  no  legs — just  wheels.  He 
made  it  to  the  top  of  the  first  stair,  then  he  turned 
into  a  robotic  pogo  stick  and  bounced  his  way 
down  the  remaining  stairs. 

That  was  how  Denby  lost  his  arm. 

(The  arm  still  sits,  forlorn  looking,  in  a  small 
demitasse  coffee  cup  in  the  kitchen.  Janet  has 
performed  several  surgical  operations  with  Krazy 
Glue  and  Miracle  Glue  to  try  to  reattach  the  arm 
to  Denby.  The  arm  stays  on  Denby  for  a  short  time, 
to  Eric's  acute  joy  and  pleasure.  Eventually,  how- 
ever, the  arm  ends  up  back  in  the  coffee  cup.) 

On  that  same  trip  down  the  basement  stairs 
the  little  door  on  Denby's  bottom  burst  open 
and  spilled  Denby's  batteries  all  over  the  basement 
floor. 

Today  Denby  wears  a  truss — three  arcade- 
store  game  tokens  underneath  four  layers  of 
masking  tape  fastened  to  his  bottom.  The  tokens 
and  the  tape  keep  Denby's  batteries  inside  his 
body  where  they  belong.  But  they  don't  always 
work,  and  this  makes  Denby  sort  of  cranky  and 
unpredictable.  Sometimes  he  races  around  the 
kitchen  floor,  but  sometimes  he  just  sits  on  the 
floor  and  makes  his  air-raid  siren  in  slow  motion. 
It  sounds  a  lot  like  a  whine. 

100    COMPUTE!     Januotv1984 


TOPO,  The  Bag  Lady 

We  recently  acquired  a  new  member  of  our  family — 
TOPO  the  robot  from  Androbot  (101  East  Daggett 
Drive,  San  Jose,  CA  95134,  408/BOB-TOPO).  Now 
we  are  a  three-robot  family  (including  the  robot 
turtle  who  lives  in  the  piano  room). 

I  think  TOPO  looks  fine  just  the  way  he  came 
out  of  the  packing  crate  from  the  factory — like  a 
little  white  snowman.  But  my  kids  think  dif- 
ferendy..  He  must  look  naked  to  them,  because 
ever  since  we  first  got  him  they  have  been  dressing 
him  up. 

At  different  times  TOPO  has  worn  capes, 
shawls,  cowboy  guns,  hats,  flags,  bracelets,  and 
rainbow-colored  Smurf  belts.  But  my  favorite  is 
the  time  my  kids  dressed  TOPO  as  a  bag  lady. 

One  night,  very  late,  I  was  going  around  the 
house  turning  off  lights  and  making  sure  all  the 
doors  were  locked.  I  went  into  my  daughter  Catie's 
room.  She  was  sleeping  soundly.  Then  I  went 
into  Eric's  room. 

I  got  the  shock  of  my  life! 

Looming  over  Eric's  bed  was  a  small  figure 
dressed  in  a  shawl,  a  scarf,  and  a  faded  purple 
skirt.  It  looked  like  a  pygmy  bag  lady.  The  bag  lady 
carried  a  bulging  paper  sack  in  each  arm.  Large, 
tacky,  plastic  bracelets  dangled  from  her  wrists. 

And  there  was  more.  In  the  darkened  bed- 
room she  seemed  somehow  ominous  and 
threatening.  I  think  it  must  have  been  the  white 
plastic  Dracula  teeth  taped  to  her  mouth. 

I  was  relieved  when  1  finally  realized  that  the 
creature  in  my  son's  room  was  TOPO  the  robot. 
Then  !  grew  amused.  It  was  that  "Look  what  I've 
gotten  myself  into"  feeling  that  I  often  get  when  I 
hang  around  Catie  and  Eric.  You  see,  when  we 
got  TOPO  I  didn't  realize  what  we  were  doing,  I 
thought  we  were  acquiring  a  robot.  But  we  weren't 
acquiring  a  robot,  we  were  adopting  a  pygmy  bag 
lady — a  pygmy  bag  lady  vawpirc. 

Just  what  every  family  needs. 

Now  You  Can  Be  Real  To  Everyone 

When  I  was  a  kid  one  of  my  favorite  stories  was 
The  Velveteen  Rabbit  by  Margery  Williams.  The 
story  is  fairly  well  known,  but  the  subtitle  is  less 
familiar:  How  Toi/s  Become  Real. 

Denby  and  TOPO  remind  me  of  the  velveteen 
rabbit.  When  they  first  arrived  they  were  just 
"things."  But  before  long  they  became  vital  mem- 
bers of  our  family.  Now  we  talk  about  them  as  if 
they  have  personaHties,  ideas,  and  feelings.  We 
act  as  if  they  are  real. 

On  ABC-TV's  World  Neios  program  last  night, 
Peter  Jennings,  the  show's  anchor  person,  went 
to  a  teddy-bear  convention.  The  title  of  the  piece 
was  "America  Is  Bullish  on  Bears."  Hundreds  of 
people  had  come  to  this  convention  with  their 
favorite  teddy  bears.  There  were  fat  bears,  beauti- 


ful  bears,  dumpy  bears,  big  bears,  and  bears  the 
size  of  pins  and  match  sticks.  There  were  wise 
bears,  silly  bears,  watch  bears,  and  guard  bears. 

The  people  who  own  teddy  bears  love  them 
as  much  as  we  love  our  robots,  maybe  even  more. 
To  those  people,  the  bears  are  alive.  They  are  real. 

How  do  robots  and  bears  become  members 
of  your  family?  How  do  toys  become  real? 

They  become  real  when  we  project  our  ideas, 
thoughts,  personalities,  and  feelings  into  them. 
It's  the  same  thing  novelists  do  when  they  create 
characters  with  words  on  paper.  They  create  life- 
like beings  who  inhabit  the  pages  of  their  books. 

And,  almost  as  soon  as  we  project  lifelike 
traits  into  them,  our  toys  become  independent 
from  their  creators.  They  seem  to  have  an  identity 
all  their  own.  They  seem  to  exist  whether  or  not 
we  are  around  to  project  life  into  them.  We  never 
know  what  to  expect  from  them.  Their  thoughts, 
feelings,  and  imaginary  actions  are  always  a  sur- 
prise. We  can't  predict  what  they'll  do  next.  All 
their  actions  are  consistent  with  the  personality 
that  they  have  evolved,  but  they  are  not  prepro- 
grammed or  "mechanical." 

The  reality  of  the  teddy  bear  or  robot  is  greatly 
heightened  when  its  personality  becomes  a  shared 
fantasy  among  several  family  members  or  friends. 
Then  it  becomes  an  ongoing  "joint  invention"  of 
several  people.  When  we  hear  other  people  talk 
about  these  creatures  as  if  they  were  real,  we  come 
to  accept  their  reality  even  more  than  before. 

Robot  Maids  And  Butlers 

All  of  this  brings  me  to  the  conclusion  that  the 
real  reason  we  will  buy  robots  by  the  thousands 
and  millions  is  not  so  they  can  become  our  house- 
hold servants.  Instead  we  will  buy  them  so  they 
can  become  our  pets,  our  companions,  and  our 
friends — just  like  a  dog,  a  cat,  a  blanket,  a  teddy 
bear,  or  a  velveteen  rabbit. 

According  to  most  robotics  experts,  we  are  a 
couple  of  decades  away  from  general-purpose 
household-servant  robots.  The  sensors  and  com- 
puters in  today's  robots  are  too  primitive  for  a 
robot  maid  or  butler  to  survive  in  the  hubbub  and 
chaos  of  the  average  home. 

Yet  there  are  a  dozen  companies  which  are 
already  marketing  relatively  low-cost  "consumer" 
robots  destined  for  the  classroom  or  the  home. 

In  People  magazine  and  on  TV  talk  shows,  we 
see  robot  owners  and  their  robots  acting  out  our 
fantasies  about  what  we'd  do  if  we  had  our  own 
personal  robot.  The  robots  are  shown  walking  the 
dog,  washing  a  window,  or  bringing  the  man  of 
the  house  a  beer  while  he  reads  the  evening  paper 
or  watches  a  football  game  on  TV. 

This  is  silly! 

How  do  you  program  a  blind,  wheeled  robot 
who  only  accepts  hexadecimal  commands  to  walk 

102    COMPUTS!     Januafv1984 


a  dog  around  the  neighborhood? 

How  do  you  get  a  two-foot-high  robot  who 
can't  pick  up  a  dishcloth  to  go  to  the  refrigerator, 
open  the  door,  pick  out  a  beer,  and  somehow 
find  the  TV  room? 

Even  robot  sentries  and  guard  dogs  are  pure 
fantasy — a  dangerous  fantasy.  I  know  how  much 
trouble  my  parents  and  their  friends  have  with 
their  computerized  security  alarms  they  have 
purchased  for  their  homes.  They  are  constantly 
setting  off  the  alarms  and  sending  the  police  and 
the  fire  trucks  to  their  homes  by  accident. 

How  would  you  like  to  face  a  guard-dog  robot 
armed  with  mace,  tear  gas,  or  an  electrified  snout? 
Would  you  trust  that  robot  to  consistendy  distin- 
guish you  from  a  burglar  or  robber?  Would  you 
trust  that  robot  alone  with  your  children? 

Why  Buy  A  Robot? 

Several  months  ago  I  wrote  a  number  of  columns 
about  a  "computer  friend"  that  parents  could 
program  for  their  children.  I  said  that,  ultimately, 
user-friendly  computers  would  evolve  into  com- 
puter friends,  arid  not  just  for  our  children. 

Now  I  think  that  the  biggest  justification  for 
buying  a  robot  is  that  it  can  become  a  friend — to 
our  children  and  to  us. 

And  if  it  can't 
become  a  friend,  at 
least  it  can  become 
a  pet. 

Think  about 
having  a  robot  pet. 
It  changes  the 
whole  way 
we  look  at 
robots.  It  changes 
all  our  expectations. 


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If  we  look  at  robots  as  servants,  we  expect 
them  to  be  convenient,  hardworking,  labor-saving 
devices.  This,  robots  emphatically  are  not. 

But  if  we  expect  robots  to  act  like  pets — like 
the  family  cat,  dog,  guinea  pig,  or  goldfish — then 
we  have  a  whole  new  set  of  expectations.  And  we 
can  define  a  whole  new  set  of  standards.  These 
standards  can  be  just  as  rigorous  as  the  standards 
for  a  robot  maid  or  butler.  But  they  can  also  be  a 
lot  more  realistic. 

We  don't  expect  our  dog  or  cat  to  wash  dishes 
or  take  out  the  trash.  We  sometimes  expect  them 
to  guard  and  protect  us,  but  their  performance  in 
this  area  (as  anyone  who  has  ever  had  a  watchdog 
will  attest)  is  notoriously  spotty.  Our  fearless 
watchdog  might  lick  a  burglar's  hand,  then  turn 
around  and  bite  the  newspaper  boy  on  the  seat  of 
the  pants. 

What  can  we  expect  from  robot  pets? 

First,  we  can  expect  them  to  be  lovable.  To 
be  lovable  they  should  be  cuddly,  fuzzy,  and  hug- 
gable.  They  should  be  small  enough  so  we  can 
pick  them  up  and  carry  them  around  with  us. 
They  should  be  "  lap  robots." 

Also,  they  shouldn't  be  perfect.  They  should 
be  just  as  quirky  and  silly  as  our  cat  or  our  pet 
gerbil.  On  occasion,  they  should  be  naughty, 
they  should  pout,  they  should  be  perverse  and 
impossible.  Or  they  should  at  least  give  the  right 
appearance.  We  can  easily  imagine  the  rest. 

Second,  they  should  be  teachable.  We  should 
be  able  to  "imprint"  ourselves  as  much  on  them 
as  they  do  on  us.  They  should  learn  our  names, 
our  favorite  interests,  jokes,  and  whimsies.  They 
should  be  nice  to  us.  They  should  be  like  the  big 
old  dog  who  acts  like  he  is  excited  to  see  us  when 
we  come  through  the  front  door,  or  like  the  cat 
who  can't  wait  to  hop  in  our  lap  the  moment  we 
sit  down. 

Third,  they  should  be  tough.  They  should 
wear  more  like  Denby  than  like  a  teddy  bear  or  a 
blanket.  They  should  be  survivors  of  a  lot  of  rough- 
and-tumble  affection. 

Fourth,  they  should  be  portable.  They  should 
be  able  to  go  on  car,  train,  and  plane  rides.  They 
should  be  able  to  go  on  vacations  to  the  beach 
and  still  work  even  though  they  have  sand  in 
their  sensors. 

Fifth,  they  should  teach  us.  They  can  teach 
us  formal  things  like  arithmetic,  the  names  of 
countries  and  presidents,  and  the  spelling  of 
polysyllabic  words.  But  they  should  also  teach  us 
little  intangible  things,  like  loyalty,  affection,  trust, 
ethics,  and  values.  They  should  learn  our  values 
then  echo  them  to  our  children  and  our  friends. 

They  Could  Become  Friends 

We  should  remember  that  robots  are,  above  all, 
creatures  of  our  imaginations.  That  is  why  we 
find  them  so  fascinating.  The  more  a  robot  en- 

1CM    COMPUTE!    Januaiv1<?B4 


courages  us  to  use  our  imagination  when  we  deal 
with  it,  the  more  successful  that  robot  will  be.  On 
the  other  hand,  the  more  a  robot  tries  to  act  like  a 
mobile  appliance,  the  more  it  will  set  us  up  for 
frustration  and  disappointment. 

After  all,  what  is  a  robot?  I'm  not  sure  I  can 
answer  my  own  question.  But  I  do  know  that  a 
robot  is  something  more  than  an  average  machine 
like  a  dishwasher  or  vacuum  cleaner.  We  project 
a  great  deal  of  ourselves  into  robots.  We  do  not 
do  this  with  vacuum  cleaners  and  dishwashers. 

What  else  do  we  project  ourselves  into?  We 
project  ourselves  into  pets,  dolls,  and  toys.  This 
is  why  we  value  these  creatures  more  than  our 
vacuum  cleaners  and  dishwashers.  It  would  be  a 
shame  if  we  were  to  build  robots  to  imitate  com- 
mon household  appliances.  Then  we  would  de- 
value our  robots  and  they  could  never  realize 
their  potential.  They  could  never  be  truly  real. 

If  we  want  robots  to  become  real,  we  should 
stop  trying  to  get  them  to  "grow  up"  and  become 
common  appliances.  Instead  we  should  direct 
them  toward  their  greatest  potential — to  become 
mirrors  of  our  minds,  our  feelings,  and  our  imagi- 
nations. Today,  using  current  technology,  robots 
cannot  become  our  household  servants.  But 
today's  robots  can  become  our  toys  and  our  pets. 
And,  perhaps  someday  they  may  become  our 
friends.  © 


.J^;?fe, 


**Gunnal 
buys  a 
Computer" 

1984 
Calendar 

Gurmal  is  Coming... 

Shdfe  in  ihe  adventurc$  o^  Qurniaf  each 
monih  wiih  a  new  hilarious,  aide  sphmng 
scene  ftom  the  "Gutmai  Buys  a  Computet" 
calendar  (or  1 984.  Gurmal  stumbles 
through  the  uvorid  of  Hardwdre.  Software  and 
Ro&oiics  fiom  the  Corporate  Office  io  his 
home. 


ALSO 


The  Gurmal  Book 

64  pages  of  computer  humor 
with  Qurmal's  friends  and  family 


Please  send  me 

copy(s}  of  the  "QurmaJ  buys  a  Computer 
Calendar  (oc  1984  &  $6.95  ot  the  Gufmal 
Book  (a  S5.95  or  l»lh  Calendar  and  Book 
for  510.00  I  Utah  residents  add  5.259  sales 
tax\  (  50C  postage  f>  handling  to: 

Computer  Humor,  Inc. 

P.O.  Box  859 

Park  City,  UT  84060 

(C)    1983  Computer  Hurrrar.  Inc. 


#^. 


SCRIPT  64 


Developed  by: 


iriraf 


Richvale 

Telecommunications, 

LTD. 


Distributed  by: 


Blue  Sky  Software 

Ashland  Office  Center 
Computer  Marketing    DES-Data  Evesham  &  Atpho  Avenues 

Services,  Inc.  EquipmenI  Supply  Voorhees,  NJ  08043 

800-222-0585  213-9ZJ-9361  609-7954025 

Also  available  for  the  IBM-PC. 

Script  64,  Commodore  64  ar>d  IBM-PC  are  registered  trademarks  of  Ricttvale  Communicallons  LTD 
Commodore  Electronics  Limited,  and  international  Business  Mactiines,  Corp  respectively 


Warehouse  1 ,  Inc. 

Eastern  U.S.  BOO-253-5330 
Western  800-25S^»S6 


THE  WORLD  INSIDE  THE  COMPUTER 


Computer  Popcorn 


Fred  Dignazio,  Associate  Editor 


Last  night  I  woke  up  in 
the  dark  with  my  head 
spinning.  I  turned  to 
the  digital  clock  beside 
the  bed.  It  said  3:00 
a.m.  Musical  notes  and 
rainbow-colored  rubber 
bands  bounced  around 
inside  my  mind.  Over 
and  over,  a  little  voice 
inside  me  kept  repeating  two  words:  "Computer 
popcorn.  Computer  popcorn.  Computer  popcorn." 
The  voice  told  me  that  1  was  supposed  to  get 
out  of  my  warm  bed  and  go  into  my  dark,  cold 
study.  And  what  was  I  supposed  to  do  when  I 
got  there?  I  was  supposed  to  write  about  computer 
popcorn. 

When  I  protested  that  it  was  the  middle  of  the 
night  and  that  I  didn't  want  to  get  out  of  bed,  the 
voice  became  surly.  "If  you  don't  get  out  of  bed," 
it  said,  "you'll  forget  everything  by  morning." 
"Forget  what?"  I  thought. 
"Computer  popcorn,"  said  the  voice.  "Com- 
puter popcorn  is  a  computer  program  that  is  so 
good  you  can't  put  it  down.  You  can't  stop 
thinking  about  it.  You  even  dream  about  it." 


Fmi  LJlsiimzio  h  a  coiupiiler  ciitlnismi  and  author  oj 
several  booh  on  coiupiitcrs  for  i/oiiti^  people.  His  books 
iududc  K.itie  and  the  Computer  (CreiUivc  Computing), 
Chip  Mitchell;  The  Case  of  the  Stolen  Computer  Brains 
(DuttoiilLodestar).  The  Star  Wars  Question  and  Answer 
Book  About  Computers  (Rainioiu  House),  and  How  To 
Get  Intimate  With  Your  Computer  (A  10-5tep  Plan  To 
Conquer  Computer  Anxiety)  iMcGraiv-lldl). 

As  the  father  of  two  young  chddreii,  Fred  has  beeoiuc 
concerned  with  introducing  the  computer  to  children  as  a 
ivonderftd  tool  rather  than  as  a  forbidding  electronic  droice. 
His  column  appears  monthly  in  COMPUTE!. 

106    COMPmre!    Jonuarv1984 


Dreaming  In  French 

At  different  periods  of  my  life  I  have  become  so 
obsessed  by  and  so  immersed  in  a  new  subject 
that  I  can't  stop  thinking  about  it.  I  even  take  it  to 
bed  with  me  at  night. 

For  example,  I  spent  a  couple  of  months 
backpacking  around  Europe  one  summer  when  I 
was  in  college.  I  spent  the  first  night  away  from 
home  in  a  hostel  in  Paris  with  a  lot  of  my  college 


friends.  The  next  morning  they  ail  yelled  at  me. 
"You  kept  us  awake  all  night,"  they  complained. 
"We  don't  know  what  you  said,  but  it  was  all  in 
French." 

I  used  to  be  an  international  relations  major. 
I  learned  a  lot  of  languages  and  visited  a  lot  of 
countries.  When  I  visited  Mexico  I  dreamed  in 
Spanish.  When  I  went  to  Brazil  I  dreamed  in 
Portuguese. 

I  doubt  if  my  French,  my  Spanish,  and  my 
Portuguese  were  grammatically  correct,  and  I'm 


SCOTX  FORESMAN  PROBE 

EASY  AS  PIE! 
IT'S  BASIC 


Unlock  the  full  potential  of  yo 
computer,  and  satisfy  your 
family's  learning  appetite. 


PROBE  makes  beginning  BASIC 
Programming  as  easy  as  pie. 

Scott,  Foresman's  approach  blends 
hands-on  training  with  self- 
instructional  activities.  From  the 
first  minute,  PROBE's  easy  to 
follow  format  shows  you  how  to 
turn  your  computer  into  a  A 

productive  working  tool.  Learn  T 

simple  exercises  like  'Teaching 
the  Computer  to  COUNT." 
Discover  how  to  DEBUG.  Create 
exciting  graphics,  sounds,  and  animation. 

There's  even  a  Helper's  Manual  with 
answers  to  all  the  questions. 

PROBE  is  available  for  four  different  age 
levels,  ranging  from  five  years  to  adult.  There's 
nothing  else  on  the  market  like  PROBE. 

SCOTT,  FORESMAN . . . 

Products  with  tomorrow  in  mind. 


THERE'S  MORE  TO  PROBE 
THAN  MEETS  THE  EYE. 

Workbook,  Helpers  Manual, 
a  wall  chart  of  computer 
commands,  J2"  x  16"  keyboard 
wail  chart,  sO-sheet  pad  of  screen 
grids,  and  ^skette.  Available  for 
six  popular  personal  computers. 


Buy  PROBE  wherever  quality 
software  is  sold  or  write: 

Scott,  Foresman 

and  Company 

Electronic  Publishing  Division 

1900  East  Lake  Avenue    Glenview.  Illinois  6002.^ 


sure  my  pronunciation  was  not  perfect.  But  the 
important  thing  is  that  I  was  excited  about  ex- 
ploring a  country  and  a  new  culture — so  excited 
that  I  continued  my  exploration  even  while  I 
was  asleep. 

Doorways  Into  New  Worlds 

This  experience  is  a  little  like  a  religious  conver- 
sion. It  is  a  sense  of  rapture  that  you  feel  when 
you  throw  open  a  door  and  see  endless  vistas 
you've  never  imagined.  Then  you  step  through 
the  door. 

This  is  the  feeling  I've  gotten  recently  from 
some  of  the  new  programs  and  computer  periph- 
erals I've  been  reviewing.  In  this  article  I'll  take  a 
look  at  one  of  these  programs  {The  Music  Con- 
struction Set  from  Electronic  Arts)  and  a  combined 
program/peripheral  (the  Koala  Pad  and  the  Micro 
Illustrator  program  from  Koala  Technologies). 

Mechanical  Drawing 

When  1  was  in  high  school,  1  took  two  classes  that 
I  thought  were  particularly  painful.  One  class 
was  mechanical  drawing.  The  other  was  geom- 
etry. I  found  these  classes  so  agonizing  because 
they  both  involved  the  painstaking,  precise 
drawing  of  geometric  figures.  In  geometry  class 
we  mostly  stuck  to  two-dimensional  figures  like 
squares,  triangles,  circles,  and  polygons.  In 
mechanical  drawing  we  began  with  blocks  and 
cubes,  and  ended  up  drawing  spaceship  nose 
cones,  automobile  crankshafts,  and  "exploded" 
watch  gears. 

Surprisingly,  I  got  good  grades  in  both  classes. 
I  got  the  grades  because  1  was  such  a  perfectionist. 
I  would  struggle  with  the  assignments  for  hours 
and  finally  turn  out  a  beautiful,  finished  drawing. 

But  I  hated  every  minute  of  it.  By  the  time  1 
finished  doing  the  drawings  my  arm,  wrist,  and 
finger  muscles  felt  so  cramped  I  thought  I  would 
go  crazy. 

And  1  never  thought  about  what  I  had  drawn. 
I  was  too  exhausted  just  getting  the  shapes  down 
on  the  paper.  The  engineering  and 
mathematical  concepts  underlying 
these  drawings  went  right 
over  my  head.  I  never 
even  considered  them. 

Rainbow-Colored 
Rubber  Bands 

With  images  of  nose  cones 

and  polygons  floating 

through  my  mind,  1  sat 

down  for  the  first  time 

and  tried  a  new  product, 

the  KoalaPad  from  Koala 

Technologies  (4962  El 

Camino  Real,  Suite  125, 

Los  Altos,  CA  94022,  415/964-2992) 

108    COMPUTE    JanuoivW84 


You  can  buy  a  KoalaPad  for  $125  and  all  sup- 
porting software  packages  for  less  than  $50.  Dif- 
ferent versions  of  the  KoalaPad  are  made  for  the 
IBM  PC;  the  Apple  II,  11 -I- ,  and  He;  the  Commo- 
dore 64;  and  the  Atari  400,  800,  and  XL  computers. 

The  pad  is  smaller  than  a  TV  dinner  and 
weighs  about  as  much  as  a  paperback  book.  You 
plug  the  pad  into  the  joystick  port  of  your  com- 
puter, and  you  hold  it  in  your  hand  or  lap  while 
you  draw,  using  either  your  finger  or  a  plastic 
stylus  that  comes  with  the  pad. 

The  KoalaPad  comes  with  the  Micro  Illustrator 
program  from  Island  Graphics  (for  the  basic  price 
of  $125). 

"Growing"  Circles  And  Boxes 

The  KoalaPad  and  Micro  Illustrator  are  computer 
popcorn.  They're  delicious!  Once  you  and  your 
family  start  using  them,  you  won't  be  able  to 
stop. 

When  you  boot  up  the  Micro  Illustrator  pro- 
gram, you  see  a  menu  of  lots  of  little  boxes  with 
words  and  pictures  inside.  Each  box  is  a  doorway 


''>tf«'*'o// 


Kids  climb  to  the  top  in 
our  playground... 

Because  we  offer  more  than  just  educational  games.  Our  unique  software  brings  the  magic  touch  of  the 

Ed  U  mate  Light  Pen™  together  wilh  the  amazing  computer  voice  of  S,A.M.™,  the  Software  Automatic  Mouth,  so  children  can  intetact 
directly  with  our  teaching  programs.  Playground  Software™  makes  learning  and  leaming  to  use  the  computer  child's  play! 


""< 


^. 


'^« 


Ot, 


^f*,  I 


preschool 
Grade  3 


Our  playground  of  active,  colorful  animals  will  have  your 
child  spelling  new  words  in  no  time  at  all.  Animal  Crackers™ 
combines  the  use  of  the  Ectumale  Light  Pen™  and  children's 
fascination  with  animals  and  computers  to  teach  your 
children  the  alphabet  as  they  learn  lo  spell.  By  simply 
touching  a  letter  on  the  screen  wish  (he  Edumate  Light  Pen  , 
your  children  will  creale  a  screen  full  of  animals  and  other 
playful  objects.  Not  only  is  it  fun.  it's  educational! 


Unleash  ihe  creative  talents  of  the  big  kids  and  the  little  kids 
in  your  family  with  the  first  electronic  coloring  book.  Com- 
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and  an  artist's  palette  of  vibrant  color.  Additional  options  per- 
mit you  to  save  and  restore  pictures  easily,  draw  circles,  lines, 
boxes,  and  erase  in  a  single  stroke. 

Let  your  imagination  mn  wild  with  ihe  Sketch  Pad  that 
allows  you  to  create  your  own  video  (Minlings  from  scratcti. 

Now  anyone  can  transform  our  Edumate  Light  Pen™  into 
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*^oniputer 

'"°''  '<'as  Of 


The  most  fundamental  lesson  every  child  must  learn  is  how 
lo  draw  the  letters  of  the  alphabet.  The  Alphabet  Arcade'^ 
utilizes  Ihi'  Edumate  Light  Pen'"  and  an  exciting  arcade  en- 
vironment to  provide  the  children  with  an  innovative  way  to 
acquire  basic  lettering  skills.  Mistakes  are  noted  immediately 
and  correct  entries  rewarded  in  a  series  of  action-packed  set- 
tings thai  will  delight  and  inspire  your  children.  Discovering 
Ihe  alphabet  has  never  lK»en  this  much  fun! 


mm, 


■>-j< 


•-■•-'•''•■'^''"-•■-■-'■--•--'-— -TrTil 


HAVrf-    t 


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fill  Playground  Soflwai*  is  lighlperi  a/lrf  joyslkk  compatible 


Playground  Software™  presents  a  series  of  engrossing  tales 
that  use  our  Edumate  Light  Pen™  and  your  child's  imagina- 
tion to  tell  a  story, 

Our  first  Bedtime  Story  enlists  the  aid  of  your  child  to  help 
Ltttle  Red  Riding  Hood  escape  from  the  Mean  Old  Wolf,  and 
has  all  the  colorful  animation  and  full-scale  sound  that 
children  love. 

Your  child  will  be  taught  letter  and  word  recognition  while 
having  all  the  fun  that  goes  along  with  helping  to  tell  a  story. 
So  let  your  child  play  a  part  in  the  first  of  our  interactive  and 
educational  bedtime  stories.. .Little  Red  Riding  Hood! 


'°  Grade  3 


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red 


'-h'i 


Playground  Software.. .Kids  are  all  over  us! 

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.0.  box 

sofn-. 


&^. 


Cfc/'K 


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when  you  buy  any  Playground  Software'"  program. 


Aliri  40IV600       ind  CommodOf*  6*       ai9  1rid#mirttj  of  Atsri  Inc.  and  Commodor*  ElKtienJC4.  Inc.  rHpactivtly. 


S^M.""  it  t  iradtmirli  vl  Dofi'l  Aik  SollM«r«. 


into  new  worlds  of  self-expression  for  you  and 
your  family. 

With  a  KoalaPad  and  Micro  Illustrator,  all  of  a 
sudden  making  geometric  figures  is  easy.  Micro 
lUustrahv  encourages  you  to  make  figures  of  great 
beauty  and  complexity.  It's  seductive.  It's  so  easy 
to  draw  elaborate,  symmetrical  shapes  that  you 
keep  thinking:  What  if?  What  if  I  connected  these 
two  lines,  or  what  if  I  created  some  circles  over 
here?  What  if  I  rotated  this  figure  and  colored  it  in? 


With  Micro  Illustrator,  linunin;^  j^aviidric  <^l!ii})e:i  mid 
figures  is  easy.  The  program,  wliich  is  used  witli  a  toudt 
tablet,  maiies  picture  creation  effortless.  This  menu  screen 
allows  you  to  choose  various  ivushcs  aud  colors. 

My  family  and  I  have  only  had  the  KoalaPad 
and  Micro  Illustrator  for  a  week,  but,  already,  each 
of  us  has  used  them  for  several  hours  apiece. 

And  we  still  haven't  explored  all  the  features. 
I  love  the  circle,  disc,  box,  and  frame  commands. 
Using  these  commands  you  can  "grow"  geometric 
shapes  in  seconds. 

Our  favorite  feature  is  the  mirror.  The  mirror 
lets  you  draw  simultaneously  in  four  directions. 
Combine  the  mirror  command  and  the  line  com- 
mand and  you  can  create  glowing  rubber-band 
lines  that  stretch  like  a  net  across  the  screen. 
Tack  the  circle  command  onto  the  mirror  com- 
mand and  you  can  draw  hosts  of  rotating  circles. 
In  no  time  at  at!  you  can  create  beautiful  patchwork 
quilts,  ornate  tiles,  bug-eyed  aliens,  and  solar 
systems  full  of  planets  and  moons. 

The  KoalaPad  and  Micro  Illustrator  are  mar- 


velous skill  and  imagination  amplifiers.  They 
allow  me  and  my  family  to  do  things  we  could 
never  do  on  paper.  And  they  make  it  so  effortless 
that  we  don't  have  to  concentrate  on  the  mechan- 
ical aspect  of  creating  new  shapes  and  pictures. 
We  are  free  to  create  and  to  discover,  and  when 
we're  finished,  we're  still  fresh  enough  to  be 
amazed. 

The  proof  of  how  amazing  these  products  are 
is  how  proud  we  are  of  what  we  create.  The  person 
on  the  computer  is  always  calling  to  the  other 
members  of  the  family:  "Come  here,  everybody! 
Look  what  I've  drawn!  You've  got  to  see  this  one!" 

Mechanical  Bach 

When  1  was  seven  years  old,  my  mother  started 
me  on  piano  lessons.  Maybe  I  wanted  to  learn 
about  the  piano  at  the  time.  I  really  can't  re- 
member, because  the  original  jov  of  making  music 
was  quickly  submerged  by  the  daily  grind  of 
practicing  and  the  weekly  pilgrimage  to  the  music 
studio  where  I  suffered  under  the  harsh  tutelage 
of  a  nonstop  stream  of  boring  and  unimaginative 
music  teachers. 

The  teachers  weren't  really  so  bad.  It  was  the 
method  I  hated.  Like  any  kid,  1  had  aspirations  to 
create  my  own  music,  to  make  beautiful,  original 
sounds  that  expressed  how  I  felt  and  what  I 
thought.  But  all  I  ever  did  was  mechanically  trans- 
late the  printed  musical  notes  of  mediocre  songs 
from  the  scores  onto  the  piano  keyboard. 

i  never  realized  that  my  teachers  weren't 
treating  me  like  a  human  being.  They  were  treating 
me  like  a  machine — a  music  player,  like  a  player 
piano.  I  learned  how  to  read  other  people's  "fro- 
zen" music  and  then  miserably  try  to  reproduce  it 
on  the  piano  keyboard.  The  problem  was  that  I 
didn't  care  for  the  music  I  was  playing,  and  the 
sounds  I  made  rarely  pleased  me.  If  I  liked  music 
(as  I  did)  it  was  a  lot  easier  to  go  to  a  record  store 
and  buy  a  record.  Then  I  could  hear  the  music  I 
liked  and  it  sounded  right. 

At  some  level  I  realized  that  my  original 
purpose  had  been  perverted.  And,  like  any 
decent  human  being,  I  made  a  very  bad  machine. 
I  repeatedly  showed  up  for  class  late,  I  never 
practiced,  and  I  never  played  a  piece  the  way  it 
was  written. 

This  used  to  drive  piano  teachers  crazy,  and 
they  never  lost  the  opportunity  to  tell  me  how 
little  musical  talent  I  had. 

I  didn't  care.  I  would  rather  have  been  playing 
baseball  or  touch  football.  Anything  rather  than 
have  to  practice  the  G  major  scale  for  another 
half  hour. 

The  Music  Construction  Set 

The  Music  Construction  Set  is  Will  Harvey's  re- 
sponse to  piano  teachers  who  teach  their  pupils 


110     COMPUTl!     Januatyl'JSd 


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ourseif  in  the  piiofsseat  Of  a  PiperiHiLneroKiWArenBr  for  aft  aw6-ifl&|)ii'in9fii9HTd«er  realistic  scene 
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to  pretend  they  are  machines.  Will  Harvey  is  a  16- 
year-old  from  Uplands  High  School  in  Foster  City, 
California.  When  asked  why  he  wrote  Music  Con- 
struction Set,  Will  replied:  "It  was  something  that 
needed  to  be  done.  I  wanted  someone  who  didn't 
know  anything  about  music  to  be  able  to  learn  it 
simply  and  have  a  lot  of  fun  doing  it.  I  also 
thought  it  would  be  great  if  you  could  save  what 
you  wrote." 

According  to  Will,  his  program  is  "simple, 
hot,  and  deep."  By  this  he  means  that  it  is  easy  to 
use,  it  appeals  to  a  person's  senses,  and  it  can 
grow  with  a  person.  The  program  is  enchanting 
to  musical  novices  as  well  as  musicologists  and 
musicians. 

Music  Construction  Set  {MCS)  retails  for  $40 
and  is  published  by  Electronic  Arts  (2755  Campus 
Drive,  San  Mateo,  CA  94403,  415/571-7171). 

MCS  currently  runs  on  the  Apple  He  and  the 
Commodore  64  and  will  soon  run  on  the  Atari 
computers. 

If  you  plan  to  use  MCS  on  an  Apple,  you 
should  consider  a  special  offer  by  Electronic  Arts. 
You  can  buy  a  Mockingboard  stereo  sound  card 
for  $100  ($25  off  the  regular  price  of  $125).  The 
Mockingboard  lets  you  create  polyphonic  sound 
on  the  Apple.  That  means  you  can  create  chords 
with  up  to  six  notes  playing  at  the  same  time. 


And  you  get  stereo,  too.  Sweet  Micro  Systems 
is  at  150  Chestnut  Street,  Providence,  RI 02903 
(401/273-5333). 

If  you  have  the  Commodore  64,  you  have  the 
SID  (sound  synthesis)  chip,  and  you  don't  need 
the  Mockingboard,  When  you  run  MCS  on  the 
Commodore  64,  you  will  be  able  to  compose  and 
play  music  with  up  to  three  notes  playing  at  a 
time.  On  the  Atari,  you  will  be  able  to  create  music 
with  up  to  four  notes  playing  at  a  time. 

The  other  add-on  to  MCS  that  I  enthusiasti- 
cally recommend  is  the  KoalaPad  from  Koala  Tech- 
nologies (see  review  above).  You  use  the  KoalaPad 
to  move  the  notes  and  other  musical  symbols 
around  on  the  picture  screen.  You  can  also  move 
symbols  using  a  joystick  or  the  keyboard.  But  the 
easiest  and  fastest  way  to  move  musical  symbols  is 
using  the  KoalaPad. 

This  is  how  MCS  works — on  the  Apple  II  + 
with  the  Mockingboard  and  the  KoalaPad: 

First,  you  boot  up  the  MCS  disk,  and  you  see 
empty  musical  staffs  at  the  top  of  the  screen  and  a 
pictorial  menu  on  the  lower  half  of  the  screen.  If 
you  do  nothing,  the  computer  starts  playing  music 
itself,  as  if  you  have  just  put  a  record  on  your 
stereo.  You  hear  ten  songs,  including  Pachelbel's 
"Canon,"  Rimsky-Korsakov's  "FHght  of  the 
Bumblebee,"  and  the  "Pat  the  Hat"  rag  by  Douglas 


112    COMPUTE!     January19M 


Fulton.  Then  the  music  starts  again.  It  will  keep 
playing  until  you  press  the  RETURN  button. 

Since  you're  into  creating  vour  own  music, 
you  immediately  press  RETURN.  The  next  thing 
you  do  is  press  the  plastic  stylus  on  the  KoalaPad 
down  on  the  pad.  Immediately  a  pointing-hand 
"icon"  appears  on  the  screen.  You  use  the  hand 
to  "build"  your  song. 

You  move  the  stylus  point  across  the  pad 
and  the  hand  moves  across  the  screen.  When  the 
hand  on  the  screen  gets  to  an  eighth  note  (there 
are  also  whole  notes,  half  notes,  quarter  notes, 
sixteenth  notes,  and  thirty-second  notes),  you 
press  the  top  left-hand  button  on  the  KoalaPad. 
The  note  "jumps"  into  the  hand.  You  move  the 
hand  onto  the  empty  musical  staffs  and  position 
the  note  in  the  E-note  position  on  the  treble  clef. 
When  you  let  go  of  the  KoalaPad  button,  the  note 
falls  out  of  the  hand  and  glues  itself  to  the  staff. 

You  can  do  all  this  in  just  a  couple  of  seconds. 

Then  you  move  the  hand  back  to  the  menu  of 
notes,  rests,  sharps,  flats,  ties,  octave  raisers,  and 
time  signatures,  and  pick  them  up,  one  at  a  time, 
and  deposit  them  on  the  staffs. 

When  you  are  finished  creating  some  music — 
up  to  1400  notes  and  up  tc»  70  measures — you 
move  the  hand  across  the  screen  to  point  at  the 
picture  of  the  little  house  ("Home")  and  press  the 
KoalaPad  button.  The  musical  score  on  the  picture 
screen  scrolls  to  the  left,  back  to  the  first  measure — 
the  beginning  of  the  music.  Then  you  move  your 
hand  to  point  at  the  picture  of  the  grand  piano. 
You  press  the  button,  and  the  song  you  just 
created  plays — in  stereo. 

This  is  just  the  beginning. 

Cut  And  Paste 

Now  that  you  have  created  a  song,  you  can  play 
with  it.  By  moving  the  hand  around  the  screen 
and  pressing  the  KoalaPad  button,  you  can  speed 
the  music  up,  raise  or  lower  the  volume  of  each 
speaker,  change  the  type  of  sound  from  regular 
to  smooth,  to  vibrato,  to  drum-like.  With  the  push 
of  a  button,  you  can  transpose  the  music  to  other 
keys  and  replay  the  music  in  each  key. 

And  you  can  use  MCS  like  a  word  processor 
to  cut  and  paste  measures  of  music.  On  the  screen 
is  a  little  pair  of  scissors  and  a  paste  pot.  Using 
them,  you  can  cut  up  to  nine  measures  out  of  the 
beginning  part  of  your  song  and  move  them  for- 
ward or  backward  in  your  song. 

This  is  one  of  the  most  exciting  parts  of  MCS. 
As  I  said  earlier,  when  you  play  your  music,  the 
measures  filled  with  notes  scroll  by  on  the  picture 
screen,  from  right  to  left.  As  you  listen  to  the  notes 
you  also  watch  them  scroll  by.  Playing  music  be- 
comes an  effortless  experience  that  is  visual  as 
well  as  auditory.  You  can  concentrate  on  hearing 
and  seeing  the  notes,  not  just  playing  them.  It's  a 


great  joy  (to  an  ex-player  piano  like  myself)  not  to 
have  to  concentrate  on  stretching  vour  hands  and 
positioning  your  fingers  to  get  each  note  right. 
The  computer  takes  care  of  these  details  for  you. 

Since  music  now  becomes  a  visual  experience, 
you  can  begin  perceiving  patterns  visually  as  well 
as  by  sound.  And,  if  you  like  certain  patterns, 
you  can  repeat  them  in  the  music  by  using  the 
hand  and  the  scissors  to  cut  the  measures  in  which 
they  appear  and  "paste"  them  into  other  places 
in  the  music. 

When  you  are  done  creating  your  own  music, 
you  can  fool  around  with  it.  Then  you  can  save  it 
on  disk.  And,  if  you  have  a  printer,  you  can  print 
out  a  copy  of  the  score. 

Poppin'  Hot 

Now  you  see  why  I  have  trouble  sleeping  at  night. 
You  can  see  why  1  go  to  bed  and  dream  about 
rainbow-colored  rubber  bands  and  dancing  musi- 
cal notes. 

Perhaps  you  can  also  see  why  the  little  voice 
inside  my  head  so  persistently  kept  telling  me  to 
write  about  "computer  popcorn."  The  KoalaPad, 
Micro  Illustrator,  and  Music  Construction  Set  are 
like  popcorn.  They  are  so  much  fun  and  taste  so 
good,  once  you  start  with  them  you  just  can't 
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Januo<y1984     COMPUTE!    113 


THE  BEGINNER'S  PAGE 


Richara  ivlonsfieid,  Senior  bailor 


Canned 
Calculations 


Many  of  the  personal  computer's  most  useful 
home  applications  could  also  be  worked  out  on  a 
$3  calculator.  Why  use  a  computer? 

The  best  answer  is  that  a  computer  does  far 
more  of  the  work  for  you  than  a  calculator.  Once 
you  teach  your  computer  how  to  solve  a  problem, 
it  can  remember  the  method  and  apply  it  to  a 
whole  class  of  similar  problems.  Instead  of  having 
to  go  through  all  the  mathen^atics  each  time,  you 
can  just  give  the  computer  the  numbers  (the  datn) 
and  it  will  automatically  perform  all  the  necessary 
steps  on  its  own.  That's  why  computers  are  some- 
times called  data  processors. 

Let's  see  what  this  means  with  a  practical 
example.  Most  home  improvements  involve  the 
same  kind  of  estimate:  How  many  gallons  of  paint 
will  1  need  to  repaint  the  bedroom?  Or  bags  of 
fertilizer  for  the  lawn,  or  squares  of  tile  for  the 
floor?  To  figure  paint,  you've  first  got  to  find  out 
how  many  square  feet  you're  trying  to  cover,  then 
decide  how  many  square  feet  a  single  can  of  paint 
covers,  then  how  much  each  can  costs. 

Figuring  square  feet  is  the  hard  part.  The 
computer  can  ask  questions,  though,  and  find  the 
answer  for  nearly  any  situation.  After  the  square 
feet  are  calculated,  it's  easy.  Just  ask  for  coverage 
and  cost  and  the  estimate  is  complete. 

Valuable  Techniques 

Take  a  look  at  the  program.  There  are  some  inter- 
esting techniques  to  learn.  First,  we  want  the  pro- 
gram to  be  as  generally  useful  as  possible.  It  should 
be  able  to  calculate  all  kinds  of  home  improve- 
ments. So  we  have  the  user  give  a  name  to  the 
problem  in  line  10.  Then,  as  a  reminder,  lines  30- 

114    COMPUTE!    Jonuatv1984 


70  define  how  to  go  about  gathering  the  data  that 
the  program  needs  to  reach  a  solution.  After  the 
user  has  told  the  computer  how  many  rectangles 
are  involved  in  the  area  to  be  painted,  it  guides 
him  or  her  through  the  necessary  number  of  in- 
puts. This  guidance  takes  place  between  lines 
100-190  within  a /[w;^ 

The  computer  cycles  the  user  through  the 
length-width  question  as  many  times  as  necessary. 
It  counts  up  until  each  rectangle  has  been 
accounted  for.  The  variable  RECTS  in  line  100 
governs  the  loop.  Line  190's  NEXT  keeps  bouncing 
us  back  up  to  line  100  until  the  information  is  com- 
pletely entered. 

There's  a  convenience  feature  in  line  140.  If 
vou  were  estimating  a  typical  bedroom,  it's  likely 
that  two,  or  even  all  four,  of  the  walls  would  have 
identical  measurements.  Rather  than  having  to 
enter  the  same  numbers  over  and  over,  you  can 
just  answer  0  to  the  question  LENGTH  ?  and  the 
computer  will  skip  down  to  line  180.  This  is  possi- 
ble because  the  previous  answers  are  calculated 
in  line  170  and  are  held  in  the  variable  LATEST.  If 
we  skip  over  this  line,  LATEST  will  still  be  holding 
the  amount  calculated  from  the  previous  entries. 
So,  the  calculation  in  line  180  will  add  the  size  of 
the  previous  rectangle  into  our  running  total  of 
square  feet,  SFEET. 

It's  Not  Algebra 

Notice  that  variables  in  computers  are  handled 
somewhat  differently  than  you  might  remember 
them  from  algebra  class.  The  equals  sign  in  line 
180  does  not  make  this  group  of  numbers,  these 
variables,  into  an  equation.  Rather,  the  line  is 


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80  COLUMNS  IN  COLOR 
EXECUTIVE  WORD  PROCESSOR  569.00 

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ings  are  possible! 

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I  1^66    $10.00  for   shipping,   handhng   and    insurance.    Illinois   residents 
I  please  add  6%    tax.  Add  $20.00  for  CANADA,   PUERTO  RICO,  HAWAII 


orders.  WE  DO  NOT  EXPORTTO  OTHER  COUNTRIES. 


I  Enclose  Cashiers  Cfieck,  Money  Order  or  Personal  Check.  Allow  14  days 
I  for  delivery,  2  to  7  days  for  phone  orders.  1  day  express  mail!  Canada 
'orders  must  be  in  U.S.  dollars.     VISA  —  IVIASTER  CARD  -COD 


CK|TCQpDI7CQ    .we  love  our  CUSTOi.tERS) 

BOX  550,  BARRINGTON,  ILLINOIS  60010 
Phone  312/382-5244  to  ord«r 


WORD  PROCESSING  SYSTEM  ^995 


{Everything  you  need  for  word  processing) 

PLUS!  THE   Ooiympia  option! 


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one)  for  only  $395.00  additional  cost!!  List 
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LOOK  AT  WHAT  YOU 
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Executive  Word  Processor,  80  Columns  in  Color,  20,000  Word 

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15  DAY  FREE  TRIAL  We  give  you  15  days  to  try  out  these  SUPER  SYSTEM  PACKAGES!!  If  it  doesn't  meet 
your  expectations,  just  send  it  back  to  us  prepaid  and  we  will  refund  your  purchase  price! ! 

90  DAY  IMMEDIATE  REPLACEMENT  WARRANTY  If  any  of  the  SUPER  SYSTEM  PACKAGE  equipment  or 
programs  fail  due  to  faulty  workmanship  or  material  we  will  replace  it  IMMEDIATELY  at  no  charge! 

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•  LOWEST  PRICES  •  15  DAY  FREE  TRIAL  •  90  DAY  FREE  REPLACEMENT  WARRANTY 
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WE  DO  NOT  EXPORT  TO  OTHER  COUNTRIES  EXCEPT 
CANADA. 

Enclose  Cashiers  Check.  Money  Order  or  Personal  Check  Allow 
14  days  for  delivery.  2  1o  7  days  for  phone  orders,  1  day  express 
mail!  Canada  orders  must  be  in  U.S.  dollars.  We  accept  Visa 
and  MasterCard  We  ship  CO  D 


FW|FWppl7FS    ""^  '"''^^  °^"  CUSTOMERS! 

BOX  550,  BARRINGTON,  ILLINOIS  60010 
Phono  31273825244  lo  order 


FANTASTIC 

PRINTER 

SALE 


as 

low 
as 


$ 


149 


00 


15  Day  Free  Trial  •  180  Day  Immediate  Replacement  Warranty 


80  COLUMN  THERMAL  PRINTER  —  60  CPS 

Bi-directional,  dot  matrix,  prints  8'/j"  letter  size  paper,  full. 80  columns,  tiigh 
resolution  graptiics,  dot  bit  addressable,  special  symbols  and  true  decenders! 
(Centronics  parallel  interface) 

80  COLUMN  TRACTOR-FRICTION  PRINTER  —  80  CPS 

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adjustable  columns,  40  to  132  ctiaracters!  Roll  paper  adapter  $32.95.  (Serial  or 
Centronics  parallel  interface) 

PREMIUM  QUALITY  10  "  CARRIAGE  T/F  PRINTER  —  120  CPS 

Bi-directional,  impact,  9x9  dot  matrix  witti  double  strike  for  18  x  18  dot  matrix. 
Higti  resolution  bit  image  (120  x  144  dot  matrix)  underlining  back  spacing,  left  and 
righit  margin  settings,  true  lower  decenders,  with  super  and  sub  scripts.  Prints 
standard,  italic,  block  graptiics,  special  cfiaracters,  plus  24  of  user  definable 
characters  and  mucfi  more!!  Prints  single  sheets,  continuous  feed  and  roll  paper! 
(Centronics  parallel  interface) 

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Has  all  the  features  of  the  Premium  Quality  10"  Carriage  T/F  Printer  above  plus  a 
15%"  carriage  and  more  powerful  electronic  components  to  handle  large  business 
forms!  (Centronics  parallel  interface) 

HIGH  SPEED  PREMIUM  QUALITY  T/F 
10"  PRINTER  —  160  CPS 

Save  printing  time  with  these  plus  features:  160  CPS  speed,  100%  duty  cycle,  8K 
buffer  diverse  character  fonts  special  symbols  and  true  decenders,  vertical  and 
horizontal  tabs.  This  is  Red  Hot  Efficiency!!!  (Serial  or  Centronics  parallel  interface) 

HIGH  SPEED  PREMIUM  QUALITY 

T/F  1572 "  PRINTER  —  160  CPS 

Has  all  the  features  of  the  10"  Carriage  high  speed  printer  plus  a  iSVj"  carriage  and 
more  powerful  electronics  to  handle  larger  business  forms!  (Serial  or  Centronics 
parallel  interface) 

PARALLEL  PRINTER  INTERFACES:  (IN  STOCK) 

•  For  VlC-20  and  COMMODORE  64  S49,00 

•  For  all  APPLE  COIVIPUTERS  $69.00 

•  For  ATARI  400  and  800  COMPUTERS  $79.00 

hJOTE:  Other  printer  interfaces  are  available  at  computer  stores! 


WE  DO  NOT  EXPORT  TO  OTHER  COUNTRIES  EXCEPT 

CANADA. 

Enclose  Casniers  Check,  Money  Order  or  Personal  Check,  Allow 

14  days  tor  delivery.  2  to  7  days  for  phone  orders.  1  day  express 

mall!  Canada  orders  must  be  in  US,  dollars  We  accept  Visa 

and  MasterCard-  We  stiip  C  O.D 


SAL 


LIST 

$199 


$399 


$499 


SALE 

$149 


$209 


$289 


$599 


$699 


$799 


$379 


$499 


$599 


SALE 


C  ^  "T  C  D  P  D  I  7  C  Q     ^wt  LOVE  OUFI  CUSTOMEBSl 

BOX  550,  BARRINGTON,  ILLINOIS  60010 
Phone  312^382  5244  to  order 


VIC  20 

40-80  COLUMN  BOARD 

only  ^59^^ 


Now  you  can  get  40  or  80  Columns  on  your  T.V.  or  monitor  at  one  time!  No 
more  running  out  of  line  space  for  programming  and  making  columns.  Just 
plug  in  this  board  and  you  immediately  convert  yur  V(C-20  computer  to  40  or 
80  columns!  Comes  in  an  attractive  molded  case  with  instructions!  List 
$129.00.  Sale  $59.00. 


FOR  ONLY  $24.95  you  can  get  a  40-80  Column  Board  "WORD  PROCESSOR"  with  mail  merge 
and  terminal  emulator  PLUS!  AN  ELECTRONIC  SPREAD  SHEET  (like  Visicalc)  the  word 
processor  requires  8K— mail  merge  16KI  List  $59.00.  Sale  $39.90.  *lf  purchased  with  board 
only  $24.95.  (Tape  or  Disk.) 


WE  LOVE  OUR  CUSTOMERS! 


80 

COLUMN 


COMMODORE  64 

80  COLUMN  BOARD 
$9900 


7 


Now  you  can  program  80  columns  on  the  screen 
at  one  time!  Converts  your  Commodore  64  to  80 
coilumns  when  you  plug  in  the  PROTECTO  80 
Expansion   Board   List  $199.  Sale  $99.00 


SALE 


FOR  ONLY  $24.95  you  can  get  an  80  Column  Board  "WORD  PROCESSOR"  with  mail  merge  and 
terminal  emulator  PLUS!  AN  ELECTRONIC  SPREAD  SHEET  (like  Visicalc}  List  $59.00.  Sale  $39.90 
*  If  purchased  with  board  only  $24.95.  (Tape  or  Disk.) 


I  Add  Sa.OOfor  postage  Add  $6.00  lor  CANADA,  PUERTO  RICO  HAWAII 

I  orders   WE  DO  NOT  EXPORT  TO  OTHER  COUNTRIES 

I  Enclose  Cashiers  Check.  Money  Order  or  Personal  CriecK   Allow  14 

j  days  lor  delivery.  2  to  7  days  (or  ptione  orders.  1  day  express  mail' 

j  Canada  orders  rriust  be  in  US  .dollars  We  accepi  Visa  and  Master 

(  Card     We  sfiip  C.O.D. 


BOX  550,  BARRINGTON,  ILLINOIS  60010 
Phone  312/382-5244  to  order 


assigning  a  value  to  the  variable  SFEET. 

You  read  such  lines  from  left  to  right  to  un- 
derstand their  meaning.  To  put  line  180  into 
words:  The  current  amount  in  (the  number  "held 
by")  the  variable  SFEET  is  now  added  to  the  cur- 
rent amount  in  the  variable  LATEST.  And  then 
this  total  is  placed  into  the  variable  SFEET  (SFEET 
is  a  running  total).  In  other  words,  SFEET  is  being 
changed  in  this  line.  Before  line  180  executes,  the 
SFEET  on  the  right  holds  the  number  resulting 
from  the  previous  execution  of  line  180.  And  after 
the  line  executes,  the  SFEET  on  the  left  is  going  to 
hold  a  larger  number  than  it  did  before.  The  same 
thing  happens  to  the  variable  PRICE  in  line  290. 

Lines  200-230  are  pretty  straightforward. 
Here,  we're  just  gathering  our  last  two  pieces  of 
information:  coverage  and  cost.  Line  240  isn't 
necessary;  it  just  clears  the  screen  so  we  can  print 
out  the  answers  on  a  clean  screen. 

Since  SFEET  has  been  keeping  a  running 
total  of  scjuare  feet  for  us,  we  can  just  print  SFEET 
in  line  250  without  any  further  calculations.  Line 
260  calculates  the  total  number  of  cans  of  paint 
you'll  need  to  buy.  It  divides  the  total  number  of 
square  feet  to  be  painted  by  how  many  square 
feet  each  can  of  paint  covers.  Then  line  270  reports 
these  results. 

The  total  cost  is  figured  in  line  290  bv  multi- 
plying the  price  of  each  can  by  the  number  of 
cans  needed.  This  line  also  figures  in  the  tax  (6 
percent  in  this  example)  by  multiplying  the  result 
of  the  mathematics  within  the  parentheses  by 
1.06.  If  your  state  charges  4  percent,  just  change 
it  to  1.04. 

It's  important  to  remember  that  when  you 
are  performing  two  or  more  mathematical  opera- 
tions, sometimes  one  operation  must  be  per- 
formed before  another.  When  you  put  something 
inside  parentheses,  it  will  be  worked  on  first.  We 
want  the  whole  result  multiplied  by  1.06,  not  just 
AMOUNT.  So,  we  put  AMOUNT'^PRICE  within 
parentheses  and  that  gets  figured  out  before  the 
1.06  is  even  looked  at. 

Stripping  With  INT 

Finally,  line  300  rounds  off  the  PRICE  to  dollars 
and  cents.  It's  possible  to  get  results  like 
$12.080993  if  you  leave  out  the  rounding  off  func- 
tions in  this  line.  How  does  this  work?  Imagine 
that  the  computer  gets  a  final  result  of  $12.080993 
for  PRICE.  First  it's  multiplied  by  100  since  that's 
inside  the  parentheses  and  since  multiplication  is 
performed  before  addition.  (When  parentheses 
aren't  involved,  the  order  in  which  things  are 
performed  is  My  Dear  Aunt  Sally — multiplication, 
division,  addition,  subtraction.) 

Anyway,  after  *100,  our  12.080993  becomes 
1208.0993.  Next,  .5  is  added,  which  makes  it 
1208.5993.  Then  the  INT  takes  effect  and  INT 


doesn't  really  round  anything  off,  it  just  strips 
away  the  decimal.  That  is,  INT  (5.9999)  would 
result  in  5.  To  make  it  round  accurately,  we  have 
to  add  .5  to  a  number  before  INTing  it.  In  this 
way,  if  the  fraction  part  of  a  number  were  .5  or 
higher,  when  we  add  .5  we  effectively  add  1  to 
the  integer  part  of  the  number.  5. 9999 +  .5  becomes 
6.4999  and  when  that's  stripped  with  INT,  it's  6, 
the  accurately  rounded  result. 

So  INT  (1208.5993)  becomes  1208.  Finally,  we 
move  the  decimal  point  back  over  two  places  by 
/lOO  for  our  final  answer:  $12.08. 

This  estimating  program  will  provide  answers 
for  various  types  of  home  improvements.  And  it 
can  be  extended  to  ask  more  questions  and  give 
more  answers.  One  of  the  most  powerful  aspects 
of  computers  is  the  ease  with  which  you  can  mod- 
ify a  program  like  this  to  make  it  solve  all  kinds  of 
other  problems  for  you.  For  example,  why  not  try 
modifying  line  250  to  also  give  you  the  results  in 
square  meters?  (1  meter  =  3. 281  feet.) 


Home  Improvements 

10  PRINT "WHAT  DO  YOU  NEED  TO  BUY?  (CANS  0 

F  PAINT,  ROOFING  TILES,  ETC.)" 
20  INPUT  ITEM$ 
30  PRINT "WE  NEED  TO  MEASURE  THE  AREA  YOU' 

RE  GOING  TO  COVER. " 
40  PRINT "THE  EASIEST  WAY  IS  TO  DIVIDE  THE 

AREA  INTO  RECTANGLES." 
50  PRINT "FOR  EXAMPLE,  TO  PAINT  THE  BEDROO 

M,  YOU'LL  HAVE  5  RECTANGLES;" 
60  PRINT  "THE  FOUR  VJALLS  AND  THE  CEILING." 
70  PRINT "SO,  FIRST,  HOVJ  MANY  RECTANGLES  A 

RE  INVOLVED  IN  THIS  JOB" 
80  INPUT  RECTS 
90  PRINT  "NOW,  FOR  EACH  RECTANGLE,  ENTER  I 

TS  LENGTH  AND  WIDTH:" 
100  FOR  I  =  1  TO  RECTS 
110  PRINT" E 14  SPACES} RECTANGLE  #";I 
120  PRINT "LENGTH" 
130  INPUT  L 
140  IF  L  =  0  THEN  180 
150  PRINT  "WIDTH" 
160  INPUT  W 
170  LATEST  =  L  *  W 
180  SFEET  =  SFEET  +  LATEST 
190  NEXT  I 
200  PRINT "HOW  MANY  SQUARE  FEET  DOES  EACH 

{SPACElOF  THESE  ";ITEM$r"  COVER" 
210  INPUT  COVERAGE 
220  PRINT "HOW  MUCH  DOES  EACH  OF  THESE  ";I 

TEM?r "  COST" 
230  INPUT  PRICE 

240  PRINT" [CLR}": REM  CLEAR  THE  SCREEN 
250  PRINT "YOU  ARE  GOING  TO  BE  COVERING  "; 

SFEET;"  SQUARE  FEET  OF  AREA" 
260  AMOUNT  =  SFEET /COVERAGE 
270  PRINT"YOU  WILL  NEED  "?  AMOUNT;  ITEM$ 
280  PRINT"TOTAL  COST  (INCLUDING  TAX) —  ?" 

290  PRICE  ={2  SPACES}1.06  *  (AMOUNT  *  PRI 

CE  ) 
300  PRINT  INT  (PRICE  *  100+.5)/100       © 


120    COMPUTE!     Januarv1984 


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Computers  And  Society 


David  D  Thornburg,  Associate  Editor 


Computers  And  The  Arts 


From  time  to  time  I  have  used  the  space  of  this 
column  to  explore  the  use  of  computer  technology 
in  the  fine  arts.  Because  of  continuing  activity  in 
this  area,  I  want  to  address  this  issue  again. 

As  I  look  back  on  1983,  1  feel  that  one  of  the 
more  significant  developments  in  the  use  of  per- 
sonal computers  has  been  in  the  application  of 
computers  as  tools  for  personal  expression. 
Whether  this  expression  is  through  writing  (for 
which  word  processors  are  most  valuable)  or  in 
the  visual  or  auditory  arts,  many  thousands  of 
computer  users  are  finding  that  this  technology  is 
a  powerful  tool  with  which  to  unleash  creative 
energies. 

On  the  surface,  it  may  seem  strange  to  think 
of  an  analytical  tool  such  as  the  computer  as  a 
medium  by  which  creative  energies  can  be  un- 
leashed, but  the  reasons  that  computers  can  (and 
should)  be  used  in  this  fashion  are  quite  clear. 

Much  of  the  effort  involved  in  the  expression 
of  creative  ideas  requires  tedious  work  that  is  not 
directly  related  to  the  creative  task.  The  unpleasant 
job  of  transcription,  for  example,  can  interfere 
with  creative  writing. 

And  yet  the  computer  brings  something  else 
to  the  creative  act.  Rather  than  being  just  a  tool 
through  which  creativity  can  be  expressed,  the 
computer  can  be  the  creative  medium  itself.  In 
this  fashion  the  computer  serves  as  far  more  than 
a  simple  transcription  tool  and  is  transformed 
into  a  tool  with  which  totally  new  ideas  can  be 
developed  and  expressed. 

Genesis  11 

A  new  book.  Genesis  I!,  by  Dale  Peterson,  deals 
with  this  very  topic.  Peterson  acknowledges  that 
a  literal  comparison  between  his  book  and  the 
biblical  account  of  the  origins  of  the  world  is  inap- 
propriate. He  says  instead  that  while  the  original 
Genesis  tells  of  a  universal  creation,  his  book  deals 
with  the  creative  possibilities  of  a  tool  which  also 
might  have  universal  applications.  The  subtitle  of 
his  book.  Creation  and  Recreation  ivith  Computers,  is 

122    COMPUTE!     JanuorylPS^ 


an  accurate  assessment  of  its  content.  The  book  is 
divided  into  four  major  sections  involving  creation 
in:  light,  sound,  symbol,  and  recreation. 

I  have  met  people  who  feel  that  it  is  inap- 
propriate for  an  artist  to  use  high  technology.  As 
Peterson  points  out,  however,  artists  have  always 
depended  on  technological  advances — easels,  oil- 
based  paints,  lithography,  or,  in  music,  the  highly 
technical  pipe  organ.  His  point  is  that  the  com- 
puter is  not  going  to  replace  other  tools  in  the 
artist's  kit,  but  will  simply  be  a  new  tool  with 
which  to  explore  and  develop  ideas. 

There  has  always  been  a  distinction  between 
"machines"  and  "art";  machines  are  designed  to 
do,  and  art  is  designed  to  be.  As  he  says,  "...  art's 
purposes  are  distant,  often- obscure,  often  psycho- 
logical or  spiritual.  Whereas  a  machine's  purposes 
are  immediate,  obvious,  direct,  and  physical." 

With  this  starting  point,  Peterson  traces  the 
development  of  the  use  of  the  computer  in  the 
fine  arts  from  its  beginnings  to  the  present  time. 
In  computer  graphics,  for  example,  he  starts  with 
the  Whirlwind  computer  at  MIT  in  the  1950s,  and 
traces  the  work  of  Whitney  and  others  who  have 
explored  the  computer  as  a  medium  of  visual 
expression. 

He  identifies  some  characteristics  of  the  com- 
puter that  make  it  sufficiently  different  from  other 
media  to  warrant  its  use  by  artists.  Specifically, 
he  observes  that  precision,  iteration,  transforma- 
tion, and  serendipity  are  four  characteristics  of 
computer  assisted  artistic  expression  that  are 
unique  to  this  medium.  The  computer's  ability  to 
drive  a  pen  plotter  with  extraordinary  precision  is 
well-known,  and  the  use  of  programming  loops  for 
repeating  picture  elements  is  also  of  great  utility. 

Also,  the  fact  that  a  computer  can  calculate 
"in  between"  images  that  allow  one  to  see  a 
transformation,  for  example,  of  a  butterfly  into  an 
ice  cream  cone,  is  of  obvious  value  to  an  artist. 
But  the  most  exciting  aspect  of  computer  assisted 
art  is  that  it  offers  many  chances  for  serendipitous 
events  to  occur.  Because  computers  allow  more 


Looks  like  a  Fterrari. 
Drives  like  a  Rolls. 
Parks  like  a  Beetle. 


Ask  your  computer  dealer 

to  take  the  cover  off  a  world-class  disk  drive. 

Theall  new,  1984  IndusGT.™ 

The  most  advanced,  most  handsome  disk 
drive  in  the  world. 

A  flick  of  its  power  switch  can  turn  an  Atari 
into  a  Ferrari. 

Or  an  Apple  into  a  Red  Hot  Apple. 

Looks  like  a  Ferrari. 

The  Indus  CT  is  only  2.65"  high.  But  under  its 
front-loading  front  end  is  slimline  engineering 
with  a  distinctive  European-Gran  flair. 

Touch  its  LED-litCommandPost™  function 
control  AccuTouch™  buttons.  Marvel  at  how 
responsive  it  makes  every  Atari  or  Apple  home 
computer. 

Drives  like  a  Rolls. 

Nestled  into  its  soundproofed  chassis  is  the 
quietest  and  most  powerful  disk  drive  power  sys- 
tem money  can  buy  At  top  speed,  ifs  virtually 
unbearable.  Whisper  quiet. 

Flat  out,  the  GT  will  drive  your  Atari  track-to- 
track  0-39  in  less  than  one  second.  Increasing 
data  transfer  4007c .  (Faster  than  any  other  drive. 
And  as  fast  as  any  Apple  disk  drive.) 


And  each  GT  comes  with  the  exclusive 
CT  DrivingSystem™  of  sofKvare  programs.* 
World-class  word  processing  is  a  breeze  with 
the  CT  Estale  WordProcessor^'"  And  your  dealer 
will  describe  the  two  additional  programs  that 
allow  GT  owners  to  accelerate  their  computer 

drivinR  skills.  '''^^  lu(k'cla''Sl.in(l,ircii'f|Lii|>rn(-'nL 

Also,  the  1984  Indus  GT  is  covered  with  the 
CT  PortaCaseJ'^  A  styl  ish  case  that  conveniently 
doubles  as  a  80-disk  storage  file. 

Parks  like  a  Beetle. 

The  GT's  small,  sleek,  condensed  size  makes  it 
easy  to  park. 

And  its  low  price  makes  it  easy  to  buy 

$449  for  Atari.  $329  for  Apple. 

So  see  and  test  drive  the  incredible  new  1 984 
Indus  GT  at  your  nearest 
computer  dealer  soon. 

The  drive  will  be 
well  worth  it. 


The  aU-new  1984  Indus  GT  Disk  Drive. 

77>e  most  advanced,  most  handsome  disk  drive  in  the  world. 


For  deafer  informalion .  cj  II  1  -800-3  3-IN  DUS.  In  Ca  lifomia.  1-800-54-1 N  DU5 ,  2 1 3/882-9600. 

©  1983  Indus  Syslcms.  9304  Deering  Avenue,  Ch.ilsworth,  CA  91311.  The  InduiCT  is  a  prcxiuci  of  Indus  Systems.  Atari  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Atari.  Inc.  Apple 

registered  trademark  of  Apple  Computer.  Inc. 


experimentation  than  most  media,  the  artist  can 
remain  open  to  some  exchange  between  mastery 
of  technique  and  accident.  Often  this  leads  to 
unexpected  results  that  the  artist  finds  quite 
fascinating. 

Sound  And  Symbol 

In  his  section  on  creation  with  sound,  Peterson 
quotes  the  brilliant  composer  Edgar  Varese,  who 
in  1917  wrote:  "I  dream  of  instruments  obedient 
to  thought — and  which,  supported  by  a  flowering 
of  undreamed-of  timbres — will  lend  themselves 
to  any  combination  I  choose  to  impose  and  will 
submit  to  the  exigencies  of  my  inner  rhythm." 

Varese  anticipated  the  type  of  freedom  and 
power  that  modern  day  musicians  have  when  a 
computer  is  used  to  help  in  the  creation  and/or 
performance  of  a  musical  score.  By  presenhng  a 
good  background  on  the  nature  of  computer- 
synthesized  music,  Dale  Peterson  gives  the  reader 
a  basis  for  a  deeper  appreciation  of  the  new  musi- 
cal ideas  that  are  being  developed  with  the  aid  of 
the  computer. 

Creation  with  symbol  implies  (more  or  less) 
creation  with  the  written  word.  While  not  spending 
much  time  on  topics  as  obvious  as  the  use  of  word 
processors,  Peterson  instead  focuses  on  the  use 
of  computers  to  create  "computer  generated" 


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124    COMPUTE!    January  1984 


poetry  and  prose.  It  is  fascinating  to  see  and  read 
some  of  the  results  in  this  area,  and  it  is  important 
to  understand  that  when  a  computer  generates 
poetry,  it  does  so  because  the  human  poet  pro- 
grammed it  to  do  so.  Nonetheless,  the  results  of 
these  programs  are  somewhat  unpredictable  and 
some  of  them  are  even  very  interesting. 

The  work  of  Scott  Kim,  author  of  the  beautiful 
book  Inversions  (Byte/McGraw-Hill),  is  also  pre- 
sented in  this  chapter.  Scott  is  a  calligrapher  who 
delights  in  writing  words  in  such  a  stylized  man- 
ner that  they  read  the  same  way  when  turned 
upside  down,  or  when  viewed  in  a  mirror.  His 
creation  of  word-specific  alphabets  that  allow 
words  to  be  written  this  way  is  aided  by  computer 
technology.  Peterson  acknowledges  that  Kim's 
work  might  also  fit  well  in  his  section  on  graphics, 
and  herein  lies  an  important  message. 

The  computer  artist  is  not  that  easy  to 
categorize.  Rather  than  being  limited  to  visual 
expression,  for  example,  the  artist  has  all  the  ex- 
pressive capabilities  of  the  computer  at  his  or  her 
disposal.  The  use  of  graphics  (and  animation) 
and  sound,  and  text,  can  all  appear  in  a  new  syn- 
thesis of  art  that  defies  categorization. 

It  is  this  combination  that  1  think  really  shows 
the  power  of  the  computer  as  a  creative  tool.  This 
is  certainly  true  in  some  modern  computer-based 
games,  and  is  touched  on  in  the  section  on  "crea- 
tion in  recreation." 

Creative  Possibilities 

The  computer  as  a  game  tool  dates  back  to  the 
early  days  of  computing.  1  was  delighted  to  read, 
for  example,  that  Charles  Babbage  (who  proposed 
the  development  of  the  Analytical  Engine,  a 
mechanical  computer  designed  in  the  1800s) 
suggested  that  the  machine  be  programmed  to 
play  "tit  tat  to"  and  be  set  up  to  operate  by  having 
the  player  insert  coins  for  each  game.  The  concept 
of  the  coin-operated  computer  game  predates  the 
actual  appearance  of  such  games  by  over  100  years. 

As  a  beautifully  written  book  on  a  fascinating 
topic.  Genesis  U  deserves  a  wide  audience.  By 
providing  a  brief  history  of  the  use  of  computers 
in  the  fine  arts,  it  can  serve  as  a  springboard  to 
future  work  in  this  area. 

While  Genesis  II  focuses  on  the  pioneers  who 
used  large  computer  systems  to  do  their  work,  I 
continue  to  be  excited  by  the  prospect  that  signifi- 
cant contributions  to  the  use  of  computers  in  the 
arts  will  come  from  those  of  us  who  use  personal 
computers.  The  fact  that  these  machines  are  so 
widely  accessible  guarantees  that  they  can  be 
used  by  artists  who  would  otherwise  not  have 
access  to  computer  technology. 

Next  month  we  will  explore  two  ways  that 
the  personal  computer  can  be  your  tool  for  creative 
exploration.  © 


CodeWrf^ 


Jeff  and  Marilyn  Mitchell 
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themselves.  CodeWriter  wrote 
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P    Their  new  home  business  needs 
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^ :■    Which  fantasies  are  still  open? 

What's  our  next  completion  date?  Can  we  get  a  list  of 
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and  our  first  program —  - 
and  we  reolly  did  it 
ourselves!"         - 


In  minutes  you've  got  YOUR  OWN  PROGRAM  on 
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(»  1B0  STORES  NATIO^JWJOE 


Questions  Beginners  AsIc 


Tom  R  Holfhill,  Features  Editor 


Are  you  thinking  about  buying  a  computer  for  the  first 
time,  but  don't  know  much  about  computers?  Or  maybe 
you  just  purcliased  a  computer  and  are  still  a  bit  baffled. 
Each  month  in  tliis  cohnnn,  COMPUTE!  xvill  answer 
some  questions  commonly  asked  by  beginners. 


keypad  sometime  to  see  this  effect).  Calculator  ami  com- 
puter manufacturers  foUowed  the  adding  machine  stami- 
ard,  their  products  being  chtsely  related  in  use  to  adding 
nuichines.  Thus  we  have  two  keypad  standards. 

Rod  Smith 


Note  to  readers:  In  the  September  1983  "Questions 
Beginners  Ask,"  I  answered  a  question  about 
why  some  computers  have  numeric  keypads 
while  others  don't.  I  also  noted  that  computer 
and  calculator  keypads  are  arranged  exactly  the 
opposite  of  Touch-Tone  telephone  keypads:  Com- 
puters and  calculators  arrange  the  keys  in  de- 
scending numerical  order,  starting  at  the  upper 
right  and  ending  at  the  lower  left,  while  telephone 
keys  are  just  the  reverse.  I  invited  any  readers 
who  knew  why  to  share  the  information. 

Over  the  last  couple  of  months  I've  received 
several  answers — some  of  them  contradictory. 
Interestingly,  people  seem  to  be  divided  into  two 
camps  on  the  subject.  Therefore,  in  this  month's 
column,  I'll  let  the  readers  provide  the  answers. 
Here  are  samples: 


Keypads  on  telephones  and  calculators,  computers,  etc., 
differ  because  an  experienced  bookkeeper  andlor  keypad 
operator  would  drive  the  telephone  company  "straight 
up  the  wall" — the  new>  equipment  of  today  might  liandle 
the  speed,  but  equipment  prior  to  (?)  1981  just  wouldn't 
-work — so  loe  skrwed  them  dozon  by  reversing  the 
numbers. 

Harry  Allston 
Old  Tclephoneman  (27  yrs.) 


ttere  in  llliiwis,  our  pho}U'  compa)!y  includes  a  nwnthhj 
newslellcr  with  each  bill,  entitled  "Telebriefs."  It  just 
so  happens  that  the  August  issue  has  a  feature  on  the 
difference,  entitled  "It  Adds  Up:  Touch-Tone  Buttons 
Are  'Letter-Perfect'."  The  article  goes  on  to  explain 
that  people  still  question  the  difference  19  years  after 
the  introduction  of  Touch-Tone  sewice.  They  explain 
that  despite  the  ideas  of  many  people,  having  identical 
keypads  would  not  reduce  wrong  numbers. 

The  arrangement  of  Touch-Tone  pads  alloios  for 
the  alphabet  to  be  in  proper  order  from  top  to  bottom. 
Also,  the  arrangonent  was  decided  upon  by  the  engi- 
neers at  Bell  Labs  only  after  careful  consideration  and 
experimentation.  Sixteen  different  arrangements  were 
tested.  The  results  showed  that  even  bookkeepers  who 
constantly  use  calculators  could  "dial"  calls  faster  with 
the  present  Touch-Tone  keypads. 

Interestingly,  ITT  [International  Telephone  & 
Telegraph]  is  introducing  a  new  style  of  phone  which 
has  a  linear  keypad — a  si)igle  row  from  left  to  right! 

Robert  M.  Barn 


I  think  the  enclosed  article  from  a  monthly  publication 
of  Illinois  Bel!  Telephone  Company  will  at  least  explain 
the  telephone  company's  logic  in  using  their  current 
configuration  on  Touch-Tone  phones . 

William  R.  Kunkel 


When  pusli-butlon  phones  were  first  available,  the  dif- 
ference hetioeen  calculator  keyboards  and  telephone 
push  buttons  was  commented  on  in  several  places.  The 
explanation  then  urns  that  a  skilled  calculator  operator 
could  enter  numbers  faster  than  tlw  telephone  equipment 
could  respond.  I  can't  quote  a  source. 

Bob  Strickland 


When  pusli-button  telephones  came  out,  the  keypad 
was  arranged  differently  because  the  letters  which  share 
keys  with  the  numbers  loould  be  arranged  in  a  confusing 
pattern  if  the  adding  machine  standard  had  been  followed 
(try  imagining  the  telephone  letters  on  a  calculator 

126     COMPUTI!     JonuOrv1984 


Since  two  readers  cited  the  article  in  Illinois 
Bell's  "Telebriefs,"  I'll  quote  from  it  briefly:  "If 
Touch-Tone  dials  followed  the  same  pattern  as 
the  face  of  a  calculator,  the  telephone  alphabet 
would  begin  with  'PRS'  and  end  with  'DEF' — not 
an  ideal  arrangement  for  most  people.  There's 
another  reason... engineers  at  Bell  Laboratories 
tested  16  different  button  arrangements.  The  re- 
sult? Even  bookkeepers,  for  whom  calculators  are 
everyday  tools  of  the  trade,  found  they  could  dial 
calls  faster  and  more  accurately  with  the  buttons 
arranged  as  they  are  now." 

So  there  you  have  it — two  exactly  opposite 


PractiCalc  20"  t  and  PractiCalc  Plus"  t : 

Complete  electronic  spreadsheets  that 
turn  the  Commodore  VIC-20  into  a  busi- 
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Rabbit  Base""  t :  A  data-file  manager  for  the 
Commodore  VIC-20  witti  simple  screen 
instructions  for  efficient  use.  ($29.95  T) 
Inventory  64":  A  smart  inventory-tracking 
system  for  the  Commodore  64  that  handles 
650  parts.  ($39.95  D) 

C-64  Analyst:  A  diagnostic  program  which 
tests  the  Commodore  64  and  its  periph- 
erals to  detect  hardware  defects.  An 
invaluable  tool  for  C-64  users!  (SI  9.95  D) 


t  SK  RAM  required  -  t16K  RAM  required 

•  Price  given  for  tape  version.  Disk  version  slightly  higher 

T  Available  on  tape  -  D  Available  on  disk 

Prices  shown  are  manulacturer's  retail  pnces. 


Total  Health";  For  fitness  and  health 
enthusiasts,  a  program  which  monitors  and 
encourages  proper  nutrition.  (For  the 
Commodore  VIC-20;  $24.95  T  and  C-64 
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AND  LEARN  FROM... 

Math  Duel"":  A  math  program  for  ages  5-1 2 
that  combines  classroom  learning  with 
gameroom  fun!  Available  for  the 
Commodore  VIC-20.  ($19.95  T) 

Sprintyper":  A  typing  tutorial  for  the 
Commodore  VIC-20  that  encourages 
speed  and  accuracy  in  both  the  novice 
and  experienced  typist.  ($19.95  T) 
Tiny  Tutor":  A  pre-schooler  program  with 
fun  graphics  and  sound  to  teach  simple 
math.  ($19.95  T) 

Composer":  A  simple  music  composition 
program  for  the  Commodore  VIC-20  that 
teaches  musical  notation  and  allows 
'melodies'  to  be  saved  to  tape  for  later 
recall.  ($19.95  T) 

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Are  you  ready  for  the  challenge?  (For  the 
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Barrel  Jumper"  f:  For  the  Commodore 
VIC-20,  this  game  confronts  you  with  a 
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barrels  at  you.  Step  lively!  ($19.95  T) 

See  your  local  dealer  for  CS  A  programs  or 
order  directly  by  calling  toll-free: 

1-800-343-1078 

For  more  information  about  these  and 
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Programmers  with  programs  to  market  are 
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explanations  as  to  why  computer  and  telephone 
keypads  are  exactly  opposite.  One  camp  contends 
the  phone  company  tried  to  slow  down  keypad 
typists,  while  the  other  side  (including  a  phone 
company  itself)  claims  that  alphabetic  order  was 
the  deciding  factor,  and  that  keypad  typists  aren't 
slowed  down  at  all. 

Who  to  believe?  It's  conceivable  that  both 
sides  are  right.  Maybe  the  original  push-button 
equipment  really  couldn't  handle  fast  entry  by 
bookkeepers,  but  todav  the  phone  company 
doesn't  want  to  admit  that  it  based  its  decision  on 
obsolete  equipment.  Or,  maybe  Bell  really  did 
object  to  a  backward  alphabet — although  the  let- 
ters are  rarely  used  when  dialing  phone  calls. 

In  any  case,  is  it  really  true,  as  Illinois  Bell 
says,  that  even  bookkeepers  can  dial  calls  "faster 
and  more  accurately"  with  telephone-style  pads? 
Personally,  I  have  trouble  switching  back  and 
forth  between  the  subtle  differences  of  Atari  and 
Commodore  computer  keyboards.  On  the  other 
hand,  I've  heard  that  many  experienced  touch- 
typists  have  no  problems  adapting  to  the  radical 
changes  of  Dvorak  typewriter  keyboards. 

Anyway,  pretty  soon  the  whole  question  will 
become  moot  when  machines  are  no  longer  mute. 
If  voice-synthesis  and  voice-recognition  tech- 
nology keeps  advancing,  someday  we  might  do 
away  with  keyboards  and  keypads  altogether.    © 


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Information 


(707)  422-9591 


1 


Mail  Orders  to:  Morbius  SoHwore  Co.,  Inc. 
Dept.  CP,    P.O.  Box  1702 
VacoviUe.  CA  95696 


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Price  $95.00  plus  $4.00  shipping  and  handling.  Calif,  residents 

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System  Requiremenls:  Alan  400/800  with  48K  &  one  disk  drive; 

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ATAHI  *OOIBOO  a  a  tradanuirli  ol  Atin,  be 

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FRIENDS  OF  THE 


\y 


David  D.  Thornburg,  Associate  Editor 


The  Demons  Of  Atari  Logo 


It  is  amazing,  when  one  tliinks  about  it,  that  within 
a  very  short  time  Logo  has  gone  from  a  university- 
based  research  language  to  one  of  the  most  af- 
fordable and  powerful  programming  languages 
ever  to  appear  on  personal  computers. 

What  is  even  more  exciting  are  the  evidences 
of  dynamic  growth  and  development  in  Logo  as 
■  new  versions  appear  in  the  marketplace.  Among 
the  most  powerful  implementations  of  Logo  ever 
to  appear  on  an  eight-bit  computer  is  Atari  Logo, 
developed  by  Atari  and  LCSI.  In  addition  to 
having  all  the  list-processing  capability  and  turtle 
graphics  that  Logo  is  known  for.  Atari  Logo  also 
supports  mulhple  turtles  (four)  and  animation. 
From  a  graphics  perspective,  the  excellence  of  this 
version  derives  from  the  fact  that  (using  graphics 
mode  7)  Atari  computers  can  display  any  of  128 
combinations  of  hue  and  luminance.  Even  with 
only  four  colors  on  the  screen  at  a  time,  this  abihty 
to  choose  and  change  colors,  even  after  they  have 
been  painted  on  the  screen,  gives  the  computer 
artist  a  flexibility  and  freedom  lacking  in  other 
systems. 

The  WHEN  Demon 

But,  when  I  was  writing  my  book  on  Atari  Logo 
{Computer  Art  and  Animation — A  User's  Guide  to 
Atari  Logo,  Addison-Wesley,  Spring,  1984),  the 
feature  that  struck  me  as  being  most  powerful 
was  the  WHEN  demon. 

A  WHEN  demon  is  a  special  Logo  object  that 
continuously  monitors  the  computer,  waiting  for 
any  of  21  special  events  to  occur.  Whenever  one 
of  these  events  takes  place,  the  "demon"  as- 
sociated with  that  event  executes  its  own  set  of 
Logo  instructions  no  matter  what  other  instruc- 

130    COMPUTi!    Januaiy19e4 


tions  or  procedures  are  being  used  at  the  time. 
When  these  demon  instructions  or  procedures 
are  finished  (and  the  WHEN  condition  is  no  longer 
satisfied),  Logo  goes  back  to  whatever  it  was  doing 
before  the  demon  procedures  were  used.  The 
best  way  to  understand  the  power  and  utility  of 
the  WHEN  demon  is  to  see  it  in  use. 

A  common  starting  point  for  experimenting 
with  animahon  is  to  create  a  sequence  that  shows  a 
bouncing  ball.  By  using  a  WHEN  demon,  vou  can 
easily  write  a  procedure  that  has  a  ball  bounce  from 
walls  near  the  bottom  and  top  of  the  screen  and 
have  the  ball  look  "squashed"  as  it  hits  the  wails. 

First,  we  need  two  ball  shapes — one  for  a 
round  ball  and  one  for  a  squashed  ball.  These 
shapes  can  be  defined  in  Atari  Logo  as  two  of  the 
15  user-definable  shapes  available  at  any  one  time. 
We  will  assign  shape  1  to  the  round  ball  and  shape 
2  to  the  squashed  one.  The  easiest  way  to  create 
shapes  in  Atari  Logo  is  with  the  EDSH  command 
that  gives  vou  access  to  the  graphic  shape  editor. 
By  moving  the  cursor  to  the  appropriate  places  on 
the  screen  and  pressing  the  space  bar,  you  can 
build  any  shape  you  want  in  the  available  grid. 


Turtle  Collisions 

Next,  enter  the  following  procedure: 


TO  BOUNCE 

CS 

WHEN  0  [SETSH  2  WAIT  5  SETSP 

lOSETSHll 
PU  HT  SETPOS  I  - 100  1001  PD 
SETH  90  FD  200 
PU  SETPOS  [  - 100  -  601  PD 
FD  200 

PU  SETH  0  SETPOS  10  0) 
SETSH  1  ST 
SETSP -30 
END 


-SPEED  WAIT 


Before  using  this  procedure  we  will  explain 
how  it  works.  The  first  line  that  might  appear 
cryptic  is: 


WHEN  0  [SETSH  2  WAIT  5  SETSP 
10  SETSH  1] 


SPEED  WAIT 


The  WHEN  command  is  followed  by  a  number 
and  a  list  of  instructions.  The  number  refers  to  a 
condition  (shown  in  the  table).  Whenever  this 
condition  is  satisfied,  the  list  of  instructions  is 
executed.  As  you  can  see  from  the  table,  condition 
0  will  occur  whenever  turtle  0  collides  with  a  line 
drawn  by  pen  0.  So,  whenever  our  default  turtle 
touches  a  line  drawn  with  the  default  pen,  the 
WHEN  demon  will  execute  the  list  of  commands 
shown,  no  matter  what  other  commands  or  pro- 
cedures Logo  may  be  executing  at  the  time.  The 
commands  we  have  chosen  replace  the  round  ball 
with  the  squashed  one  for  a  short  time,  and  then 
reverse  the  direction  of  the  turtle  motion  by 
changing  its  speed  (given  by  the  Logo  function 
SPEED)  to  its  negative  value. 

WHEN  demons  must  be  created  while  the 
computer  is  in  either  the  split  screen  or  full  screen 
mode.  Once  a  demon  is  created  it  remains  active 
until  you  return  it  to  its  inactive  state  or  clear  the 
screen  with  the  CS  command.  To  return  a  demon 
to  an  inactive  state  you  just  enter,  for  example, 

WHEN  0  I  ] 

Automatic  Bounce 

The  next  six  lines  of  the  BOUNCE  procedure  draw 
horizontal  border  lines  at  the  top  and  bottom  of 
the  screen  with  pen  0  and  place  turtle  0  (with  the 
round  ball  shape)  in  the  center  of  the  screen. 


WHEN  Demon  Condition  Table        S 

Condition                                                                              ^^| 

Number 

Detects  When                                            ^" 

0 

turtle  0  touches  a  line  drawn  with  pen  0 

1 

turtle  0  touches  a  line  drawn  with  pen  1 

2 

turtle  0  touches  a  line  drawn  with  pen  2 

;         3 

button  on  joystick  is  pressed 

'           4 

turtle  1  touches  a  line  drawn  with  pen  0 

5 

turtle  1  touches  a  line  drawn  with  pen  1 

6 

turtle  1  touches  a  line  drawn  with  pen  2 

7 

each  second  has  elapsed 

8 

turtle  2  touches  a  line  drawn  with  penO 

9 

turtle  2  touches  a  line  drawn  with  pen  1 

10 

turtle  2  touches  a  line  drawn  with  pen  2 

11 

not  used 

12 

turtle  3  touches  a  line  drawn  with  pen  0 

13 

turtle  3  touches  a  line  drawn  with  pen  1 

14 

turtle  3  touches  a  line  drawn  with  pen  2 

15 

joystick  position  is  changed 

16 

turtle  3  touches  turtle  0 

17 

turtle  3  touches  turtle  1 

18 

turtle  3  touches  turtle  2 

19 

turtle  0  touches  turtle  1 

20 

turtle  0  touches  turtle  2 

21 

turtle  1  touches  turtle  2 

The  command 
SETSP  -30 

starts  the  ball  moving  down  towards  the  bottom 
line.  When  the  ball  reaches  the  bottom,  it  takes 
on  the  squashed  appearance  and  starts  back  up 
the  screen. 


The  squashed  ball  quickly  restores  itself  to  its 
round  shape  as  it  moves  up.' 


When  the  ball  hits  the  top  line,  it  gets 
squashed  again  and  starts  back  down  to  repeat 
the  process  forever. 

Januarv1984    COMPUTi!    131 


To  see  how  automatic  the  process  is,  press  the 
BREAK  key  to  stop  the  procedure.  It  will  keep  on 
going  by  itself  until  you  type  something  like  CS. 

WHEN  demons  allow  you  to  do  all  sorts  of 
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or  with  each  other,  and  can  form  the  heart  of  many 
spectacular  animation  projects. 

The  experience  of  writing  procedures  that 
use  this  powerful  feature  is  one  of  the  more  re- 
warding benefits  of  using  Atari  Logo.  © 


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Louis  F.  Sander 


EXBASIC  LEVEL  II  is  a  plug-in 
cartridge  that  adds  to  the  built-in 
capabilities  of  PET,  CBM,  VIC- 
20,  and  Commodore  64  com- 
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plug-in  ROMs  rather  than  a  car- 
tridge. In  all,  EXBASIC  LEVEL  11 
adds  over  80  new  commands, 
statements,  and  functions  to  the 
computer's  built-in  BASIC.  The 
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LEVEL  11  BASIC,  and  many  TRS- 
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The  table  lists  the  new  com- 
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vides, along  with  a  brief  expla- 
nation of  each.  They  are  of  three 
distinct  types — programmer's 
aids,  improvements  to  existing 
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commands. 

The  programmer's  aids  are 
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serious  programmer. 

Nevertheless,  the  additions 
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them,  and  most  of  them  you 
probablv  wish  you  had  alreadv- 
PRINT  USING  and  PRINT®  are 
good  examples  of  these,  as  are 

134    COMPUH!    Januarv1<?84 


EXBASIC  LEVEL  II  Commands— Alphabetical  List 

AUTO 

Automatically  renumbers  program  lines 

BASIC 

Disables  EXBASIC 

BEEP 

Does  a  timed  CB2  beep 

BEEP  OFF 

Disables  BEEP 

CALL 

Like  USR,  but  with  named  calls,  multiple 

parameter  passing 

DEC 

Converts  hex  to  decimal 

DEEK 

Double-byte  PEEK 

DEE CALL 

Sets  C.A.LL  vector 

DEFUSR 

Sets  USR  vector 

DEL 

Deletes  a  range  of  line  numbers 

DISPOSE 

Allows  graceful  exit  from  GOSUB  or 

FOR-NEXTloop 

DOKE 

Double-byte  POKE 

DOS  Support 

DOS  support,  or  "wedge,"  commands 

are  included 

DUMP 

Lists  values  of  all  variables  (for  arrays. 

see  MATRIX)' 

ELSE 

See  IF... THEN 

EVAL 

Evaluates  expressions  in  string  format 

EXEC 

Executes  BASIC  statements  in  string 

format 

FAST 

Speeds  up  PRINTing 

FAST  OFF 

Disables  FAST 

FIND 

Finds  desired  statements  in  a  program 

FRAC 

Returns  fractional  part  of  a  number 

GO 

Calls  the  ML  monitor  (Extended  monitor 

on  80-column  machines) 

GOTO 

Improved:  '.'shorthand 

HARD COPY 

Dumps  the  screen  to  the  printer 

HELP 

Lists  all  EXBASIC  keywords 

HELP* 

Lists  all  Commodore  BASIC  keywords 

HEX$ 

Converts  decimal  to  hex 

HIMEM 

Sets  top  of  memory 

HPLOT 

Plots  horizontal bdrgraphs 

IF.. .THEN 

Improved:  ELSE  allowed,  THEN  optional, 

'.'-shorthand 

INPUTFORM 

Improved  INPUT  statement  #1 

INPUTLINE 

Improved  INPUT  statement  #2 

INSTR 

Locates  substrings 

1  PTXPT? 

^^  j3.l  *-lj— J'i.'     1  ■'■^  1  A  7  ■.' 1  »»|'^  "^  f:^  ^!l     W^f'^^~4t^ 

Li:  1  1  tiK 
LETTER  OFF 

oeiCLts  lowercase  moue 
Selects  graphics  mode 

LIST 

Improved:  (it  key  causes  pause,  any  key 

resumes; '.'  shorthand 

LOAD 

Loads  tapes  made  at  fast  speed  (see 

SAVE  and  MOD) 

LOAD* 

Loads  tapes  made  at  standard  Commo- 

dore  speed  {see  SAVE*) 

MATRIX 

Lists  values  of  array  variables  (for  other 

variables,  see  DUMP) 

MAX 

Finds  the  largest  of  a  group  of  values 

MEM 

Greatly  expanded  FRE(O) 

MERGE 

Merges  or  appends  from  fast  tapes  (see 

SAVE) 

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INPUTFORM  and  INPUTLINE. 
The  first  two  are  familiar  to  users 
of  non-Commodore  BASICs, 
while  the  latter  allow  easy  for- 
matting of  INPUT  statements, 
also  allowing  commas  and 
semicolons  to  be  input.  The  new 
IF.. .THEN. ..ELSE  construction 
is  another  improvement,  one 
that  can  eliminate  a  lot  of  con- 
fusing loops  in  your  programs. 
Graphics  commands  SET, 
RESET,  and  POINT  allow  you  to 
do  high-resolution  plotting  with 
'/-I  square  pixels,  while  VPLOT 
and  HPLOT  make  it  easy  to  draw 
bar  graphs.  DOKE  (Double-byte 
pOKE)  simplifies  things  if  you 
need  to  put  a  decimal  number 
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memory  cells.  DOKE828,1000 
will  automatically  put  the  proper 
values  for  1000  into  cells  828  and 
829,  all  numbers  being  expressed 
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Particularly  noteworthy  are 
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MERGE* 

MIN 

MOD 

ODD 

ON 

OFF 

ON ERROR GOTO 

ON. ..RESTORE 

POINT 

PRINT® 

PRINT  USING 
REK 

RE  K  OFF 
REM 

RENUM 

RESET 

RESTORE 

RESUME 

RND 

ROUND 

RUN 
SAVE 

SAVE* 

SEC 

SET 

SPACE 
SPACE  OFF 
SPACE(a,b,c,d) 
STOP  ON 

STOP  OFF 

STRINGS 

SWAP 

TRACE 

TRACE  OFF 

VARPTR 

VERIFY 

VERIFY* 

VPLOT 
WAIT 


Merges  or  appends  from  disk 

Finds  the  smallest  of  a  group  of  values 

Makes  nuto-RUNning  fast  speed  tapes 

(sec  SAVE) 

Tells  vvhethera  iiumberisodd  or  even 

Enables  repeat  key  and  special  error  mode 

Disables  repeal  key  and  special  error  mode 

Allovvs  error  recovery 

See  RESTORE 

Tells  if  a  given  hi-res  point  is  SET  or  RESET 

Simplifies  screen  placemen!  of  PRINT 

statements 

Allows  forma ttingof  PKINTstatements 

Expands  the  stack 

Disables  REK 

Improved:  Allows  use  of '  as  shorthand 

for  REM 

Renumbersa  program 

Extinguishes  a  hi-res  point  {see  SET) 

Improved:  DATA  can  be  RESTORED 

selectively;  ON. . .  RESTORE  allowed 
Terminates  an  error  recovery  routine 

Improved;  Easier  to  set  desired  range 

Rounds  off  numbers  to  selected  number 

of  places 

Improved: '.'  shorthand 
Saves  at  high  speed;  longer  program 
names;  ML  saves  from  BASIC 
Saves  at  standard  Commodore  speed 
Pauses  fora  given  numberof  seconds 
Illuminates  a  hi-res  point  (81)  x  50 
resolution) 

Inserts  spaces  in  listings 
Disables  SPACE 

Clears  or  fills  a  rectangle  on  screen 
Enables  STOP  key  for  machine  language 
programs 
Disables  STOP  ON 
Sets  up  stringsof  identical  characters 
Swaps  the  values  of  two  variables 
Traces  execution  of  BASIC  programs 
Disables  TRACE 

Returns  memory  location  of  any  variable 
Verifies  tapes  made  at  fast  speed  (see 
SAVE) 

Verifies  tapes  made  at  standard  Commo- 
dore speed  (see  SAVE*) 
Plots  vertical  bar  graphs 
Improved:  STOP  key  now  interruptsa 
WAIT 

Shorthand  for  "last  line  used"  in  IF... 
THEN... ELSE,  GOTO,  LIST,  RUN 


80-CoIumn  Screen 

BEGINLINE 
DELLINE 

ENDLINE 

INSTLINE 

SCREEN* 

SCREEN 
SCREEN  DOWN 
SCREEN  UP 


Commands 

Erases  current  line  up  to  the  cursor 

Deletes  current  line,  moves  text  upward 

to  fill 

Erases  current  line  rightward  from  the 

cursor 

Inserts  a  line  at  the  cursor's  position 

Lets  40-column  programs  run  on  80- 

column  machines 

Disables  SCREEN* 

Scrolls  screen  downward 

Scrolls  screen  upward 


136    COMPUTE    January  1984 


rwm^ 


CASSEIttES 


COMPUTER  GRAD^ 
DATA  TRAC 

BLANK  CASSETTES 


C-05,  C-06,  C-10,  C-12,  C-20,  C-24,  C-30 


This  stpp-by-stpp  guide  tii  marhine  languHqc  and  asspmbiy 
liinquag?  programmini)  will  leach  \/au  what  yiiu  dun't  al- 
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with  thp  integrated  set  <if  software  tools  ol  Devel()p-64.  it 
makes  the  ideal  development  system. 

A  total  reference  work  on  the  Commodore  64.  Inside  the 
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many  powerful  features  of  this  computer.  A  complete 
memory  map  is  provided  with  information  on  how  to  call 
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Ask  for  them  at  your  favorite  software  outlet. 

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NOTE  Additional 
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Computer  make  &  moiJel Dtsk?  (y/n) 


Atari  Starbowl  Football 


Orson  Scott  Card 

If  you  like  computer  football, 
but  don't  have  a  regular  playing 
partner,  Gamestar's  Starhoivl 
Football  for  the  Atari  400/800  is 
the  answer.  The  computer  oppo- 
nent in  the  one-player  option  is 
very  good.  It  will  take  ail  your 
skill  on  defense  to  keep  the  blue 
team  out  of  the  end  zone,  and  on 
offense  you  have  to  be  a  superb 
quarterback  or  your  passes  will 
be  picked  off  every  time  you 
aren't  sacked! 

And  even  if  you  have  a 
human  opponent,  Starbotol  lets 
the  two  of  you  struggle  to  outwit 
or  outrun  each  other  in  a  very 
convincing  simulation  of  football 
action. 

The  football  field  scrolls 
horizontally  across  the  screen  as 
the  players  move.  There  are  lots 
of  little  niceties.  The  game  begins 
with  the  last  few  measures  of 
"The  Star-spangled  Banner." 
There  is  a  musical  interlude 
during  half  time.  The  crowd 
roars  at  the  right  moments.  The 
players  run  back  and  forth  across 
the  field  to  get  in  place  for  the 
next  play — eating  up  time  on  the 
clock. 

The  game  itself  offers  good 
touches  of  realism.  Take  penal- 
ties, for  instance.  Let  your  safety 
touch  the  receiver  while  the  ball 
is  in  the  air,  and  pass  interference 
is  called.  Blitz  before  the  ball  is 
snapped,  and  you  are  called 
offside.  Take  too  long  choosing 
your  offensive  play  and  snapping 
the  ball,  and  you  lose  five  yards 
on  a  delay-of-game  penalty. 

You  can  also  be  clumsy.  The 
computer  sees  to  it  that  your 
receiver  is  always  in  position  to 
catch  a  perfectly  thrown  ball, 
but  you  have  to  push  the  joystick 
button  at  exactly  the  moment 
the  ball  arrives,  or  the  pass  is 
incomplete.  It  takes  a  lot  of 
dropped  balls  before  you  get  the 
timing  down.  If  you  try  to  run 
too  soon  after  catching  the  ball, 

138     COMPUTi!     Janucrv1984 


vour  player  fumbles — and  the 
other  team  recovers.  And  if  you 
throw  a  pass  when  your  receiver 
is  covered,  you  get  to  know  how 
quarterbacks  feel  when  their 
passes  are  picked  off  by  a  man  in 
a  jersey  of  the  wrong  color. 

Each  team  has  six  players— a 
quarterback,  two  receivers,  and 
a  three-man  line  on  offense;  a 
safety,  two  defensive  backs,  and 
a  three-man  line  on  defense.  On 
offense,  you  control  the  quarter- 
back until  a  pass  is  released  and 
the  receiver  after  the  pass  is 
caught.  On  defense,  you  control 
the  safety. 

There  are  some  things  to 
watch  out  for.  During  play  selec- 
tion, you  get  no  feedback  when 
you  push  a  button  to  choose  the 
eligible  receiver — after  all,  you 
don't  want  your  opponent  to 
know  which  receiver  is  going  to 
get  the  ball.  But  if  you  pushed 
the  button  too  soon,  and  it  wasn't 
registered,  you  won't  find  out 
until  you  try  to  pass  the  ball  and 
nothing  happens.  Also,  if  you 
aren't  careful  while  you  hurry  to 
make  play  assignments  before 
the  30-second  clock  expires,  you 
can  find  yourself  accidentally 
punting  on  first  down  or  trying 
for  a  field  goal  from  80  yards 
back. 

But  these  are  minor  issues. 
With  practice,  you  can  quickly 
memorize  the  play-selection 
procedure  without  ever  looking 
at  the  book,  and  you  soon  devel- 
op good  enough  reflexes  to  catch 
the  ball  every  time  your  eligible 
receiver  is  open.  In  fact,  I  got  so 
good  in  a  couple  of  games  that  1 
decided  to  switch  from  college 
level  to  the  pro  game  setting. 
Then  I  discovered  that  the  Slnr- 
bowl  is  going  to  provide  a  chal- 
lenge for  a  long  time  to  come. 

Starbowl  Football 

Gniucstiif,  Inc. 

UOISliitcSinvl 

Smiln  Barbimi,  CA  93101 

(S05)  963-3487 

$31.95  C 


Interpod 
Interface  For 
VIC/64 


Lnrrv  Bihlmeyer 


If  you  own  a  VIC  or  Commodore 
64,  you  are  probably  aware  of 
limitations  when  trying  to  use 
the  User  Port  with  an  RS-232 
device.  Most  VIC/64  software 
fully  supports  the  serial  port 
(device  #4),  but  does  not  address 
the  User  Port  (device  #2). 

For  example,  if  you  try  using 
a  serial  RS-232  printer  with  an 
interface  connected  to  the  User 
Port,  software  that  doesn't  sup- 
port prindng  to  a  device  #2  will 
not  let  you  print. 

One  way  to  resolve  this  is  to 
add  an  Interpod  to  your  system, 
a  dual  interface  which  allows 
you  to  hook  up  a  single  RS-232 
device  and  up  to  30  parallel  or 
serial  IEEE  devices  to  your  VIC 
or  64. 

Interpod  has  its  own  power 
supply  and  attaches  at  the  serial 
port  with  a  six-pin  connector. 
This  serial  port  is  used  by  most 
software  programs  since  it  is  the 
"normal"  device  #4.  You  can 
connect  a  single  serial  RS-232 
device  to  the  Interpod — a  printer 
or  modem,  and  up  to  30  serial  or 
parallel  devices,  like  1541,  2030, 
4040,  8050,  D9G90  disk  drives  or 
4022  and  4023  printers. 

Its  6502  microprocessor  al- 
lows data  to  be  transferred  to 
either  the  IEEE-488  or  RS-232 
port  contained  within  the  unit, 
or  to  both.  Interpod  contains 
both  an  IEEE  bus  and  a  true  25- 
pin  DB-RS-232  port. 

With  this  arrangement,  the 
expansion  port  and  eight-bit 
User  Port  are  not  tied  up.  Also, 
no  software  is  required  to  load 
the  Interpod.  It's  a  stand-alone 
module,  "hardwired"  into  your 
system.  When  it  powers  up,  a 
red  light  indicates  a  self-test  pro- 
cedure by  flashing  1.5  seconds 
and  then  stays  on  during  opera- 
Hon  unless  there's  a  fault. 


NEW!  SublimJnat  Home  Computer  Program.' 

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buiid  new  and  positive  ones! 

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thinking 

4.  Control  drinking/ 
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5.  Athletic  confidence/ golf 

6.  Study  habits/ memory  power 

7.  Career/ success  motivation 

8.  Sexual  confidence 

Expando-Vision™  feeds  positive 
subliminal  messages  to  your 
subconscious  while  you  watch 
regular  TV  programs.  Flashed  at 
1  BO  of  a  second,  the  messages 
occur  too  fast  for  your  eye  to  see, 
but  your  subconscious  uses  that  in- 
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to  succeed.  Subliminal  messaging 
has  been  shown  effective  in  over 


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It  is  legal.  The  FCC  limits  commer- 
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positive  reinforcement. 


T\'  ^nti  toijv 


Computer  Hookup 

To  use  the  system  you  need  an 
inexpensive  home  computer  (VIC 
20,®  Commodore  64,®  Atari 
400®  or  Atari  800® ).  You  need 
the  Expando-Vfslon  Interfacing 
Device... S89.95  (a  one  time  pur- 
chase that  attaches  easily  to  your 
computer) . . .and you  need 
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$39.95  each.  (Add  S3.00  shipping 
and  handling.  Mich,  residents  add 
4%  sales  tax). 

Credit  Card  Orders 
Call  Toll  Free 

1-800-543-7500 

operator  828. 

Tell  us  which  programfs)  you 
would  like  and  charge  your  pur- 
chase to  Visa,®  MasterCard, T" 
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Club.®  Or  request  free 
brochure.  Please  use  coupon,  if 
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Allow  4  to  6  weeks  for  delivery. 

Full  cost  refund  if  not  com- 
pletely satisfied  within 
30  days  of  receipt. 


Stimutech,  Inc.,  P.O.  Box  2575. 
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Computer  Type:  3VIO20  nComm  64 
LAtan  400,  800,  Specify  JCart  ZDnk 
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NOTE  TO  BUYERS  Owners  of  VIC  20'  and 
Commodore  64 "  Computers  can  view 
Expando-VisionTM  with  TV  signals  from  a  TV 
antenna  (Cfi  3  or  4  only),  cable  TV  [transmii- 
sions  on  Chi  3  or  4],  or  from  any  video  cassette 
or  video  disk  player  Atari  400  or  800  owners 
can  use  Expando-Vision  with  TV  antenna  (Ch. 
2  or  3  onlyj.  Cable  (transmissions  on  Ch.  2  or  3| 
or  any  video  cassene  or  disk  p'ayer  Systems 
compatible  with  other  home  computers  are 
under  development  and  wiil  be  inlrocJuced 
soon 


ion  av3ii,!iii(?  ivirhfij  ,r ?hjrn.  rM  ,„b  (,„  i  orln  B-, ,";,?,.._  .,  ™''^"  "^'--H' J*°?  1™  Aiar.  800  are  regreiered  tradema/jfs  of  Atari.  Inc  Warranty  nloma- 

®Stimuiecfi,  tnc  1983 


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Addressing 

Device  addressing  through  In- 
terpod  is  entirely  transparent  to 
the  user.  However,  because  it  is 
possible  to  connect  both  IEEE 
serial  and  parallel  devices  at  the 
same  time,  situations  may  arise 
in  which  two  peripherals  with 
the  same  device  address  need  to 
be  connected  simultaneously.  In 
these  cases,  Interpod  will  recog- 
nize only  the  serial  device.  In 
order  to  access,  say,  a  1541  single 
disk  drive  and  an  8050  dual  disk 
drive,  both  of  which  are  device 
#8,  it  is  necessary  to  change 
their  device  numbers  under  soft- 
ware control.  Programs  to  do 
this  are  included  with  the  Inter- 
pod's  instructions. 

The  R5-232  standard  allows 
for  a  wide  variety  of  baud  rates 
and  other  options  such  as  parity, 
stop  bits,  and  carriage  return 
delays.  Interpod  is  easily  config- 
ured to  cope  with  all  these,  but 
for  many  cases,  no  reconfigura- 
tion is  needed.  Interpod  powers 
up  with  the  RS-232  interface 
configured  as  shown  in  the 
table. 

Since  RS-232  devices  do  not 
have  device  numbers  associated 
with  them,  Interpod  can  be  con- 
nected only  to  a  single  RS-232 
component.  Interpod  will  treat 
any  RS-232  device  by  default  as 
device  #4.  It  is  possible  to  com- 
municate with  the  Interpod, 
much  like  communicating  with  a 
Commodore  disk  drive.  The 
Interpod  has  a  command  channel 
similar  to  channel  15  on  disk 
drives.  So  you  can  change  baud 
rates,  parity,  and  other  settings 
as  required. 

One  other  feature  incorpo- 
rated in  the  Interpod  is  a  CBM  to 
ASCII  conversion  program.  This 
interface  will  convert  CBM  ASCII 
to  standard  ASCII  (uppercase 
letters  substituted  for  lowercase 
and  vice  versa).  This  allows  you 
to  eliminate  conversion  routines 
in  your  programs  for  many 
applications. 

Setting  Up 

The  Interpod  that  I  evaluated 

140    COMPUni     January  1984 


Interpod  module  contains  both  an  IEEE  port  and  RS-232  port  to  support  output. 
It  also  Ims  a  power  siipphj  connection  and  two  serial  attaduuents  for  the  VICI64 
mating  cable  and  a  spare  outlet  for  a  serial  U)!it  such  as  a  1541  disk  drive. 


performed  accurately  and  re- 
solved a  problem  which  had 
plagued  me  ever  since  I'd  added 
a  serial  R5-232  printer  to  my  64. 
Many  word  processing,  spread- 
sheet, and  other  software  pro- 
grams do  not  print  out  to  device 
#2.  When  I  connected  the  Inter- 
pod, this  problem  disappeared 
as  the  software  output  to  device 
#4  (the  serial  port). 

Interpod  comes  with  good 
operating  instructions  which 
should  allow  you  to  handle  most 
situations.  However,  you  may 


need  dealer  help  in  configuring 
a  cable  from  the  Interpod's  RS- 
232  port  to  your  printer  or  other 
device.  This  is  not  a  fault — there 
is  a  wide  range  of  printer  cable 
configurations.  Some  printers 
have  a  male  connector  while 
others  have  female.  And  the  pin 
designations  can  vary.  So  the 
best  bet  is  to  order  a  cable  with 
the  Interpod  and  be  sure  to 
specify  the  printer  connector 
details  when  ordering. 

The  Interpod  includes  the 
Interpod  module  with  6502 


Summary  Of  Interpod  Commands 

Command 

Meaning 

Default  Value 

baud  =  (50, 75, 110, 134.5, 

set  baud  rates 

1200 

150,300,600,1200, 

1800,  2400, 3600) 

parity  =  (odd,  even,  none) 

set  parity 

none 

chrsize  =  (7,8) 

7or8bils 

8 

crdelay  =  (on,off) 

carriage  return  delay 

CAsec.) 

off 

stopbits  =  (l,2) 

select  number  stop  bits 

1 

break 

send  break 

N/A 

unbreak 

release  break 

N/A 

change 

readdress  Interpod's 

Device  #4 

command  channel  and 

RS-232  port 

clear 

clear  buffer 

N/A 

convert 

convert  CBM  ASCII 
to  standard  ASCII* 

no  conversion 

unconvert 

cancel  convert 

no  conversion 

*This  substitutes  uppercase  for  lowercase  letters 

and  vice  versa. 

GET  THE  MOST  OUT  OF  YOUR 

COMMODORE- 

orVIC"20computer 


ALSO  AVAILABLE: 

3  outstanding 
Music  Albums  to 
go  with  Synthy-64 

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See  below 


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PAL:  An  Extraordinaiy 
Assembler  For  The  PET  And  64 


Elizabeth  Deal 

PAL  (Personal  Assembly  Sys- 
tem) is  a  symbolic  assembler  for 
the  PET/CBM  and  the  Commo- 
dore 64.  It  was  written  by  Brad 
Templeton,  the  author  of 
POWER  for  the  PET  and 
POWER64.  The  system  is  mem- 
ory and  disk-oriented,  but  most 
of  the  commands  work  with 
tape  too. 

A  Multitude  Of  Features 

PAL  is  a  unique  assembler.  It  is 
very  fast,  convenient,  and  easy 
to  learn  and  use.  It  taps  the  best 
features  of  the  PET  and  the  64 
and  cleverly  uses  them  to  create 
a  powerful  assembler  in  a  rather 
small  area  of  memory.  Working 
with  PAL  is  pure  pleasure.  In 
fact,  working  with  PAL  is  some- 
times easier  than  working  with 
BASIC,  especially  considering 
some  tricky  features  of  the  64 
(sound,  sprites,  bitmapped 
graphics),  since  you  can  freely 
program  in  binary  or  hexadeci- 
mal and  can  use  long,  eight- 
character  labels. 

Unlike  several  other  as- 
semblers of  comparable  versa- 
tility, PAL  is  very  simple  to  use. 
Traditional  fragmentation  of 
tasks  has  been  eliminated: 
Editing,  assembling,  and  testing 
can  be  done  without  repeated 
loading  and  reloading.  PAL  co- 
exists at  all  times  with  the  BASIC 
environment,  including  BASIC 

142     COMPUn!     January  198i 


aids,  such  as  POWER  or 
POWER64,  Toolkit,  or  BASIC 
Aid.  PAL  does  not  need  special 
loaders  or  editors — they  are  al- 
ready built  into  the  computer. 

A  Powerhouse 

PET'S  PAL  fits  into  exactly  4K  of 
memory  and  can  be  put  on  a 
ROM  chip.  The  64  PAL  is  a  bit 
over  4K.  It  can  also  be  put  on  a 
chip,  perhaps  on  a  cartridge  or 
some  sort  of  adapter,  since  the 
64  lacks  the  free  sockets  the  PET 
has.  RAM  versions  of  PAL  are 
relocatable,  either  to  the  top  of 
memory  or  to  a  place  of  your 
choice.  PAL  can,  in  turn,  create 
relocatable  code  attached  to 
one  BASIC  line,  such  as  10  SYS 
1234.  As  if  this  weren't  enough, 
the  64  PAL  can  create  combined 
BASIC  and  machine  language 
programs  with  machine  lan- 
guage trailing  right  after  BASIC. 
It's  a  powerhouse. 

PAL  also  permits  custom- 
izing. You  may  add  opcodes  if 
you  wish,  but  everything  I  need 
is  already  built-in. 

PAL  works  with  the  IEEE 
and  1541  serial  disk  drives,  but 
the  64  IEEE  support  depends  on 
the  link  software  in  the  64  (RTC- 
Link  is  OK).  Many  printers  and 
other  output  devices,  such  as 
printers  on  the  User  Port  or 
modems,  can  be  used. 

PAL  syntax  is  almost  identi- 


cal to  the  standard  for  the  65xx 
chips.  Hence,  Commodore  as- 
sembler files  can  move  to  the 
PAL  environment  with  little 
conversion.  MAE  assembler  files 
are  a  bit  harder  to  convert  since 
they  use  nonstanciard  syntax, 
but  Jim  Strasma  has  written  a 
conversion  to  PAL  program  which 
is  included  in  the  package. 

PAL's  expression  evaluator 
is  second  to  none;  it  far  exceeds 
the  MOS  standard.  PAL  has  no 
macro  assembly  feature.  This  is 
not  a  problem  as  needed  routines 
can  be  merged  via  BASIC. 

PAL  Commands 

The  commands  supported 
by  PAL  are  all  MOS  assembler 
commands  with  provision  for 
complex  arithmetic  expressions 
within  the  operands.  All  com- 
mon numeric  modes  are  sup- 
ported, and  their  syntax  follows 
the  MOS  standard'  (Octal  is  not 
included,  but  who  needs  it?) 
Three  assignment-type  pseudo- 
ops  are:  equal  (assignment), 
asterisk  (program  counter,  label, 
and  table  definitions),  and  as- 
signment of  value  to  a  variable 
for  IF-GOTO  commands.  The 
pseudo-ops  include:  ASC 
(strings  in  quotes),  BYTE, 
WORD,  FILE  (for  assembling 
multisegment  programs),  IF  and 
GOTO  (conditional  assembly), 
GTB  (go  to  BASIC),  SYS  (func- 
tions as  a  BASIC  SYS  command), 
STM  (sets  symbol  table  address 
for  unusual  configurations),  SST 
(saves  symbol  table  files),  EST 
(loads  symbol  table),  END,  BAS 
(only  on  the  64).  The  OPT 
pseudo-op  has  numerous  forms. 
It  deals  with  the  disposition  of 
object  code  (memory,  file)  and 
assembler  output  in  formatted 
form  (screen,  printer).  It  is  a 
very  flexible  command. 

Special  Ease  Of  Editing 

Using  PAL  is  convenient  because 
PAL  source  files  (the  code  you 
write)  are  BASIC  files.  You  write 
as  if  you  were  writing  BASIC, 
only  better.  For  instance,  you 
may  use  long  variable  names. 


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multiple  statements  per  imc,  com- 
ments within  a  line,  and  so  on. 
It  prints  out,  neatly,  one  instruc- 
tion per  line. 

You  use  the  computer's 
resident  screen  editor  to  fix  the 
program  and  edit.  You  mav  also 
use  Toolkit,  POWER,  or  BASIC 
Aid  to  find  things,  replace  them, 
renumber  the  program,  delete, 
append — your  familiar  and  use- 
ful commands  are  still  valid. 

The  program  is  saved, 
loaded,  and  listed  as  if  it  were  a 
BASIC  program.  This  is  conven- 
ient not  only  in  editing,  but 
also  in  the  transportability  of 
your  programs. 

You  can  assemble  into  mem- 
ory. Consequently,  the  program 
is  immediately  available  for  use 
or  for  testing  with  BASIC  without 
the  gymnastics  usually  required 
in  other  assemblers. 

Jim  Butterfield  once  de- 
scribed (COMPU'IH!,  August  1982) 
the  difficulties  in  fixing  conven- 
tional assembly  language:  'The 
test  program  must  be  thrown 
out  and  the  assembler  loaded;  a 
new  'object'  program  must  be 
created.  The  clincher  is... paper- 
work...the  new  program  should 
be  version-numbered...  a  pro- 
gram listing  should  be  gener- 
ated." Not  so  with  PAL.  PAL 
elegantly  solves  such  house- 
keeping headaches  once  and 
for  all. 

PAL  also  permits  assembly 
to  tape,  disk,  screen,  or  printer. 
The  output  options  can  be 
switched  on  and  off  during  the 
assembly.  The  flexibility  is  pretty 
amazing.  Object  files  can  be 
loaded  via  BASIC  or  Supermon 
as  normal  program  files. 

Assembly  to  memory  is  fast. 
Blink  an  eye  and  it's  done.  As- 
sembly to  disk  is  also  fast  (I  think 
I  got  about  2000  bytes  done  in 
close  to  15  seconds). 

The  nominal  size  of  PET  in- 
memory  assembly  is  1000  bytes. 
I've  done  a  bit  over  2000  with  no 
problems  at  all.  It  depends  on 
how  tight  the  source  code  is. 

PAL  can  be  used  to  assemble 
huge  programs — POWER,  for 

144    CCKMMJTE!     January  1984 


instance.  Chaining  is  used  in  the 
process,  and  the  number  of 
chained  files  is  unlimited.  There 
are  some  limitations  on  moving 
the  program  counter,  and  there 
might  be  limits  on  the  size  of  the 
symbol  table.  It's  all  described  in 
the  book.  If  you  wish,  the  symbol 
table,  variables,  and  addresses 
you  used  in  writing  the  program 
can  be  in  a  library  on  disk  and 
then  it  can  be  brought  into  the 
assembly  process,  precooked. 
This  is  one  feature  not  available 
to  tape  users. 

PAL  also  provides  a  nice 
expression  evaluator.  Expres- 
sions are  not  limited  to  the  usual 
plus  or  minus  one.  They  permit 
shifts,  multiplication,  and  the 
PET's  normal  logical  functions. 
Expressions  can  include  modifi- 
cations to,  and  use  of,  the  pro- 
gram counter  (*).  This  is  tricky, 
but  the  explanation  in  the  book 
is  meticulous. 

Error  trapping  works  well. 
Each  error  message  (9  syntax- 
type  and  12  housekeeping-type) 
is  clearly  explained  in  the  book. 
Errors  are  shown  on  the  screen, 
full  text,  PET  fashion,  as  in,  for 
example,  BRANCH  OUT  OF 
RANGE.  Phase  errors  are  handled 
by  one  clever  line  of  code,  very 
handy  for  people  like  me  who 
always  mess  up  .byte  statements. 

In  the  event  of  an  error, 
PAL,  for  a  bit  of  additional  pro- 
tection, stuffs  zeros  (BRK)  into 
the  code.  Should  you  carelessly 
try  to  use  the  bad  code,  you  stand 
a  chance  of  surviving,  since  you 
may  land  on  a  Break  command. 
Errors  are  not  counted,  a  minor 
nuisance. 

Other  Features 

Several  exotic  commands  are 
included,  such  as  adding  your 
own  opcodes  or  going  to  BASIC 
during  the  assembly  process. 
This  is  limited  to  some  BASIC 
statements,  but  has  its  place. 
Conditional  assembly  is  per- 
mitted by  use  of  IF  and  GOTO 
(renumberable).  It  is  useful  in 
getting  the  PET  to  assemble  a 
bunch  of  repetitive  instructions. 


in  skipping  assembly  of  some 
code,  or  in  chaining  a  particular 
file,  depending  on  the  result  of 
IF,  for  instance,  a  computer  type. 

Commodore  64  users  get  a 
nice  command  that  permits  in- 
cluding BASIC  programs  in  the 
assembled  object  code.  A  corre- 
sponding POWER64  command 
permits  immediate  testing  of 
such  code  in  a  partition.  If  you 
don't  use  POWER64  you  can  do 
the  same  thing,  but  it  is  tricky  to 
set  up.  In  any  case,  the  source 
code  is  never  erased;  you  can  go 
back  and  edit  anytime. 

Other  nice  touches  appear 
throughout  the  system:  Line 
indentation  is  permitted,  the 
beginning  and  end  (plus  1)  ad- 
dress of  the  object  program  is 
displayed,  so  you  can  save  it  via 
the  machine  language  monitor  if 
you  wish. 

On  start-up,  PAL  changes 
the  top  of  memory  pointer  to 
itself,  conveniently,  if  (and  only 
if)  the  current  top  is  higher  than 
PAL.  Otherwise  the  system 
setup  is  left  alone.  A  nice  touch. 

I  found  no  glitches  after 
using  PAL  for  two  years.  Every- 
thing seems  to  work  well.  I  dis- 
like only  one  thing:  If  I  forget  to 
specify  where  to  place  the  code, 
it  defaults  to  the  tape  buffer  (PET) 
or  $C000  (64)— defaults  I  could 
do  without.  I'd  rather  get  an 
error  message. 

Documentation 

The  PAL  system  is  excellently 
documented.  Each  command  is 
clearly  described,  and  several 
thoroughly  annotated  coding 
examples  will  get  you  started. 
The  book  itself  is  not  a  tutorial 
text,  but  recommends  sources 
for  learning  machine  language. 

For  adventurous  people 
who  like  to  design  and  redesign 
things,  the  key  subroutines  have 
been  documented.  Their  addres- 
ses, functions,  and  use  of  mem- 
ory locations  are  described.  The 
method  of  assembly  is  also 
briefly  described;  it  is  important 
to  understand  this  process  if  you 
wish  to  do  strange  things. 


YOU  CAN  DO  THIS 


OR  THIS 


Commodore  64: 
Getting  The  Most 
From  It 

BY  TIM  ONOSKO 

The  Commodore  64  is  now  yours  to  master 
in  this  new,  unique  book  for  beginning  users. 
You'll  find  this  book  full  of  suggestions, 
hints,  and  background  information!  Plus  it's: 

•  Applicable  to  all  versions  of  the 
Commodore  64! 

•  Simply  and 
clearly  written 
for  first-time 
computer  users 

•  The  perfect 
companion  for 
learning  the 
essential  skills  in 
BASIC  program- 
ming, color  graph- 
ics, sound,  word 
processing,  and 
games. 

It's  a  necessary  tool 

for  your  Commodore  64! 

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Advanced  BASIC 
Programming  for  the 
Commodore  64  and 
Other  Commodore 
Computers 

BY  MICHAEL  RICHTER 

This  is  the  next  step 
for  the  user  who 
knows  the  "basics' 
and  wants  to  move 
on  to  more  ad- 
vanced BASIC  pro- 
gramming. Here 
you'll  learn: 

•  How  to  read, 

write,  and  use 
good  programs 

•  How  to  gain  knowledge  through  the 
experience  of  writing  advanced  software 

•  Applications  for  both  personal  and  profes- 
sional use 

•  Numerous  examples  to  enhance  each 
concept 

This  is  the  way  to  maximi2e  the  capabilities 
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OR  BOTH 


Chances  are  when  you  finish  Commodore  64:  Getting  The  Most  From  It  you'll  want  to 
take  the  next  step  into  Advanced  BASIC  for  the  Commodore  64  and  Other  Commodore 

Computers.  One  way  or  another,  you're  assured  a  thorough  understanding  of  the 
powerful  Commodore  64, 


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computer  store. 
Or  call  Toll-Free 
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A  Prentice-Hall  Publishing 

and  Communications 

Company 


A  Note  To  Beginners 

PAL  is,  in  my  opinion,  ideally 
suited  for  both  the  expert  and 
the  beginner.  It  is  friendly;  it 
needs  no  special  editors  or 
loaders;  it  is  superfast,  and  it 
coexists  with  BASIC  programs  in 
memory.  It  truly  eliminates  ed- 
iting and  testing  headaches. 
And  the  multiple  statements  per 
line  option  is  efficient  in  more 
than  one  way. 

Anyone  familiar  with  the 
tiny  assemblers  in  monitor  ex- 
tensions such  as  Supermon;  any- 
one who  has  gone  through  the 
nasty  experience  of  hand  as- 
sembly; or  anyone  experienced 
with  machine  language  will  find 
PAL  a  pleasure  to  use  and  will 
be  unlikely  to  commit  serious 
errors. 


Once  you  have  PAL,  there 
is  little  reason  to  use  tiny  as- 
semblers, except  for  small 
patches  or  corrections.  You  will 
never  get  away  from  Supermon, 
though,  as  its  disassembler  fea- 
tures will  always  be  needed, 
unless,  of  course,  you  have  the 
rare  capacity  to  write  supercede 
the  first  time  around. 

PET's  PAL  has  been  around 
for  a  while.  It  has  proven  to  be  a 
very  nice  assembler.  PAL64  is 
new  and  has  extra  features.  PAL 
is  a  very  good  buy,  worth  your 
serious  consideration. 


PAL 

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Robot  Runner  For  The  Tl 


Ttmy  Roberts,  Assistant  Managing  Editor 

Games  written  in  BASIC  or  Ex- 
tended BASIC  for  the  Texas  In- 
struments 99/4A  computer  some- 
times suffer  from  painfully  slow 
action.  The  microprocessor  just 
can't  interpret  BASIC  fast 
enough  to  maintain  a  proper 
pace  in  an  action  game. 

Moonbeam  Software,  how- 
ever, has  found  a  way  to  solve 
the  problem  in  Robol  Runner, 
one  of  the  company's  recent 
Extended  BASIC  releases.  The 
game  has  seven  screens,  each 
requiring  a  slightly  different 
approach.  The  game  progresses 
quickly  from  one  scenario  to  the 
next,  eliminating  the  boredom 
that  might  set  in  if  any  one  screen 
had  to  be  played  for  long 
periods- 

This  multiple-screen  ap- 
proach accomplishes  several 
things.  For  one  thing,  the  pro- 
grammer can  limit  the  possibilities 
available  at  any  given  moment, 
allowing  tighter,  and  thus  faster, 
program  loops.  In  addition,  this 
method  also  permits  the  pro- 
grammer to  put  the  player 

146    COMPUTE!    January1<Je4 


through  some  very  difficult,  but 
very  short,  game  situations. 

Taking  Out  Robot 
Terrorists 

It's  the  year  2600.  The  Organized 
Robot  Terrorist  Society  Against 
Civilization  (ORTSAC)  plans  to 
send  out  its  robots  to  conquer 
the  world.  Your  mission  is  to 
guide  your  own  android  into  the 
heavily  guarded  ORTSAC  head- 
quarters, find  your  way  to  the 
Inner  Chamber,  and  there  con- 
front the  five  ORTSAC  leaders. 

At  game's  start,  you  find 
yourself  at  the  bottom  of  a  six- 
story  building.  Your  goal,  a 
transporter  cage,  is  at  the  top. 
Your  android  must  move  from 
floor  to  floor  while  avoiding  the 
I  rata  004  Security  Force  Robots. 
A  yellow  chute  provides  a  short- 
cut to  the  transporter  cage,  but 
to  reach  it,  you'll  have  to  run 
directly  toward  one  of  the  security 
robots.  Any  mistake  will  be  fatal. 

When  you  reach  the  cage, 
the  scene  shifts  to  screen  two. 
Your  robot,  in  the  cage,  moves 


across  the  top  of  the  screen  over 
an  acid  pit.  Before  the  cage 
crashes  into  the  far  wall,  the 
robot  must  jump  onto  a  small 
ledge.  Then  he  must  jump  again 
onto  a  pod  floating  on  the  surface 
of  the  acid.  Timing  the  jumps  is 
important,  but  there's  no  time  to 
spare — an  onrushing  security 
robot  makes  sure  of  that. 

Should  vour  jumps  be  sue-' 
cessful,  the  next  obstacle  is  a 
long  hallway  guarded  by  six 
groups  of  security  robots.  Scurrv 
through  gaps  in  the  robots'  for- 
mation, take  cover  behind  the 
pillars,  and  strive  for  the  ener- 
gizer  at  the  other  end. 

The  Second  Acid  Test 

Once  through  the  hallway,  you'll 
face  another  acid  pit  test.  As  a 
guard  robol  rolls  toward  you, 
you  must  jump  onto  a  floating 
pod  which  will  carry  you  to  a 
waiting  elevator.  And  once  on 
the  elevator,  you  must  jump 
again  to  an  island  in  the  center 
of  the  acid  pit. 

Upon  reaching  the  island, 
you  find  yourself  in  a  series  of 
crisscross  corridors  with  three 
groups  of  robots  on  patrol.  Again 
your  goal  is  to  reach  an  energizer, 
but  this  time,  once  you  put  your 
android  in  motion — there's  no 
place  to  hide.  You'll  have  to  fall 
in  between  a  couple  of  guard 
robots,  taking  care  to  maintain 
your  distance.  The  problem  is 
that  your  android  and  the  secur- 
ity robots  travel  at  different 
speeds. 

The  next  challenge  is  the 
final  one  before  the  dreaded 
Inner  Chamber.  In  a  two-tiered 
room  fliled  with  racing  red  auto- 
mobiles, the  robot  must  leap  car 
after  car,  reach  and  climb  a  lad- 
der, then  jump  more  cars  before 
clambering  aboard  the  platform 
that  leads  to  ORTSAC's  officials. 

The  Inner  Chamber  is  where 
the  battle  is  fought.  It's  where 
you  do  what  you've  come  to  do. 
You've  used  your  skills  of 
locomotion  to  get  this  far,  now 
you  must  flght — and  quickly.  In 
rapid  succession,  ORTSAC's 


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leaders  descend  upon  you.  Take 
aim  and  shoot.  You  have  only  a 
couple  of  shots  at  each,  and  as 
soon  as  any  one  of  them  reaches 
you,  your  mission  is  over — un- 
successfully over. 

Running  The  Gamut 
Again 

Should  vou  fail  at  anv  time 
during  this  whole  process,  you 
return  to  the  beginning  to  try 
again.  Each  time  through,  how- 
ever, things  are  slightly  different. 
The  difference  is  speed.  The 
securitv  robots  are  a  bit  faster,  so 
your  robot  must  be  more  alert. 
Sometimes  he'll  be  forced  to 
jump  even  before  his  target  has 
come  into  sight. 

The  opening  scene  includes 
the  score,  the  high  score,  the 
number  of  robots  vou  have  left, 
and  a  counter  for  the  number  of 
times  vou've  started  from  the 
beginning.  Note  the  last  statistic, 
for  each  time  through  the  game, 
you  must  adjust  vour  timing. 

The  first  time  through  the 
first  screen,  for  example,  it's 
almost  impossible  to  fail.  The 
third  time  through,  however, 
there  can  be  neither  error  nor 
indecision.  One  false  step  and 
you're  caught.  The  fourth  time, 
your  progress  is  complicated  by 
invisible  guard  robots. 

Documentation  Oddities 

The  documentation  for  Robot 
Riiiiiicr  is  sketchy  in  places.  It's 
difficult  to  understand  the  de- 
scription of  the  seven  scenes 
until  you've  played  them,  and 
the  four-page  instruction  pam- 
phlet is  embarrassed  by  a 
number  of  niisspelled  words. 
This  is  most  startling  in  the  dis- 
cussion of  a  "yellow  shoot." 
Eventually,  you'll  realize  that 
the  writer  is  attempting  to  de- 
scribe a  yellow  chute. 

There  are  some  minor  in- 
consistencies between  the 
scorekeeping  as  described  and 
the  scorekeeping  as  programmed. 
Basically,  you  earn  a  set  number 
of  points  each  time  you  complete 
a  screen.  After  you've  played  a 

148    COMPUTE!     January  19Sd 


few  times,  you'll  find  vour  scores 
remarkably  similar  game  after 
game.  Additional  robots  are 
awarded  at  3,000  points  and 
10,000  points,  and  every  10,000 
points  thereafter. 

The  graphics  in  Robot  Ruiuwr 
are  bright  and  colorful.  The 
screens  are  crisp  and  unclut- 
tered. The  sound  effects  are 
pleasant,  and  are  a  welcome 
change  from  what  I've  come  to 
call  "default  TI  sound  effects" — 
the  silly  sounds  that  come  from 
clumsy  use  of  the  noise  generator. 

Joysticic  Or  Keyboard 

The  game  is  available  on  both 
tape  and  disk  in  versions  for 
joystick  or  keyboard.  I  preferred 
using  the  keyboard,  which  is 
more  responsive  than  the  stiff  Tl 
joysticks. 

However,  1  did  have  some 
difficulty  with  the  cassette 
keyboard  version.  The  program 
was  inconsistent  in  detecting  a 


collision  between  the  jumping 
android  and  one  of  the  pods 
floating  over  the  acid  pit.  It  was 
aggravating  to  see  the  robot  float 
right  through  the  pod  and  end 
up  sizzling  to  a  metal  fragment 
in  the  acid. 

Precision  collision-detection 
is  another  problem  area  for  TI 
Extended  BASIC.  The  collision 
must  occur  at  the  time  the  pro- 
gram is  executing  the  line  con- 
taining the  collision-detection 
command.  Tolerances  can  be 
specified  so  that  a  near  miss  is  as 
good  as  a  collision,  and  in  most 
cases  in  Robot  Riiiiiier,  collision 
detection  is  fair,  if  a  bit  imprecise. 

Though  none  of  its  seven 
screens  could  stand  alone  as  a 
successful  game.  Robot  Runner's 
combination  of  challenges  pro- 
vides a  truly  amusing  game. 

Robot  Runner 

MoonbL'aii!  Software 

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Norflmmpfon,  MA  01060  _ 

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Blue  Max  For  Atari  And 


64 


Dan  Giitman 


Just  when  you  thought  shoot- 
em-ups  were  passe,  just  when 
you  thought  you'd  played  every 
variation,  along  comes  a  game 
that  may  make  standard  two- 
dimensional  eye/hand  games 
obsolete.  Bob  Polin's  Blue  Max 
may  well  be  the  best  action  game 
there  is. 

The  comparisons  to  Zaxxon 
are  obvious.  Both  games  feature 
a  diagonally  scrolling  three- 
dimensional  screen  within  which 
the  player  controls  an  aircraft 
that  can  shoot  at  air  and  ground 
targets.  Unlike  Znxxon,  here  you 
pilot  a  1915  biplane  over  a  land- 
scape of  roads,  bridges,  tanks, 
and  buildings. 

It  is  World  War  1,  and  the 
Germans  will  award  the  Blue 
Max  medal  to  any  of  their  flyers 
who  can  gun  you  down.  The 


plane  banks  and  rolls,  as  in 
Zaxxon,  but  even  smoother — 
you  may  be  tempted  to  sway 
your  body  into  the  turns.  The 
biggest  problem  with  Zaxxon — 
determining  your  ship's  altitude — 
has  been  solved  in  this  game.  The 
background  and  shadow  of  the 
plane  make  it  very  clear  how 
high  you're  flying.  And,  just  for 
good  measure,  you've  got  an 
altimeter  gauge.  What  Zaxxon 
pioneered.  Blue  Max  perfected. 

Thie  Compiexity  Ot  An 
Adventure  Game 

If  Blue  Max  merely  improved  on 
Zaxxon,  it  would  not  be  such  an 
outstanding  game.  What  makes 
Max  so  special  is  that  it  does 
what  no  other  shooting  game 
has  done  before.  You  don't  just 
fire  away  until  your  thumb  gets 


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sore.  There's  a  lot  of  work  to  be 
done — bridges,  tanks,  and 
enemy  planes  are  all  destroyed 
in  different  ways.  Your  instru- 
ment panel  tells  you  how  much 
fuel  you've  got,  how  many 
bombs  remain,  the  speed,  al- 
titude, wind,  approaching 
enemy  planes,  and  any  damage 
to  your  aircraft.  This  control 
panel  is  not  just  for  show:  You 
have  to  use  it  to  succeed.  In  fact, 
you  have  to  use  it  to  take  off. 
This  kind  of  complexity  is  usually 
found  only  in  adventure  games. 
So  adventure  game  fans  as  well 
as  arcade  game  buffs  will  ap- 
preciate it. 

At  the  same  time,  Blue  Max 
is  not  so  complicated  that  it  over- 
whelms. Defender  is  a  great  de- 
fensive game,  but  so  much  hap- 
pens onscreen  that  a  lot  of  people 
experience  stimulus  overload. 
Since  Blue  Max  is  mainly  an  of- 
fensive game,  you  don't  have  to 
be  constantly  on  edge  for  that 
next  assault.  There  is  actually 
very  little  shooting  at  you.  So 
you  can  look  over  the  side  and 
enjoy  the  scenery  a  bit — bomb  a 
few  bridges  here,  strafe  a  few 
tanks  there.  And  if  you  miss, 
don't  worry  about  it.  There  will 
be  more  bridges  and  tanks  down 
the  road. 

Bombing  is  accomplished 
by  hitting  the  fire  button  and 
pulling  down  on  the  stick  at  the 
same  time.  This  takes  some 
getting  used  to,  especially  when 
you  consider  that  pulling  down 
also  causes  your  plane  to  dive. 
Realistically,  pilots  in  World  War 
I  did  not  have  sophisticated 
bomb  site  techniques. 

In  Blue  Max,  you  have  to 
drop  bombs  before  you  reach 
your  target,  depending  on  your 
location  and  altitude.  It's  similar 
to  the  way  a  quarterback  has  to 
"lead"  his  receiver  with  the  ball. 
The  initial  frustration  is  offset  by 
satisfaction  as  you  gain  control 
later  in  the  game. 

Perhaps  the  toughest  part  of 
the  game  involves  periodically 
landing  your  plane  to  refuel  and 
make  repairs.  First  a  tone 


sounds,  indicating  you  are  ap- 
proaching a  friendly  runway, 
and  you'd  better  go  for  it  or  you'll 
run  out  of  fuel  before  you  see 
another  one.  Then  you've  got  to 
quickly  descend  to  25  feet  and 
press  the  fire  button  to  lower 
your  landing  gear.  A  blue  L  on 
the  control  panel  indicates  it's 
safe  to  land.  You  position  your- 
self over  the  runway  and  touch 
down.  You  want  the  first  half  of 
the  runway;  otherwise,  you 
won't  be  able  to  build  up  enough 
speed  to  take  off  again.  If  this  all 
sounds  easy,  wait  until  you  crash 
and  burn  the  first  ten  times. 

Graphics  And  Sound 

As  for  technical  qualities.  Blue 
Max  is  good  to  very  good.  The 
graphics  are  crisp  and  colorful. 
The  screen  lights  up  with  explo- 
sives as  you  strafe  a  row  of  tanks. 
Little  cars  and  trucks  drive  over 
the  bridges,  and  when  you  bomb 
the  bridges,  chunks  of  it  blow 
up,  not  the  whole  bridge.  The 
sound  is  mostly  explosions,  but 
even  here  attention  has  been 
paid  to  the  detail.  Bombs 
dropped  on  the  ground  blow 
up,  but  the  ones  that  hit  the 
water  make  a  splashing  noise. 
There  is  also  a  jaunty  rendition 
of  Hail  Britannia  between  games. 

My  complaints  with  Blue 
Max  are  nitpicking.  1  wish  there 
was  a  little  more  variety  to  the 
scenery  instead  of  the  endless 
military  suburbia  of  bridges, 
tanks,  factories,  and  more 
bridges.  There  should  be  some 
sort  of  ultimate  goal.  Though 
you  can  enter  an  enemy  city  if 
you  survive  and  hit  four  specific 
targets,  only  top-of-the-line 
players  will  ever  see  it.  And  the 
"city"  is  not  that  different  from 
the  rest  of  the  countryside. 

But  again,  these  are  small 
quibbles  about  a  great  game. 
Blue  Max  is  head  and  shoulders 
above  other  shooting  games. 

Blue  Max 

Synapse  Software 

820  Coventry  Road 

Kensington,' C A  94707 

(415)  527-7751  ^ 

$34.95  ^ 


AATARI* 

600XL CALL 

800XL CALL 

1200XL    $409* 

■Rsllecis  S100  Atari  Rebate 


1050  DRIVE     

S335 

1025  PRINTER 

»99 

IQZQCDLOHFTfl 

S219 

1D27  PRINTER        . 

S279 

1010  RECORDER  .  . 

.  S72 

DRIVES 

ASTRA  1620 

$459 

RANAIOOO 

S295 

pef:oh88-si  .    . 

$298 

PEFC0H4D-S1 

J418 

PERC0M40-S2 

J71B 

P£nCDM«-S1  .      . 

1510 

PEBC0M44-SZ 

J929 

ATARI  S< 

ADVENTURE  INT'L 

Adv.  1-129achlC)  .. 

Pr6ppie(C/D| 

PreppielllC/D|   .... 

Diskey(D)    

Sea  Dragon  (CfDI    . 

..$18 
..  S20 
..S23 
..$33 
..$23 

APX 

Eastern  Front  (CIO) 
7<7  Land  Sim.  (C/Dl 
FigForttilC)    

..$23 
..  $17 
..$30 

MICRQ8ITSINFC    .  .     .  S78 
80  COLUMN  BD  $249 

TECHNICAL  NOTES  J25 

REALTIME  CLK    S3B 

BIOOaiVE     S419 

MEMORIES 


SPECIALS 

Gemini  15X  Printer    $399 

Axiom  AT-100  Printer  (with  interface    $229 

Astra  Double  Density  Dual  Drive $469 

Rana  1000  Drive $319 

Bit-3  80  Column  Board    $245 

Mannesmann  Talley  160L  Printer   S589 

Atari  400  Keyboard  (In  Home)    $35 

Programmer  Kit   ..$48    Entertainer  Kit   ...$64 
WicoJoystick    .  . .  S23    WicoTrackball  .  . .  $49 


COMMODORE 
0^ 


CBM  64 CALL 

1541  DISK  DRIVE  ...  $239 


4eK  RAM  (INTEC)  .. 
64!CRAM(INTEC)   . 
4eK  RAM  (MOSAIC) 
e4K  RAM  (MOSAIC) 
12BK  RAH  DISK   ... 
32K  RAM  (MOSAIC) 


SS5 
$119 

$109 
$145 
$299 
.  $68 


ATARI  INC. 

Microsolt  Basic  II  (R) 
Mickey  in  Great 
Outdoors  (C;D)   . . . 

Paint  (D) 

Speed  Reading  (C)   . . 

Oix(R)    

DiBDugfRl    

Alari  Writer  |R)    

Donkey  Kong  (R)  .    .  . 

Time  Wise  |D)   

Visicalc(D)    

Juggles  House  (CfD) 
Juggles  Rnbw(CfDi   . 

Pilot  (Home)    

Galaxian 

Defender  

ET 

Microsoft  Basic  |0)  - 
Macro  Ass.  &  Edit  |D) 
Assembler  Edilor(R| 
Basic  Cartridge  (R)  . . 

PacMan(R) 

Centipede  (R)    

Cauerns  of  Mars  (D)  . 
Star  Raiders  (R)  .  . . . 
Conv.  Lang.  Ea.  (C)  .  . 
Music  Composer  |R)  . 
Super  Breakout  (R)  .  . 
My  First  Alptiabet(D| 
Prog.2  43|ea.)(C}  ... 
Word  Processor  (D|    . 

Pilot  (Educ.) 

Touch  Typing  (C)  ... 
Home  File  Mngr(D)    . 


.  $62 

.  $36 
.  $30 
.  $54 
.  $30 
.  $30 
-$68 
.  $30 
.  $23 
$139 
.  $22 
.  $22 
.  $55 
.  $30 
.  $30 
.  $34 
.$62 
.  $62 
.  $42 
.$45 
.  $30 
.  $30 
.  $2S 
.  $30 
.  $42 
.  $31 
.  $26 
.  $26 
.  $21 
$102 
.  $92 
.  $19 
.  $36 


AUTOMATED  SIMUL. 
Helifire  Warrior (C/D)    .  $27 
Kng  Arthr'sHBir|C/D)     $20 
Invasion  Orion  (C/DI  . .  $17 
TemplBof  Aps.  (CJD)    .  $27 

SlarWarrior(C/0) $27 

Dragon's  Eye(D) $20 

Crush  Cfumble{C/D)    .$20 

AVALON  HILL 

VC(D1 $17 

B-1  Nuc.  Bomber  (C)  ..  $12 
Legionnaire  (CI  $23 

BRODERBUND 

Sky  Blazer  (D)   $22 

Sank  St.  Writer  (D)    ...  $46 

A.E.  (01 $23 

Arcade  Machine  (0)  . .  $39 
ChopHfter(D)    $23 

CBS 

Mountain  King  (R|  ...$27 
Boulders  &  Bombs  (R|  $27 
Kra^y  (each)    $34 

CONTINENTAL  SOFT. 

Home  Accountant  (D)  $46 
Tax  Advantage  (D|    . . .  $39 

DATASOFT 

Text  Wizard  (D)  $65 

Graphic  Master(D)  ...  $27 

Micro  Painter  (D) $23 

Lisp  interpreter  (0)  ...$79 

GraphtcaGen.jD)   $17 

Basic  Compiler  (D)  ...  $65 
Zaxxon  (C/D)   $27 

DON'T  ASK 

Sam  (O)    $39 

P.M.AnirTjator(D) $23 

Telelari  (D) $27 


EDU-WARE 

Prisoner  II  (Dl    $27 

Spelling  Bee  (D|    ...    $27 

Compu-ReadiO)  $20 

CompuMath  Fr.(D)    .  .  $27 
CompuMath  Dec.(D)  .  $27 
EDUCATIONAL  SOFT. 
Tricky  Tutorial 

l,2,3or4(C(0) $15 

Tricky  Tutorial 

5,6  or  7  (C;D)    $22 

INFOCOM 

SuspendediD)    $34 

Zorkl.lior  lll(D)   S27 

Starcross(D) $27 

Deadline  (□)    $34 

JV  SOFTWARE 

Jrny  to  Pints  (C/D) $20 

Action  Quesl(C/D)    ...  $20 

Gtiosl  Encounl.(C/D)     $20 

LJK 

Letter  PerfecuD)    ...  $74 

Data  Perfect  (D)    $74 

ON-LINE 

Ullima  11(D)  $39 

Marauder  <D) $23 

Lunar  Leeper  (□) $20 

WizS  Princess  (D!    ...  $22 

FroggerfC/Dl    $23 

Crossfire  (R|    $23 

OPTIMIZED  SYSTEMS 

C.65  ID)    $58 

Bug.€5(D)    $23 

Max-65(D)   $58 

Basic  A -1^  (Dl $58 

ROKLAN 

Gorf(D)    $27 

Gorl  (R)    $30 

Wizard  otWor(D)  $27 

Wizard  of  Wor(R)    $30 

SIRIUS 

Alpha  Shield  (R|    $27 

Wavy  Navy  (D) $23 

Bandlls(D)    $23 

SPINNAKER 
SnooperTroopl-2(D)  .  $30 

Kindercomp{D) $20 

Rhymes  4  Riddles  (01  $20 
Hey  Diddle  Diddle  (D|  .  $20 
Srch  AmzngThngs(D)  $27 
Story  Machine  (01  ....  $23 

Face  Maker  (D)   $23 

STRATEGIC  SIM. 
Cosmic  Balance  (D)  ..$27 
Cosmic  Balance  II  (Dl  $27 
Tigers  In  Snov»(C(D)  ..  $27 
BatllaofShiloh(C(D)  ,  $27 
Batlleof  Norm.  (C(0)  .  S27 
GalachcGladialorlDl  $27 
Cytron  Masters  (D)  ...  $27 
SYNAPSE  SOFTWARE 

File  Mngr  800+     $65 

Protector  II  (D)$23(R1S29 
Shamus  - ..  (D)$23(H)$29 
Fort  Apocalypse  (C(0)    $23 

Shamus  U  (C/D) $23 

Necromancer  (C/D)  . . .  $23 
Pharoh'3  Curse  (C/0)  ,  $23 
THORN  EMI 

Soccer(Rl    $34 

Jumbo  Jot  |R)    $34 

Submarine Comm.(R)  $34 
USA 

Atari  World  (D)    $39 

3-0  Sprgrphcs  (C/D)    .  -  $27 
MISCELLANEOUS 
Sargonll    . .  (C)  $20  (Dl  $23 
Financfal  Wizard  (D)  ..  $41 
Ca3tlsWaltensteln(D)  $20 

MaaleiTypelD) $27 

Millionaire (D) $52 

Astro  Chase  (D) $22 

All  Baba(D)  $22 

Miner  2049ef(R)   $34 

Sammy  SaaSerp.(C)  .$13 
Pinball(D)   $20 


^FiSTflfl  1620 

DISK  DRIVE  SYSTEM 

MORE  FOR  YOUR  MONEY 

DOUBLE  OR  SINGLE  DENSITY 

TWO  DRIVES 

SPECIAL    $469 


1701  Color  Monitor  .  .  $255 

1525  Printer    $239 

1S20  Color  Rr J169 

Card?(lnfc)  $60 

Light  Pan    S29 

Csssotte  Infc , ,  S29 

Card  ?  Soltware    $16 


1530  Recordor    S59 

1600  Modetn    $59 

1650  Auto  Modom      ..     $89 
CMB  64  Rel  Guide  $18 

The  Connection  (Inic)       SBS 
MSD  Disk  Drive  . .  $339 

PTl45LotBoard  $59 


-    64 


SOFTWARE 


64 


Printers/Etc. 


GEMINI  10X 
GORILLA  .  - 


S279 
$199 


CITOH 

Prowriler  S345 

Prowrilerll $629 

Starwriler    $1149 

Prinlmaster $144B 

NEC 

8023  A.C    $409 

3510   --  $1375 

3530   $1579 

3660   $1779 

7710/7730    $1998 


PROWRITER 
SMITH  TPI   -. 

SILVER  REED  P 
QUME 11/40+     . 
OKI-DATA 

MicrDlinea2A    . 
Microline63A    .  . 
MicrQ!ine84P   ... 
Microline  92    ,  .  . 
Microline93    ,..- 
DIABLO 

620R 

630R 


$345 
$488 

.  .  $669 
,  $1299 

,  .  $398 
.  .  $638 
.  .  $958 
.  .  $488 
.  $858 


MONITORS 


AMDEK 

Color  I $289 

V300 $139 

V300A    $149 

Color  II $449 


NEC 

GRN(JB1260| 
GRN(JB1201|   .  .. 
Color  Composite 
RGB  Color   


.  $939 
.  $1719 


$115 

.  $155 

$298 

$598 


MODEMS 


HAYES  NOVATION 

Smarlmodem    $209  J-Cat    

Stn  an  modem  1200  ..$498  AppleCatll 

Micfomodemll   $259  D-Cat   


.  .  $99 
.  $269 
.  $U9 


,e^ 


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Multlplan   

Script  64 

Calc  Result  Prot 

Calc  Result  Easv 

The  Home  Accountant  -  . 
Delphis  Oracle  .--... 
Word  Pro  3  uuitti  Spell    .  . 

ACCESS  SOFTWARE 

Neutral  Zone  (C/D)  ...  $26 
Sprite Maslef(C(D)  ...  $37 

AVALON  HILL 

NuKewar(C)    $12 

Planei  Miners  (C)   $12 

Androm- Conquest  (C)  $14 
Midway  Campaign  (C)  $12 
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Comp.  Stcks/Bnds(Cl  $15 
Computer  Football  (Cl   $18 

Telengard(C|    $16 

BATTERIES  INCLUDED 

PapefClip(D)   $85 

Oelphis  Oracle(D)  89 

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CtioplifterlR)    $29 

Serpentine  (R) $27 

Se3fo»(Rl    $27 

David's  Midnight  (Dl  .    $23 

COMMODORE 

Eas/Flle(Di    $75 

Easy  Finance  ID)    ,.,.$38 

Easy  Mail  (Dl  $38 

Easy  Script  (D)    $75 

EasyEcheduie(D)    ...$59 

Logo(R)  $75 

PiloKDl    J76 

Assembler  (D)  $38 

Music  Machine  (D)  ...  $25 
Music  Composer  (D)  . .  $25 

Meza  Music  (Dl  $75 

Video/Music  Supl.(D)    $38 

Jupiler  Lander  (R) $25 

Radar  Rat  Race  (R)  ...  $25 

Sea  Wolf  jR)    $25 

Kickman(R) $25 

COM  M.  DATA 

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COMPUTERMAT 

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Educallon-Pati(Cl $18 

CREATIVE  SOFTWARE 

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Trashman(Rl    $25 

Save  New  VorKlRl    ...  $25 

As1roblitz(RJ  $25 

Household  Fin.  (Dl   ...  $25 

DATA  20 

Video  Pak80  $139 

Zeo  Video  PaK S228 

EN-TECH 

Finance  Calc  64    $34 

DataBase64 $56 

Invoice  Ease  64     .....  $56 

EPYX 

Temple  Of  APS  (Dl  ...$27 
Upper  Reach.  APS  (D)  $14 
Jumpman(D) $27 

HES 

HES  Modem    $59 

6502  Pro(.Dev.Sys.(C)  .  $22 

Hesmon64(Rl $27 

TurtleGrapicslllR)    ..$4) 

HeswriterB4(R)    $32 

Gridrunner(R) $27 

Relroball(R)   $27 

INFOCOM 

Zorkl.  II  or  III  ID)   S27 

DeadiinelD)    , $35 

Starcross(D) $27 

JIN  SAM 

Mlnl-Jlni(R) $75 

LITTLE  WIZARD 

Pro.Maii-Lisi  (C)$22(0)$25 
Stockmaster 

(Invantoryl   (C)$25(D)$28 
LOGISTIC 

Da!acalc64  (C)$55(D)$59 
HomeJournal(D)  ....  $55 


CALL 

.  S77 
.St  14 
.  $68 
.  S48 
.  $89 
-  S78 


MICROSPEC 

Payroll  System  (Dl  ...  $73 
Inventory  Pkg(D)  .  ,  $73 
General  Ledger  (D)  ...  $73 
Disk  Data  Mgr(D)   ...  $62 

Mail  List  Mgr  ID)  $41 

Checkbook  Mgr(D)  ...  $39 
M-SOFT 

M-Fiie(Di $89 

ON.LINE 

FrogsBMDl    $23 

Jawbreaker  (D)   $20 

PACIFIC  COAST  SOFT- 
PCS  (80  Col  BD,  wo  to  Proc, 
D  Base. Spreadsheet)  CALL 
Account  PAC  (C/D)  .  .  .  $34 

FifePACID) $30 

Editor  PAC  (D) $39 

Inquire  PAC  ID)  ....  $57 
HappyTulorTypnglD)  $18 
PROFESS.  SOFTWARE 
WordPro 3 +  (64(0)  ...  $68 
QUICK  BROWN  FOX 
Prol.Word  Proc.  (R)  . . .  $50 
RAINBOW 

Writers  Assistant $95 

Spreadsheet  Assist.  - .  $95 

File  Assistant $95 

SIRIUS 
Blade'Blackpoodte(Di  $27 

Type  Attack  (D)  $27 

Repton  (0)  $27 

Critical  Mass  (Dl $27 

Snake  Byte  (0)    $23 

Way  Qui  ID) $27 

Fast  Eddie  ID) $23 

Turmoil  (D) $23 

Spider  Cily  ID) $27 

SquiSh'Em(D)   $23 

Final  OrbiMDl   $27 

Alpha  Shield  (Dl    $27 

SKYLES  ELEC-  WORKS 

Busicalc(C/Dl $52 

Busiwriler(01    $72 

SPINNAKER 

Snooper  Troops  1  (0)  .$29 

Facemaker(D)    $23 

Kindercomp(O)  - $20 

HeyDiOdle(O) $20 

MoslAmai.  Thing  (Dl  ,  $27 

SYNAPSE 

Fort  Apocalypse  |CfD|    $23 

Survivor  (C/D)    .  $23 

Drelbs(C/D) $23 

Pharoh's  Curse  (C/D)   .  $23 

ProteclorilfDl $23 

Morgal(D)   $23 

Shamus(D)   $23 

TAYLOR  MADE 
Touch  Typing  Tutor 

3.0(D) $21 

TIMEWORKS 

Hbbrs/Lost  Tomb  (C/D)  $21 

Wall  Street  (CfD) $21 

Money  Manager(C/D)     $21 

Data  Master  (C/D) $21 

Dungeons  of  Alg. 

Dragons  (C(D)  $21 

TOTL 

Teii2,8  ...  (Cl $32(0) $34 
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PROGRAMMING  THE  Tl 


C  Regena 


Programming  Tips  And  Hints 


This  month  I  will  cover  a  variety  of  hints  that  1 
hope  will  be  helpful  in  your  programming,  and 
answer  some  questions  1  have  received  that  I  think 
will  be  of  general  interest. 

I  appreciate  your  letters  concerning  my  book, 
Pwi^niiinner's  Reference  Guide  to  the  TI-99/4A.  Sev- 
eral people  have  written  to  me  with  problems 
concerning  certain  programs.  All  those  programs 
have  been  checked,  and  1  am  happy  to  report  the 
listings  are  correct.  The  most  likely  cause  for  errors 
is  mistyping  DATA  statements.  Be  sure  the  num- 
bers are  typed  correctly,  and  be  sure  all  commas 
are  placed  correctly.  See  my  November  1983  col- 
umn for  debugging  hints. 

MEMORY  FULL  Error 

None  of  the  programs  I  have  published  requires 
the  32K  Memory  Expansion.  In  fact,  you  cannot 
access  the  memory  expansion  with  regular,  built- 
in  TI  BASIC.  You  need  the  Extended  BASIC  com- 
mand module  or  another  module  that  can  use  the 
memory  expansion.  If  you  get  a  MEMORY  FULL 
error,  mv  first  guess  would  be  that  you  have  a 
disk  drive  and  disk  controller  connected.  The 
disk  system  automatically  uses  up  some  memory 
with  open  files.  The  default  number  of  files  is 
three.  To  make  memory  available,  specify  only 
one  opened  file  by  typing 


CALL  FILES(l) 
NEW 


(enter) 
(enter) 


then  proceed  normally.  You  may  t\'pe  in  a  program 
or  load  a  program  from  cassette  or  disk.  CALL 
FILES(l)  uses  up  a  little  over  1000  bytes  of  RAM. 

As  a  matter  of  general  procedure,  I  do  a  CALL 
FILES(l)  whenever  I  turn  on  my  computer  (if  I 
have  the  disk  svstcm  attached).  There  are  still 
cases  when  you  may  be  able  to  save  a  program  on 
cassette,  but  not  use  it  with  the  disk  system — 
because  of  the  1000  bytes  less  when  the  disk  sys- 
tem is  connected.  If  vou  are  loading  a  cassette 
and  it  stops  with  a  DATA  ERROR  right  after  the 
header  sound,  full  memory  could  be  the  cause. 

Another  cause  of  a  MEMORY  FULL  error 
could  be  typing  errors  involving  line  numbers 

152    COMPUTE!     Januarv1'?84 


{especially  if  GOSUB  and  RETURN  statements 
are  involved)  or  user-defined  functions. 

Tl  BASIC  And  Extended  BASIC 

Some  TI  Extended  BASIC  owners  have  tried  to 
run  all  TI  BASIC  programs  with  Extended  BASIC. 
If  the  program  is  designed  for  Tl  BASIC,  it  may 
not  work  with  Ext<.'nded  BASIC.  First,  Extended 
BASIC  uses  up  some  of  the  available  memory,  so 
the  TI  BASIC  program  may  not  even  fit  in  Ex- 
tended BASIC.  Second,  TI  BASIC  may  use  graphic 
characters  numbered  from  144  to  159  in  color  sets 
15  and  16;  they  are  unavailable  in  Extended  BASIC. 
Third,  any  PRINT  statements  using  colons  (for 
blank  lines)  in  TI  BASIC  will  confuse  the  computer 
in  Extended  BASIC  because  the  double  colon  is 
used  for  separating  commands. 

For  you  new  TI  owners,  TI  Extended  BASIC 
is  a  programming  language  on  a  command  mod- 
ule that  can  give  you  even  more  powerful  pro- 
gramming capability,  including  smoothly  moving 
sprites.  Any  program  written  in  TI  Extended 
BASIC  requires  theTI  Extended  BASIC  command 
module  to  run.  The  programming  language  that 
is  built  into  the  computer  is  called  console  BASIC 
or  just  TI  BASIC. 

Programming  Speech  And  Games 

How  do  you  use  speech?  The  TI  Speech  Synthe- 
sizer is  a  little  box  that  attaches  to  the  side  of  the 
computer  and  provides  speech  capabilities.  To 
make  it  work,  you  also  need  a  command  module 
that  has  speech  capabilities. 

To  program  your  own  speech,  you  may  use 
Speech  Editor,  TI  Extended  BASIC,  or  Terminal 
Emulator  II.  The  first  two  command  modules  have 
a  limited  vocabulary;  Terminal  Emulator  II  is  more 
versatile  and  allows  unlimited  speech.  A  manual 
comes  with  the  module  that  illustrates  how  you 
can  make  the  computer  talk  either  by  using  al- 
lophones  or  by  spelling  words  phonetically. 

Several  readers  have  requested  help  on 
writing  a  program  for  Spanish — using  the  tilde  and 
accents.  1  hope  to  have  such  a  program  ready  for 
next  month's  column.  It  will  have  optional  speech. 


If  your  joysticks  don't  seem  to  work  right  on 
the  TI-99/4A,  remember  to  release  the  ALPHA 
LOCK  key.  The  ALPHA  LOCK  key  should  be  in 
the  "up"  position  for  joysticks  and  down  for  most 
other  programming. 

Yes,  there  is  a  book  of  games  specifically  for 
the  TI-99/4A.  By  the  time  you  read  this  column, 
COMPUTE!' s  First  Book  of  TI  Games  will  be  avail- 
able. There  are  games  by  several  authors,  in- 
cluding a  few  favorite  games  from  past  issues  of 
COMPUTE!.  Most  of  the  games  have  not  been  pub- 
hshed  previously,  and  there  is  a  variety  to  choose 
from.  The  book  includes  suggestions  on  how  to 
adapt  the  games  for  your  own  use  or  how  to  write 
your  own  games  using  the  illustrated  techniques. 
One  section  of  the  book  includes  games  written 
in  Tl  Extended  BASIC. 

Numeric  Functions 

The  price  of  the  T1-99/4A  may  lead  some  people 
to  think  that  this  computer  is  "just  a  toy."  Actu- 
ally, the  TI  has  such  a  powerful  built-in  BASIC 
that  it  can  do  many  tasks  that  a  few  years  ago 
only  the  very  large  (and  expensive)  computers 
could  handle.  For  an  example,  I'd  like  to  describe 
some  of  the  built-in  numeric  functions  that  are 
available.  In  my  college  days  we  would  spend 
hours  (or  days)  working  on  calculations  for  prob- 
lems. (That  was  in  the  slide  rule  days.)  If  you 
wanted  more  than  three-digit  accuracy,  you  could 
use  math  tables  and  interpolation.  Of  course, 
calculators  became  readily  available  and  reduced 
the  drudgery  considerably.  Now,  however,  you 
can  write  a  program  and  practically  instantly  solve 
several  problems. 

Let  N  stand  for  a  numeric  expression — a 
number  or  combination  of  numbers  or  a  variable 
name  for  a  number.  SQR(N)  will  return  the  square 
root  of  a  number.  Try  PRINT  SQR(64)  and  press 
ENTER.  Next  try  PRINT  SQR(60).  The  square 
root  of  the  number  in  parentheses  is  printed,  and 
it  may  contain  a  decimal  portion.  The  number  N 
must  be  zero  or  positive. 

ABS(N)  returns  the  absolute  value  of  a 
numeric  expression  N.  I  usually  think  of  the  abso- 
lute value  of  a  number  as  the  number  without  the 
positive  or  negative  sign. 

INT(N)  returns  the  integer  value  of  a  numeric 
expression  N.  The  integer  is  the  whole  number 
part  of  a  number,  or  the  number  without  the  frac- 
tional part.  If  you  picture  a  number  line,  the 
integer  function  always  returns  the  closest  whole 
number  to  the  left  of  the  number  specified.  Thus 
INT(6.4)  is  6,  but  for  negative  numbers  INT(  -  3.45) 
is  -4. 

EXP(N)  is  the  exponential  function  and  re- 
turns the  value  of  e"^  where  e  is  the  number 
2.718281828....  The  inverse  is  the  natural 
logarithm  function  LOG(N).  Remember  that  this 


function  is  using  the  base  e,  log^.(N).  If  you  want 
a  logarithm  to  a  different  base,  use  this  formula: 
logB(N)  =  log,,(N)/log^(B) 

For  example,  if  you  want  the  logarithm  of  N  to 
the  base  10: 

PRINT  LOG(N)/LOGaO) 

SGN(N)  is  the  signum  function  which  gives 
the  algebraic  sign  of  a  number  and  is  useful  in 
evaluations  where  you  need  to  know  if  a  number 
is  positive,  zero,  or  negative.  The  values  returned 
are  1  if  the  number  is  positive,  0  if  the  number  is 
zero,  and  -  1  if  the  number  is  negative. 

SIN(N),  COS(N),  and  TAN(N)  are  the  trigo- 
nometric functions  sine,  cosine,  and  tangent.  The 
angle  N  is  expressed  in  radians.  If  you  prefer  to 
think  of  the  angle  in  degrees,  you  can  multiply  the 
number  of  degrees  by  tt/ISO  or  .01745329251994  to 
get  the  equivalent  radians.  Also  remember  that 
for  some  angles  some  of  the  functions  may  not  be 
defined.  If  you  need  the  other  trigonometric  func- 
tions, the  secant  is  the  reciprocal  of  the  cosine, 
the  cosecant  is  the  reciprocal  of  the  sine,  and  the 
cotangent  is  the  reciprocal  of  the  tangent.  ATN(N) 
is  the  arc  tangent  of  the  number  N  and  returns 
the  angle  whose  tangent  is  N.  Again,  the  angle  is 
expressed  in  radians. 

The  above  numeric  functions  can  be  used  in 
combinations  or  as  numeric  expressions  in  other 
statements.  For  example,  the  following  are  valid 
statements: 

200  PRINT  COS(A) 

300  PRINT  SIN (X/Y) +COS <N-. 5) 

400  DN  SGN(A-B)+2  GOTO  300,520,600 

500  L=LOG (X ) /LOG ( 10) 

600  S=INT (SQR  CM)  ) 

User-Defined  Functions 

DEF  allows  you  to  define  your  own  function  if 
you  want  to  use  a  formula  that  is  not  built-in  or  if 
you  want  to  use  a  combination  of  functions  and 
save  some  typing  effort.  The  DEF  statement 
number  must  be  lower  than  the  line  number  where 
the  function  is  used,  so  it  is  wise  to  simply  put 
DEF  statements  near  the  beginning  of  the  pro- 
gram. An  example  using  DEF  is  to  have  the  defi- 
nition statement  near  the  beginning: 

110    DEF     F  (  X)  =X'~3  +  2*X*X-X/2 

and  later  you  may  use  such  statements  as: 

500  PRINT  F(4) 

650  IF  F(N)=0  THEN  780 

680  A=F(L>+F(M) 

Each  time  the  function  is  used,  the  function  is 
evaluated  with  the  numeric  value  within  the 
parentheses. 

You  do  not  have  to  specify  a  parameter  in  the 
DEFinition  statement.  For  example,  you  may  wish 
to  define  a  random  number  R  from  1  to  16: 

JanuaiylPed     COMPUTi!     153 


120  DEF  R=INT ( 16»RND+1 ) 

Later,  every  time  R  is  used  in  a  statement,  a  ran- 
dom number  from  1  to  16  will  be  used: 

350  PRINT  A*(R) 

400  CALL  COLOR<R,R,R) 

(three  possibly  different  v.ikics 
tif  R  will  be  used) 

Controlling  Screen  Scrolls 

If  vou  have  long  lists  of  information,  as  you  print 
the  data  the  printing  scrolls  upward  and  off  the 
screen.  There  are  several  techniques  to  control 
the  scrolling.  One  method  is  to  keep  track  of  how 
many  lines  are  printed.  After  a  certain  number 
are  printed,  create  a  pause  or  wait  until  the  user 
presses  ENTER  or  another  kev.  "Control  Scroll- 
ing" prints  a  list  of  50  names,  each  with  a  random 
number.  I'm  using  names  and  numbers  for  illus- 
tration purposes  only;  you  would  have  your  own 
information  generated  previously.  L  is  a  line 
counter,  and  Une  200  increments  the  number  of 
lines.  Line  210  checks  to  see  if  20  lines  have  been 
printed,  if  so,  the  counter  L  is  reset  to  zero  and  a 
message  to  press  ENTER  is  printed.  CALL  key 
waits  for  the  ENTER  key  to  be  pressed  before  the 
program  continues.  Lines  200-260  could  be  put 
into  a  subroutine  if  you  prefer.  Remember  that  if 
you  double-space  your  output,  line  200  would  be 
changed  to  L  =  L  +  2.  L  keeps  track  of  how  many 
lines  on  the  screen  have  been  used. 

Another  method  to  stop  the  printing  from 
disappearing  off  the  top  of  the  screen  is  to  have 
the  user  press  any  key  to  pause.  When  she  or  he 
lets  go  of  the  key,  the  printing  resumes.  The  CALL 
KEY  statement  is  used  to  detect  if  a  key  has  been 
pressed.  The  general  form  is  CALL  KEY(0,KEY, 
STATUS)  where  0  indicates  for  the  computer  to 
scan  the  whole  keyboard.  KEY  returns  a  number 
corresponding  to  the  key  pressed  (the  ASCII 
code).  STATUS  returns  1  if  a  new  key  is  pressed, 
0  if  no  key  is  pressed,  and  -  1  if  the  same  key  is 
pressed.  You  may  use  any  variable  names  for 
KEY  and  STATUS. 

The  following  sample  program  chooses  a 
random  number  C  then  prints  a  letter  corre- 
sponding to  C  along  with  C.  One  hundred  letters 
and  numbers  are  printed.  If  you  want  to  stop  the 
printing,  hold  a  key  down.  When  you  want  the 
printing  to  resume,  release  the  key. 

10£t  REM  PRESS  A  KEY 

110  CALL  CLEAR 

120  FOR  N=l  TO  100 

130  RANDOMIZE 

140  C=INT <26*RND+1 ) 

150  PRINT  CHR*(C+64),C 

160  CALL  'KEY  <0,  K,  S> 

170  IF  S<>0  THEN  16,0 

180  NEXT  N 

190  END 

You  may  not  want  to  keep  holding  a  key  down 

154     COMPUTE!     JcinuQr¥l984 


to  stop  the  printing.  The  following  program  illus- 
trates how  you  can  stop  the  printing  by  pressing 
any  key,  wait  as  long  as  you  wish,  then  start  the 
printing  again  by  pressing  another  key.  Line  170 
checks  the  status  of  the  CALL  KEY  statement  in 
line  160.  If  no  key  is  being  pressed,  control  goes 
to  line  200,  which  indicates  to  go  to  the  next 
number.  If  a  key  is  pressed,  S  will  not  equal  zero 
and  the  program  goes  to  line  180,  another  CALL 
KEY  statement.  This  time  line  190  checks  to  see  if 
a  new  key  is  pressed.  When  a  new  key  is  pressed, 
S  will  be  1  and  the  program  goes  to  line  200. 

100  REM  PRESS  TWO  KEYS 

110  CALL  CLEAR 

120  FOR  N=l  TO  100 

130  RANDOMIZE 

140  C=INT <26*RND+1 ) 

150  PRINT  CHR»(C+64),C 

160  CALL  KEY(0,K,3) 

170  IF  S=0  THEN  200 

180  CALL  KEV(D,K,S) 

190  IF  S< 1  THEN  180 

200  NEXT  N 

210  END 

Neat  Numbers  Columns 

You  have  probably  noticed  that  the  computer 
prints  items  starting  at  the  left  column.  You  can 
use  commas  and  semicolons  to  separate  items 
and  to  make  nice  columns,  but  the  numbers  line 
up  starting  at  the  left  column  rather  than  right- 
justifying  lines  as  is  standard.  There  are  several 
techniques  to  get  your  columns  to  look  prettier. 

I  often  use  a  subroutine  to  convert  a  number 
to  a  dollars  and  cents  amount,  then  the  dollars 
and  cents  can  be  lined  up.  One  of  the  easiest  ways 
is  to  keep  the  money  expressed  as  a  whole  number 
of  cents;  for  example,  525  would  correspond  to  5 
dollars  and  25  cents.  If  you  know  the  range  of  the 
money  ahead  of  time,  the  coding  can  be  simplified. 
In  this  example,  let's  assume  a  dollar  amount  of 
less  than  $9.99.  The  cost  is  expressed  in  the 
number  of  cents,  C.  Let  C$  be  the  string  value  of 
C.  Next  check  the  length  of  C$.  If  the  length  is  1, 
that  means  there  is  a  single  digit  and  we'll  need  a 
leading  zero  in  our  standard  form  of  dollars  and 
cents.  If  the  length  is  2,  there  are  only  cents  and  I 
will  want  a  space  between  the  dollar  sign  and  the 
decimal  point,  so  I  want  a  leading  space  added  to 
the  string.  The  next  step  is  to  put  two  characters  to 
the  right  of  the  decimal  point.  The  subroutine  is: 

900  C«=STRS (C) 

910  IF  LEN(C*)>1  THEN  930 

920  C*="0"S<C« 

930  IF  LEN(C«)>2  THEN  950 

940  C*="  "SiC* 

950  R*=SEG* ( C*, LEN tC*) -1 , 2) 

960  L4  =  BEB«  ( C«,  1 , LEN  (C*)  -2) 

9  70  C*  =  "  *"?/L *.!<■'.  "S(R* 

9S0  RETURN 

SEG$  refers  to  the  segment  of  C$  starting  at  the 
middle  number  of  the  three  within  parentheses 


and  going  to  the  last  number. 

You  can  use  the  same  general  idea  to  line  up 
a  column  of  any  numbers.  In  the  following  exam- 
ple problem,  lines  110-140  READ  in  nine  numbers 
from  the  DATA  statement  in  line  150  and  print 
the  numbers  in  a  column.  Notice  that  line  130 
tells  the  computer  to  start  printing  the  numbers 
in  column  9  with  the  TAB(9)  function.  The  TAB 
function  is  just  like  the  tabulator  on  a  typewriter — 
the  computer  goes  to  that  column  then  starts  print- 
ing, rather  than  starting  at  the  left  margin. 

Lines  170  to  210  print  out  the  numbers  again, 
but  this  time  right-justified  (ones  column,  tens 
column,  hundreds  column).  First,  the  number 
N(I)  is  converted  to  a  string  N$  so  that  1  can  get 
the  length  L  by  using  the  LEN  function.  This 
length  tells  how  many  digits  are  in  the  number. 
Line  200  uses  the  TAB  function  again,  but  the 
starting  column  depends  on  the  length  of  the 
number.  If  the  number  is  one  digit,  L=  1  and  the 
computer  TABs  12;  if  the  number  is  two  digits, 
the  starting  column  is  1 1;  and  if  the  number  is 
three  digits,  the  starting  column  is  10. 

100  CALL  CLEAR 

110  FOR  1=1  TD  9 

120  READ  N(I) 

130  PRINT  TAB(9);N(I) 

140  NEXT  I 

150  DATA  3,15,5,200,79,8,179,2,11 

160  PRINT 

170  FOR  1=1  TO  9 

180  N$=STR* (N( I ) ) 

190  L=LEN(N*) 

200  PRINT  TAB(13-L);N* 

210  NEXT  I 

220  END 

Keep  in  mind  that  there  are  usually  many 
ways  to  write  a  given  program.  There  are  several 
techniques  to  get  a  column  of  numbers  lined  up 
right,  if  you  can  get  the  computer  to  do  what  you 
want  it  to  do,  your  method  is  fine. 

More  Techniques 

A  note  on  calculations;  Keep  in  mind  that  if  you 
type  a  formula,  the  computer  will  evaluate  the 
expression  using  the  standard  algebraic  order  of 
operations — powers,  multiplication  and  division, 
addition  and  subtraction.  You  may  use  paren- 
theses to  group  numbers  to  keep  within  the  stand- 
ard order. 

Tip  of  the  month:  Use  the  left-hand  SHIFT 
key  to  t}^pe  the  plus  sign,  +  .  (That's  standard 
typing  position  anyway.)  If  you  use  the  right 
SHIFT  with  the  -f- ,'  it  is  possible  to  hit  the  FCTN 
key  instead,  which  results  in  QUIT,  and  you're 
back  to  the  title  screen  and  your  program  is  gone. 

The  function  keys  can  be  used  within  a  pro- 
gram by  detecting  their  code  numbers  after  a 
CALL  KEY  statement.  For  example,  if  you  check 
to  see  if  the  ENTER  key  was  pressed,  you  check 
IF  KEY  =  13.  If  you  wish  to  use  REDO,  which 


corresponds  to  FCTN  8,  then  check  for  the  key 
code  of  6.  In  the  "Southern  States"  program  in 
the  August  1983  issue  of  COMPUTE!,  the  user  types 
in  an  answer.  The  tvping  is  printed  on  the  screen. 
The  method  used  is  CALL  KEY  rather  than  INPUT 
to  prevent  scrolling.  If  you  want  to  be  able  to 
erase  your  answer  as  you  are  typing,  add  the  fol- 
lowing lines: 

7B2  IF  K=6  THEN  720 
1062  IF  K=6  THEN  1000 

Now  after  the  CALL  KEY  statement,  the  computer 
checks  to  see  if  a  letter  was  pressed,  the  ENTER 
key,  or  FCTN  8. 

I  do  appreciate  vour  letters  and  can  answer 
general  questions  in  this  column,  or  your  ques- 
tions can  be  answered  in  "Readers'  Feedback"  or 
"Questions  Beginners  Ask."  If  you  have  problems 
running  any  of  mv  programs,  I  can  also  try  to 
help.  Please  be  specific  about  which  program  it  is 
(and  which  computer,  since  1  own  several  brands) 
and  what  the  error  is.  The  exact  error  message 
and  line  number  helps  to  pinpoint  the  error.  Please 
do  not  ask  me  to  debug  your  own  programs  or 
programs  from  other  authors. 

A  special  welcome  to  all  our  new  readers 
who  may  have  just  received  a  computer  for  Christ- 
mas. 1  will  try  to  continue  to  write  programs  and 
columns  that  will  meet  vour  needs.  May  1984  be  a 
productive  year  for  all  of  vou  Tl  owners. 

Control  Scrolling 


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280 
290 


300 

310 

320 
330 


REM  C 
DIM  N 

FOR  I 

READ 

P  (  I  )  = 

NEXT 

L  =  0 

CALL 

FOR  I 

PRINT 

L  =  L+  1 

IF  L< 

L  =  0 

PRINT 

CALL 

I  F  K  < 

CALL 

NEXT 

SOTO 

DATA 

NT,  J  I 

,  CIND 

N 

DATA 

DEAN, 

HERYL 

DATA 

CY,  KI 

ERRY  , 

DATA 

,RAY, 

END 


DNTROL  SCROLLING 

* (50) , P (50) 

=1  TO  50 

N*  C  I  ) 

INT <S0*RND+10) 

I 

CLEAR 
=1  TO  50 
N* (  I  )  , P (  I  ) 

20  THEN  270 

:  "PRESS  < enter:;" 

KEY (0, K, S) 

>13  THEN  240 

CLEAR 

I 

330 

ANDY, AURA, LENA, BILL, ED, BRA 

M, JOHN, RANDY, RICHARD, CHERY 

Y, SHEILA, JOANN, GEORGE, SUSA 

KELLY, JENNIE, ANGELA, BRYAN, 
RELLE, LEWIS, MELISSA, DOUe,S 
, EUGENE, MITCH, KATHY, JEREMY 
JUSTIN, STEVE, JASON, PAM,TRA 
M,JDELLE,JUDY,BRENDA,BaB,J 
GARY , MARILYN 

JODI , DEBBIE, BRENDA, RON, MAE 
LINDA 

© 
January  IPS'!     COMPUTE!     1S5 


All  About 

Commodore 
Chaining 


Melvyn  D,  Mogree 


If  you've  tried  chaining  programs,  but  found  that  vari- 
ables were  lost  in  the  process,  \/oii'lI  find  the  solution 
here.  The  article  tells  you  lioiv  to  cliaiit  progniius  so 
that  variables  are  safe,  and  liow  to  handle  the  variables 
you  don't  want  to  pass  from  one  program  to  another. 


You  are  writing  a  program  which  is  rapidly  be- 
coming larger  and  larger.  Then  the  dreaded  mes- 
sage is  displayed: 

OUT  OF  MEMORY 

What  to  do?  You  "crunch"  the  program  again 
and  again;  you  search  for  hours  for  one  more  thing 
to  eliminate.  Everything  that  you  have  left  is  im- 
portant. {Crunching  means  saving  memory  by 
eliminating  REM  statements,  combining  com- 
mands onto  multiple-statement  lines,  and  using 
abbreviations  such  as  ?  for  PRINT.) 

At  wit's  end,  you  discover  at  least  one  part  of 
the  program  that  you  use  at  the  very  beginning 
and  never  use  again.  You  may  even  find  that  you 
have  more  sections  you  use  only  once  and  then 
move  on  to  another  section.  Now,  if  you  could 
load  that  section  in  onlv  when  it  is  needed  and 
then  load  the  next  section  when  it  is  needed. 

Many  microcomputers  do  allow  you  to  do 
this.  You  can  use  the  LOAD  command  as  a  state- 
ment in  your  first  program,  and  your  computer 
will  execute  the  first  program  and  then  LOAD  in 
the  requested  program  and  go  to  the  first  statement 
of  the  second  program.  This  is  called  chniniiig. 

156    COMPirra!    January  198^ 


Changes  In  Variables 

If  you  have  a  VIC-20  or  a  Commodore  64,  you  can 

chain.  The  Conntiodore  64  Prograinnwr's  Refcrejice 
Guide  states  on  page  59:  "None  of  the  variables 
are  cleared  during  a  chain  operation."  The  VJC-20 
Programmer's  Reference  Guide  is  a  bit  more  thorough 
about  this  and  states  on  page  8:  "Variables  used 
in  the  first  program  will  not  be  cleared  as  long  as 
the  new  program  is  shorter  in  length  than  the  older 
one."  You  might  find  that  this  restriction  causes 
you  problems,  especially  if  you  have  a  small  in- 
itialization section  that  you  want  to  use  as  the 
first  program. 

But,  beware!  There  is  another  "gotcha."  It 
may  be  true  that  "none  of  the  variables  are 
cleared,"  but  not  all  variables  remain  the  same 
"during  a  chain  operation."  Programs  1  and  2 
demonstrate  this. 

Program  1  is  89  bytes  long,  Program  2  is  25 
bytes;  so  we  have  no  problem  with  the  size 
restriction.  However,  Program  2  does  not  print 
the  variable  S$  as  "TEST"  as  set  in  Program  1,  but 
as"S$". 

All  good  designs,  whether  of  space  shuttles 
or  of  can  openers,  are  compromises.  Microcom- 
puters are  no  exception.  In  tirder  to  conserve  space 
in  programs,  the  designers  of  Commodore  BASIC 
chose  to  leave  string  text  directly  in  the  program 
rather  than  copy  it  to  a  separate  area.  Thus,  when 
Program  2  overlays  Program  1,  the  descriptor  for 
SS  points  to  the  same  location,  but  to  different 


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text,  in  the  case  of  Prot;rani  2,  this  happens  to  be 
a  part  of  line  2  and  line  3  (1  inserted  the  REM  at 
line  1  to  force  S$  to  become  something  at  least 
partly  recognizable).  To  see  what  has  happened, 
let's  examine  the  contents  of  S$  character  by  char- 
acter. We  do  this  by  the  direct  statement: 

FOR  I  =  1  TO  4;PRINT  ASC(MIDS{SS,I));:NEXT 

and  get 

83  36  0  23 

that  is,  "S",  "$",  and  two  nonprinting  characters. 
The  structure  of  a  BASIC  statement  is; 


-'''"iiil 
next 

stJtemenI 

statement 

statement 

number 

tokenized 

terminator 

low      /high 
byte  /  byte 

low   /high 
byle/  byte 

statement 

(0) 

So  we  realize  that  the  first  two  characters  are 
the  "SS"  of  line  2,  the  zero  is  the  terminator  for 
line  2,  and  23  is  the  low  byte  of  the  location  of  the 
line  following  line  3  (the  program  termination 
characters). 

Passing  Variables 

If  vou  are  willing  to  make  your  programs  look  a 
bit  clumsv,  vou  can  get  around  this  problem  rather 
simply  (see  Program  3).  I  modified  line  1  of  Pro- 
gram 1  so  that  S$  is  set  to  a  null  string  plus  "test". 
This  causes  space  to  be  created  in  variable  storage 
which  is  not  overwritten  when  Prt»gram  2  is 
loaded.  And  so,  when  Program  3  calls  Program  2, 
Program  2  prints  SS  correctly. 

Another  solution  would  be  to  set  all  strings 
with  READ  and  DATA  statements,  which  would 
put  them  beyond  the  area  to  be  overlaid  by  any 
subsequent  programs.  But  this  can  cause  difficul- 
ties if  vou  need  to  call  bigger  programs. 

Here's  a  solution.  As  vou  write  your  various 
programs,  monitor  the  size  of  each.  You  can  do 
this  by 

PRINT  PEEK(45),PEEK(46) 

remembering  the  low-bvte,  high-byte  format 
used.  If  any  program  is  larger  than  the  first  in  the 
chain,  then  do  the  following.  In  your  first  prtigram 
set  the  start  of  numeric  variables  (memory  ad- 
dresses 45,46),  the  start  of  arrays  (47,48),  and  the 
end  of  arrays  (49,30)  to  tlie  value  for  the  size  of 
the  largest  program  in  the  chain  or  greater.  You 
should  do  this  as  the  first  thing  in  your  program 
so  that  vou  do  not  lose  any  variables.  See  Program 

168     COMPUTE!     Januarv1<?84 


4  and  Program  5.  (I  put  line  2  in  Program  5  for  no 
other  reason  than  to  help  make  it  bigger  than  Pro- 
gram 4.)  These  examples  are  for  the  Commodore 
64.  If  you  have  a  VIC-2n,  the  8  POKEd  into  loca- 
tions 46,  48,  and  50  would  be  replaced  by  16  for 
an  unexpanded  version;  by  4  for  a  3K  expansion; 
and  by  18  for  8K  or  more  expansion. 

df  course,  you  may  have  variables  that  you 
do  not  wish  to  pass  from  the  first  program  to 
others.  To  prevent  these  variables  from  being 
passed,  you  must  use  them  in  the  first  part  of  the 
first  program.  (Also,  vou  can't  use  any  variables 
in  the  first  part  that  you  wish  to  pass  to  other 
programs.)  After  you  have  used  the  variables 
which  are  not  to  be  passed,  do  a  CLR  to  clear  var- 
iable storage;  then  POKE  locations  45  to  50  with 
the  size  of  the  largest  program.  Now  you  can  de- 
fine and  set  the  variables  you  wish  to  pass  to  other 
programs. 

One  final  remark.  As  you  update  your  pro- 
grams, do  not  do  so  after  one  has  been  loaded  by 
another  program.  When  you  SAVE,  it  will  be  the 
size  of  the  largest  program  in  the  chain  or  even 
larger.  This  covild  have  some  side  effects  later  that 
you  would  ha\'e  difficiiltv  figuring  out.  Reload 
any  program  you  update  before  you  SAVE.  If  you 
have  done  this  consistently,  its  size  as  given  in 
locations  45  and  46  will  be  accurate. 

Program  1 

1  N=99:S$="TEST" 

2  PRINT"TEST1,    A   BIGGER    PROGRAM   THAN    TEST 
2" 

3  PRINTN,S$ 

4  L0AD"TEST2",a 

Program  2 

1  REM 

2  PRINTN,S$ 

3  END 

4  LOAD"TEST2",8 

Program  3 

1  N=99:S$=""+"TEST" 

2  PRINT"TEST3,     A   BIGGER    PROGRAM    THAN    TEST 
2" 

3  PRINTN,S? 

4  LOAD"TEST2",8 

Program  4 

1  POKE45 , 104 : P0KE46 , 8 : P0KE47 , 104 : P0KE48 ,  8 
:POKE49, 104:POKE50,8 

2  N=99:S$=""+"TEST" 

3  PRINTN.S? 

4  LOAD"TEST5",8 


Program  5 


1  PRINT"TEST5,    A   PROGRAM    WHICH    WE   WANT    TO 

BE    SOMEWHAT    BIGGER    THAN    TEST4" 

2  S$="*"-t-S$ 

3  PRINTN,S$ 

4  END  © 


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The  Mozart  Machine 


Donald  J  Eddington 


Your  computer  can  aviipo'^e  music  with  this  special 
tccliniqiic.  Ttic  compositions  arc  rcnmrkably  Moznrtiiui 
in  style. 


If  you've  e\'er  gone  through  the  stops  to  make 
your  computer  play  a  particular  piece  of  music, 
you  realize  that  it  can  be  a  significant  programming 
task.  To  have  your  computer  actually  write  music 
is  a  real  feat. 

To  accomplish  this,  we've  first  got  to  find  a 
way  to  work  with  POKE  \'alues  in  DATA  state- 
ments in  order  to  make  the  measures  of  music. 
Also,  we  need  to  be  able  to  READ  the  values  in 
any  order  so  that  the  songs  will  be  different  with 
each  run  of  the  program.  The  commonly  used 
string  manipulation  methods  won't  work  very 
well  here.  We  need  variety,  and  the  traditional 
way  of  working  with  strings  quickly  results  in  a 
tangled  mess. 

Alternativelv,  you  could  write  each  measure 
as  a  series  of  POKE  Note/Duration/Next  Note 
repeats.  But  by  the  time  you  had  about  a  dozen 
measures  entered  this  way,  vou'd  see  the  ?OUT 
OF  MEMORY  error  message  on  a  VIC.  The  results 
of  this  method  are  fine,  but  you'll  probably  find  it 
too  long  and  repetitive. 

Array  Referencing 

The  shortest,  best  way  to  solve  this  problem  is  to 
use  a  technique  called  array  referencing.  First,  to 
get  the  measures  of  music,  vou  set  up  an  array  of 
all  variables,  then  reference  them  by  subscript 
into  a  POKE  loop.  Specifically,  14  variations  on 
nine  variables  are  required  to  make  the  music  for 
this  program.  The  random  number  generator  is 
used  to  make  the  music  different  every  time  the 
program  is  run. 

A  Mozartian  flavor  results  from  a  deliberate 
shortening  of  the  low  notes  and  making  the  high 
notes  of  varying  lengths.  And  to  keep  the  music 
from  becoming  totally  random,  DATA  statements 
select  the  measures  by  their  underlying  tonality — 
tonic,  subdominant,  dominant,  or  supertonic. 
You  also  need  to  provide  for  cadence  measures 
every  four  measures  and  for  a  final  ending  chord 

160     COMPUTI!     January  1984 


for  each  tune. 

This  line-by-line  explanation  (of  the  VIC  ver- 
sion) will  help  illustrate  the  programming  steps 

involved. 

Following  The  Composer 

Lines 
10 


25 

30-50 

75 

80 

90 


91-95 

100-130 

160-178 

180 
190-270 

300-332 


500-510 

900 

1010-1035 


1500-1510 


DIMension  an  .irrav  for  notes — 9  notes  per 

measure,  14  \iiriaHons. 

Green  screen  with  a  red  tinrder. 

Ediication.il  int'ormation  printed  on  the  screen. 

Wail  for  two  seconds  Ix'fore  continuing. 

Orange  screen  with  a  green  border. 

Kt- Al^  into  the  array  nil  notes  in  the  following 

DATA  statements  until  14  variations  of  the  9 

measures  are  all  read  in.  Add  2!2  to  each  note 

to  make  it  a  pitch  \alLie  t^efore  the  note  is 

POKEd. 

ihe  DATA  statements  tliat  lineal)  KliADs  to 

fill  the  array. 

Speed  value  and  voice  niimliers — line  l.iO  is 

the  volume. 

The  DATA  statements  which  keep  the  music 

like  Mozart's  liy  controlling  the  next  tonality 

used  and  where  the  cadences  will  fall. 

Kl-.-\D  the  ne\l  item  in  the  DATA  statements 

(170-178). 

Determine  the  value  of  Y,  then  CtTIO  101 0  IF 

RR  is  2,  ?,  or7.  If  RR  isK.  thenSOtl;  if  RR  is  9, 

then  15(10. 

These  lines  guarantee  that  the  value  of  Y  will 

be  different  each  time  (he  program  is  run,  This 

section  is  a  random  nuniLier  generator.  Note: 

Y  is  used  to  select  the  \ariation  READ  from  the 

array  DlMed  in  line  10.  At  line  1010.  these 

values  of  Y  will  be  used  to  create  a  measure  of 

miisic. 

The  ending  module  that  is  printed  on  the 

screen  when  the  program  is  finished. 

REM  line  telling  the  programmer  that  this  is 

where  the  music  is  actually  produced  and 

POKEd  intti  the  correct  \'oices. 

This  is  where  the  music  is  created — by  taking 

the  value  of  Y  determined  in  lines  I9()-33f  and 

reading  the  array  at  position  Y(l-14)  l'or9 

notes  (subscripts)  then  POKEing  these  \'alues 

into  the  correct  \  oices  to  get  the  rmtes.  Line 

1035  ends  with  a  GOTO'l60  to  make  the 

program  create  another  measure  of  music. 

This  section  ends  each  tune  with  a  long  chord, 

then  waits  two  seconds  between  times. 

Then  the  program  plays  another  time. 


77-TiT^ 


APPLE,  ATARI,  IBM  &  C-64 


f      PROGRAM 

PRICE 

PROGRAM 

PRICE 

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24.75 

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22.95 

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26.35 

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23.05 

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26.35 

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32.95 

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23.05 

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26.35 

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26.35 

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26.35 

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19.75 

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19.75 

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19.75 

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16.45 

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26.35 

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19.75 

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16.45 

Math  Flash 

14.47 

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25.25 

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18.87 

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19.75 

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19.75 

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18.70 

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15.45 

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22.00 

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73.10 

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26.35 

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96.80 

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11.95 
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148.50 

Sands  of  Egypt 

19.75 

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Seawolf 

22.95 

Single  Sided. 

Serpentine 

26.35 

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1.7S 

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22.95 

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Silicon  Warrior 

26,35 

Sinqle  Density 

1.45 

Specter 

22.95 

Double  Sided, 

Springer 

25.25 

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2.25 

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22.95 

Interface  Module 

75.63 

v^ 

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Turtle  Graphics  II  (CRT) 

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Paint  Brush  (CRT) 


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Apple  Hit  List 


Sammy  Lightfool 5  24 

Suspended S  35 

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Witness $   34 

Spare  Change S  23 

Knight  of  Diamonds %  13 

Zaxxon   I  27 

Lode  Runner i  23 

Serpentine S  23 

Choplider $  23 

Frogger $  23 

Sea  Fox S  20 

Temple  o(  Apshai S  27 

ZorkI,  II,  III   Ea.S  27 

CaslleWollenslein S  20 

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1525  Printer $229 

1530  Datasette $  64 

1541  DiskDrive $249 

1600  Modem $  89 

1701  Commodore  Monitor $289 

VIC  1311  Joystick $     8 

VIC  1312  Game  Paddles $  16 


Educational 


Reading  &  Language  Arts 

SuparHangman(C) J  14 

SlmonfHes3(C) i  13 

Concentration  (C( $  13 

Home  Babysitter t  23 

Word  Search (15 

Facemaksf 54-S  23     VIC-$  27 

Kindsrcomp/54 i  20 

Snooper  Troops  1/64  ,.,...... %  27 

Mathematics 

SkyMa(h(C)  %  12 

SpacaDivlsion  i  12 

Bingo  Speed  Maih(CT> S  23 

NumberCrunch(CT) S  23 

NumberChasar $  17 

NumberGulpsr t  17 


Music 

Fun  with  Music S   27 

VIC  Music  Composer  1CT> S  42 

HESSynthesound(CT) J  49 

Programming  Techniques 

Intro  to  Basic  Prog.  I S  22 

Intro  to  Basic  ProQ.n %  22 

Programmer's  Aid  Cart S  22 

TurllaGraphlc3;Hoss{CT> J  29 

Gortacki  The  Microchip S  23 

Kids  on  Kays/W i  23 

Books 

KIdsandthoVIC $  18 

Programmof'jRetarenceGuida-VIC  ,,S  14 
Programmer's ReterencQGuld&^  ...t  IB 


Apple/Educational 


sticky  Bear  Numbers/Xerox 

Sticky  Bear  ASC/Xeron 

Sticky  BearOpposilesfXerox         -    - 

Sticky  Bear  Shapes/Xeiox 

In  Search  of  Mosi  Amazing  Thing 

Spinnaker  

Hey  Diddle  DiddleiSpinnaker ....-.,. 

Snooper  Troops  1  &  2/Spinnakef    .  Ea 

Delta  Orawmg/Spinnaker 

Story  Machine/Spinnaker 

Face  Maker/Spinnaker 

Rhymes  &  Riddles/Spinnaker 

Alphabet  Zoo'Spmnaker 

Pialo  Whole  Numbers 

Plato  Decimals 

Plato  Fiactions 

PDI  Preschool  Buildei 

Match WitsrCBS,    , 

Mastering  the  S.A,T,/CBS   .      ... 

Early  Games  for  Young  Children/ 

Counterpoint    ,  , 
Early  Games  MusiciCounterpoint 


S  30 
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$  27 


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20 

30 

34 

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20 

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Spelling  Bee  with  Reading  Primer . 

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Fractions/Eduware       

Decimals/Eduware 
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Master  Typedightning 

Type  Attack/Sinus       

SAT  Word  Allack/Karlcourt 

Base  

Word  Altack/Oavidson 

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Starcross   - $27 

Witness    S  34 

Planetlall S  34 

Spinnal(er 

Snooper  Troops  K1  (D) S  30 

Face  Maker  (D) S  23 

KinPercomp(D) S  20 

HeyOiddie  S  20 

In  Search  of  the  Most  Amazing  Thing    S  27 

Fraction  Fever  (CRT)     S  20 

Alphabet  Zoo  (CRT)     S  20 

Delta  Drawing  |CRT|    S  20 

Kids  of  Keys S  23 

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Frogger  (0)  S  25 

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Threshold  (CRT)  J  27 

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Apple  Cider  Spider S  24 

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Mole  Attach   $23 

Bingo  Speed  Math $  23 

Quick  Brown  Fox $  56 

Avenger $23 

Super  Alien $  23 

Jupiter  Lander $  23 

Draw  Poker $23 

Midnight  Drive   $  23 

RaidonForlKnOK $23 

Sargon  II  Chess  $  29 

Gorf $29 

Omega  Race $  29 

SeaWoll $  23 

Apple  Cider  Spider  (CT) $  27 

Sammy  LightfootcCT)  S  27 

Frogger $27 


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Atari,  Inc. 

1010  Recorder S   75 

1050  Disk  Drive J339 

1027Prmler $285 

1025Pfmler    J429 

830  Modem .S1J5 

850  Interface S179 

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462Eaucator S110 

483  Prog  rarr^mer  ,. S52 

Commiiriicaior  II S209 

Alan  Accounting      S169 

CX4104  Mailing  List 119 

CXL4007  Music  Composer $42 

Programnning  2  &  3 Ea  $  22 

Convefsationaf  Languages Ea.  $  45 

CX4013  Pilot $  55 

CX405  Pilot $   99 

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CXL4020Cen1ipede $33 

CXL40O6  Super  BreaKoul $26 

CXL4008  Space  Invaders $26 

CXL40O9  Computer  Ctiess $  26 

CXL401 1  Star  Raiders   $  33 

CXL4012MisSileCommana S  26 

CXL4013  Asteroids S  26 

Tfie  Bookkeeper $102 

Home  Filing  Manager  $  65 

Atari  Speed  Reading   S  54 

Home  Manager  Kit    .  ,  ,  . , S  55 

Family  Finance S  36 

Time  Wise J  23 

Galaxian .....$  33 

Defender .,..,....$  33 

Paint  $  33 

Oix $33 

Dig  Dug $33 

ET  Plione  Home $  34 

Atari  Writer $  75 

Donkey  Kong  ...$  36 

Donkey  Kong.  Jr $  38 

Pac  Man  J  33 

Ms.  Pac  Wan $36 

Atari  Logo J  72 

Mickey  in  ttie  Great  Outdoors/D  .,    .,$30 

Peler  Pan's  Danng  Escape $  36 

Pengo  ...  $  33 

HoOotron  2084  $33 

Pole  Position   $  36 

Eastern  From  $  33 

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Visicaic $169 

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Color  AccounlanI S  65 

Data  Perfect $69 

Letter  Perfect S  69 

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Money  Wizard  . , S  45 

Tent/Spell  Wizard  Combo I  53 

Letter  Wizard S  45 

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SynText  S  66 

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Syn  Mail    $  34 

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Graphics  Generator S  17 

Micropainter S  23 

Graphics  Masler S  23 

Miles  Payroll  System .31 


Atari  Specials 


Educational 


The  Alpnabet  Arcade  ID  or  Cl S  13 

My  First  AlptiaBet(D| $  26 

MonkeySea.Moni(ey  Spell. (C)$14(D1S  17 

PopR Spell (C:i$  20     (D($  22 

Dolt  Yourself  Spalling  Id $  16 

Vocabulary  Builder  .(C)$   13     (D|  $   19 

Preparing  tor  theSAT.  ., (OS  66  (Dl$  79 
Computation 

Concenlration (C)S  13     |D)$  15 

Crossword  Magic  {D) $  34 

WizwareMicrozinefDl $  27 

Einstein  Memory  Trainer  (D) $53 

BigMaihAttack    (C)$  17     |D|$2a 

Compumath  Fractions.  .(C) S  23  (D|$  29 
Compumatn  Decimals  .(C)$  23  (DiS  29 
Addition/Suhlraction  . .  .(C)S  14  (D|$  17 
MulKDivision (OS  14     (D)S  17 


Sammy  LightloollD or  CT) S  25 

AppleCiderSpidei(CT) S  27 

Hey  Diddle  Diddle  ID) $  20 

Snooper  Troops  1  &  2  (Df Ea  S  30 

Story  Machine (Dl$  23     (CT)$  27 

Face  Maker  (D  or  CT] $23 

Alphabet  Zoo |D)  S  20     (CT)$  23 

Delta  Drawing  (CT] $  27 

Rhymes*  Riddles (D| $  20 

Fraction  Fever  (CT) S   23 

Kindercomp  (D  or  CT) S  20 

Magic  Melody  Bok - $   14 

Globemaster  (Ql    $27 

Stales  &  Capitals  (CI  S   12 

European  Countries  &Capitals(C)  ,.,$  12 
Sammy  the  Sea  Serpent  |C)S  13  (D)S  19 
Preschool  10  Builders      (CIS  13     (D)$  24 


Tricky  Tutorials  — 
Educalional  Software 


»  1  Display  Lists -  -  (C.DI  $  17 

#  2  Honz/Vertical  Scrolling (C.D1$  17 

#  3  Page  Flipping (C.D)$  17 

#  4  Basics  of  Animation (C.D)$17 

#  5  Player  Missile  Graphics  .       (C.D|$  24 
fl  6  Sound  and  Music |C.Dl$  24 


#  7  Disk  utilities (D)S  24 

»  8  Character  Graphics   (C,D)S  20 

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Wico  "Boss"  Joystick   $ 

Wico  Redball  Joystick $ 

Elephant  Disks  S/S  (10  per  box) $ 

Verbatim  Disks  S/D  (10  per  box) $ 

Disk  Savers  (plastic  sleeves) 

mutti-colored  1  doz $ 

Disk  Mailers   $ 

Flip  'n  File  Diskette  Holder  w/lock  (holds  25)  .  .  $ 

Flip  'n  File  Diskette  Box  (lioids  50) S 

Library  Carrying  Case  (tiolds  10) S 

Gorilla  Banana  Printer $209.00 

Percom  Printer  Port  Drive  88S1 PD $439.00 

Percom  Single  Density  Drive $389.00 

Percom  Double  Density  Drive $51 5.00 

Alphacom  80  Col.  Graphics  Printer $1 49.00 

Amdek  Color  I  Monitor $299.00 


4.50 

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Ataft  830  MoOam jiss  Amflek  Color  II $659 


New  nit  List 


InSearchol  the  Most  Amazing  Thing  .$  27 

Witness I  34 

Cosmic  Balance  II  %  27 

Temple  ol  Apshai $  27 

Raster  Blaster  $  20 

Deaoiine  $  34 

Richochei  $  15 

Wizi  Princess $22 

All  Baba  and  the  Forty  Thieves    $22 

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Entertainment  And  Education 

Significantly,  this  program  does  not  copy  any  of 
Mozart's  music;  rather  it  imitates  Mozart's  style. 
You  might  want  to  introduce  some  alternative 
composition  rules  and  stylistic  ideas  and  come  up 
with  a  mechanical  composer  of  your  own.  How 
about  a  Pink  Floyd  machine  or  a  Bartok  machine? 

If  you  don't  want  to  type  this  program  in 
yourself,  cassette  copies  of  the  VIC  ivrsiou  arc 
available  upon  request.  Send  $3,  a  blank  cassette, 
and  a  stamped,  self-addressed  mailer  to: 

VIC  Mozart  Machine 
18WSoutti4thSt. 
Sprm^field,  IL  62703 


Tliis  screen  iiifroituccs  "The  Mozart  Machine"  to  VIC  users. 
(Other  versiojis  i^iiiiilar.) 


Program  1:  viC  Mozart 


10  DIMX(14,9) 

25  POKE36879,90 

30  PRINT"{CLR] [2  DOWN] {RIGHT} fWHT} WELCOME 

I  I  AM  VICLANG  AHAZIUS  MOZART." 
35  PRINT" {DOWNll  PLAY  SONGS  LIKE  THE  CHIL 

D  PRODIGY, WOLFGANG  AMADEUS  MOZART  MIGH 

T  HAVE  DONE . " 
40  PRINT" {2  DOWNlMOZART  LIVED  FROM  1756TO 
1791  AND  WROTE  OVER626  WORKS  IN  31  YE 

ARS .  " 
50  PRINT" {DOWN} {RED] THE  5  PIECES  YOU  HEAR 
ARE  BEING  WRITTEN  BY! 2  SPACES} THE  COM 

PUTER  AS  YOU {3  SPACES } LISTEN  1 " 
7  5  FORT=1TO2000:NEXT 
80  POKE36879,141 

90  F0RT=1T01 4 : F0RTT=1T09 ; READX : X{T , TT ) =X+ 
212:NEXTTT:NEXTT 

91  DATA3,11,II,11,11,16, 16, 11 , 7, 3 , 11 , 16, 1 
1,16,13,16,11,16,3,11,13,11,16, 13,16,1 
1,  16 

92  DATA3, 13, 16, 13, 19, 22, 19, 23, 13, 3, 13, 19, 
13,19,16,19,13,13,3,19,13,13,3,19,19,1 

^M    COMPUIIt    Janucrv1984 


3,3 

93  DATA7,  13, 16, 13, 22,  16, 16, 13, 7, 0,7, 16, 7, 
13, 11,  16, 7, 13, 7,  19, 22, 13, 16, 13, 16,11,7 

94  DATA7,13,11, 13,7,11,19,13,7,7,13,11,13 
,7, 11,  19, 13,  13, 3, 11, 13, 11, 16, 16, 16, 16, 
16 

95  DATA0,16, 13, 7, 7, 7, 16, 7, 7, 3, 19,  16, 13,  13 
,13,19, 13,13 

100  REM  SET  VOICE  NUMBERS, AND{ 2  SPACES] SP 

EED  VALUE 
120  K=36875:L=36876:P=175 
130  POKE36878,12 
160  REM  SET  SELECTED {2  SPACES} MEASURE  BY 

[SPACE} DATA  NUMBER 
170  DATAl ,3,6,2,1,4,6,2,3,4,1,5,1,4,6,7,1 

,4,6,2,1,3,6,9 
172  DATA  1,1,4,5,1,4,6,2,3,4,1,5,1,4,1,5, 

1,4,6,9 
174  DATA  1,4,6,2,3,6,1,5,1,4,6,7,3,4,6,2, 

1,4,3,7,1,4,6,9 
176  DATA  1,4,3,7,1,6,4,5,6,3,6,2,4,6,1,5, 

1,4,6,9 
178  DATA  1,4,3,7,6,3,6,2,4,6,1,5,1,3,6,7, 

3,6,1,5,1,4,6,9,8 
180  READRR 
190  IFRR=1THEN300 
200  IFRR=2THENY=12:GOTO1010 
210  IFRR=3THEN310 
220  IFRR=4THEN320 
230  IFRR=5THENY=14:GOTO1010 
240  IFRR=6THEN330 
250  IFRR=7THENY=13:GOTO1010 
260  IFRR=8THEN500 
270  IFRR=9THEM1500 

300  Y=1:X=RND(1} :IFX< .35THENY=3 

301  IFX> .75THENY=2 

302  GOTO1010 

310  Y=10: IFRND(1)< . 4THENY=11 :GOTO1010 

320  Y=4:X=RND(1) :IFX< .35THENY=5 

321  IFX> . 75THENY=6 

322  GOTO1010 

330  Y=7:X=RND{1) :IFX<.35THENY=B 

331  IFX> .7  5THENY=9 

332  GOTO1010 

500  PRINT "{ CLR } {DOWN} {YEL} WELL, THAT'S  ALL 

—  HOPeU  SPACES]Y0U  LIKED  ITU" 
510  PRINT" {DOWN} RUN  IT  AGAIN — AND  HEAR  FI 

VE  MORE  S0NGS1!":END 
900  REM  FOLLOWING  ARE  THE  MUSIC  MEASURES 
{SPACE] THAT  VICLANG  USES  TO  MAKETHE  W 
HOLE  TUNE 
1010  P0KEK,X(Y,1) :P0KEL,XCY,2) ;F0RT=1T0P: 

NEXT:POKEK,0:POKEL,xCY, 3) :F0RT=1T0P: 

NEXT 
1020  P0KEK,X(Y,4) : POKEL, X(Y, 5 ) :F0RT=1T0P: 

NEXT ; POKEK, 0 : POKEL, X ( Y, 6 ) ; FORT=lTOP : 

NEXT 
1030  P0KEK,X(Y, 7) : POKEL, X( Y, 8) :F0RT=1T0P: 

NEXT: POKEK, 0 
1035  P0KEL,X(Y,9) : F0RT=1T0P: NEXT : GOTO160 
1500  POKE36876, 235:POKE36a75, 239:POKE3687 

4, 235 :FORT=1TO1200: NEXT 
1510  POKE36874,0:POKE36875,0:POKE36876,0: 

FORT=1TO2000:NEXT:GOTO160 

Program  2:  Mozan  For  The  64 

Translation  by  Gregg  Peele,  Assistant  Programming  Supervlsof 

100  DIMH(14,9) ,L(14,9) 

101  FORT=54272TO54272+24:POKET,0:NEXT 

102  POKE54296,15 


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VIC-20  uses  MW-311V S20S.OO 

CBM-64  uita  MW-311C S225.00 


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103  F0RT=54272  +  5T054272  +  24STEP7:P0kET,17:  520  Y=l  :X=RND  (  1 )  :  IFX<  .  35THEbfbf=3 

POKET+1, 244: NEXT  530  IFX> . 75THENY=2 

110  POKE53281,7:POKE53280,5  540  GOTO650 

120  PRINT"{CLEl{2  DOWN} {right! EWHTlWELCOM  550  Y=10 : IFRND(0 ) < . 4THENY=11 : GOTO650 

El  I  AM  64CLANG  AMAZIUS  MOZART."  560  Y=4 :X=RND(1 ) : IFX< . 35THENY=5 

130  PRINT" [DOWN} {2  SPACES} I  PLAY  SONGS  LI  570  IFX> . 75THENY=6 

KE  THE  CHILD  PRODIGY,"  580  GOTO650 

135  PRINT "WOLFGANG  AMADEUS  MOZART  MIGHT  H  590  Y=7 :X=RND ( 1) : IFX< . 35THENY=8 

AVE  DONE"  600  IFX>.7  5THENY=9 

140  PRINT" {2  D0WN}M02ART  LIVED  FROM  1756  610  GOTO650 

{SPACE}T0  1791  AND  WROTE";  620  PRINT" { CLR] [DOWN} ( BLU3 [ 2  SPACES}WELL, 
145  PRINT"[6  SPACES}OVER  626  WORKS  IN  31        THAT'S  ALL—HOPE  YOU  LIKED  ITU" 

(SPACE} YEARS"  625  P0KE532B1,1 

150  PRINT" {DOWN} [BLK] [4  SPACES}THE  5  PIEC  630  PRINT" [DOWN} RUN  IT  AGAIN— AND  HEAR  FI 

ES  YOU  HEAR  ARE  BEING"  VE  MORE  SONGSIT'.-END 

155  PRINT"  COMPOSED  BY  THE  COMPUTER  AS  YO  640  REM  FOLLOWING  ARE  THE  MUSIC  MEASURES 

U  LISTEN"  [SPACE} THAT  VICLANG  USES  TO  MAKETHE  W 

160  FORT=1TO2000:NEXT  HOLE  TUNE 

170  POKE53281,5:POKE53280,7  650  POKEW, 17 : POKEK, L ( Y, 1) ; POKEK+1 , H ( Y, 1 ) : 
180  F0RT=1T014:F0RTT=1T09:READH,L;H(T,TT)       POKEK+7 , L( Y, 2 ) : POKEK+8 , H ( Y,  2 ) 

=H:L(T,TT)=L:NEXTTT:NEXTT  655  POKEW+7 , 17 :FORQ=lTOP :NEXT: POKEW, 16 

190  DATA12, 143, 31, 165, 31, 165, 15, 210, 31, 16  660  POKEK,  L(Y,  3 ) : POKEK+1 , H ( Y, 3 ) :F0RT=1T0P 

5  37  152  18  209  31  165  14  24  ;NEXT 

200  DATA12, 143, 31, 165, 37, 162, 15, 210, 37, 16  670  POKEW, 17 : POKEK, L( Y, 4) : POKEK+1 , H ( Y, 4) : 

2,33,135,18,209,31,165,18,209  POKEK+7 , L( Y, 5 ) : POKEK+a , H ( Y, 5) 

210  DATA12, 143, 31, 165, 33, 135, 15, 210, 37, 16  675  POKEW+7  ,  17 :F0RQ=1T0P : NEXT: POKEW, 16 

2,33,135,18,209,31, 165,18,209  680  POKEK,L( Y, 6 ) : POKEK+1, H( Y, 6) ;F0RT=1T0P 
220  DATA12,143, 33, 135, 37, 162,16, 195,42,62       :NEXT 

,50,60,21,31,50,60,16,195  690  POKEW, 17 : POKEK, L(Y, 7 ): POKEK+1 , H(Y,  7 )  : 
230  DATA12, 143, 33, 135,42,62, 16,195,42,62,       POKEK+7 ,L(Y, 8 ) : POKEK+8, H(Y, 8) 

37,162,21,31,33,135, 16, 195  695  POKEW+7  ,  17 : F0RQ=1T0P: NEXT : POKEW, 16 

240  DATA12, 143,42,62, 33, 135, 16, 195, 25, 30,  700  POKEK, L{ Y, 9 ) : POKEK+1 , H( Y, 9 )  :FORT=1TOP 

84, 125, 21, 31, 33, 135, 12, 143  sNEXT:GOTO370 

250  DATA14, 24, 33, 135, 37, 162, 16, 195, 50,60,  1000  pOKEK,  143 : POKEK+1 , 12 s POKEK+7 , 165 : POK 

37, 162, 18, 209, 33, 135, 12, 143  EK+8  ,  31 s POKEK+14, 30 : POKEK+15 , 25 

260  DATA14, 24, 28,49, 37, 162, 14, 24, 33, 135,3  1010  PQKEW, 17 : POKEW+7 , 17 : POKEW+14, 17.:F0RT 

1, 16  5, 18, 209, 28,49, 16, 195  =1TO2000 : NEXT: POKEW, 16: POKEW+7, 16 

270  DATA14, 24, 42, 62, 50, 60, 16, 195, 37, 162, 3  1020  POKEW+14, 16 :GOT03 70 

3,135,18,209,31, 165,14,24 

280  DATA14,  24,  33, 135,  31, 165, 16, 195, 28, 49,  q,^^^^^  -».  .,  .  . . , 

31,165,21,31,33,135,14,24  Program  3:  Atari  Mozart 

290    DATA14'24!  33,  135,  31,  165, 16, 195,  28,49,  Translation  by  Gregg  Peele,  Assistant  Programming  Supervisor 

31,  165, 21, 31, 33, 135, 16, 195 

300    DATA12, 143, 31, 165, 33, 135, 15, 210, 37, 16  ^    GRAPHICS     18:PDSITION    3,5:?    *6;"cOC 

2,37,162,18,209,37,162,18,209  ^  ^^"i^^"^?^^  " 


5  RESTORE  : FOR  T=l  TO  1000:NEXT  T : GR 
fiPHICS  0:POKE  752 , 1 : SETCDLOR  4,B,1 
0:SETCOLOR  1 , 1 2 , 2 : SETCDLOR  2,13,14 

10     DIM     X(14,9) 


310    DATA    12,143,37,162,33,135,14,24,28,49 

, 28, 49, 18, 209, 28,49, 14, 24 
320    DATA12, 143,42,62, 37, 162, 16, 195,33,135 

,  33  ,  1 3  D  ,  ^1 ,  31 ,  J  J  ,  1 J  J  ,  lo  ,  1  ?  J  20     REM     SCREEN     COLOR 

330    REM    SET    VOICE    NUMBERS ,AND{ 2    SPACESJSP  ^^    POSITION     2    5 

EED    VALUE  3g,     ^     "vgelcome'      I     am     Wol-fqanq     Atari     M 
340    K=54272:P=175sW=K+4  oz ar t  .  t DOWN:  " 

350    POKE54296,15  40     ?     "I     play     songs     like     the     child     pr 
360    REM    SET    SELECTED{2    SPACES} MEASURE    BY  odi  a v     < DOWN'  " 

{SPACE} DATA    NUMBER  ^^    ,     "Woifgang^A.     Mozart     might     have 
370    DATAl, 3, 6, 2, 1,4,  6,  2,  3,4,1,5,  1,4,6,7,1  done.  {2     DOWNJ  " 

,4,6,2,1,3,6,9  50     7     "Mozart     lived     from     1756    to     1791 
380    DATA    1,1,4,5,1,4,6,2,3,4,1,5,1,4,1,5,  and  {D0WI\1>  " 

1,4,6,9  70     7     "wrote     over     626    works     in     31     yea 
390    DATA    1,4,6,2,3,6,1,5,1,4,6,7,3,4,6,2,  rs.tDDWN:" 

1,4,3,7,1,4,6,9  S0     7     "the     five     pieces     you     sr  e     listen 
400    DATA    1,4,3,7,1,6,4,5,6,3,6,2,4,6,1,5,  ing     totOOWNJ" 

1,4,6,9  90     ?     "are    being     composed     by    the     camp 
410    DATA    1,4,3,7,6,3,6,2,4,6,1,5,1,3,6,7,  uter.<DOWNJ" 

3,6,1,5,1,4,6,9,8  120    REM    CHANGE     COLOR 

420    READRR  130     FOR     T=l     TO     14:F0R     TT=1     TD     9:READ 

425  ON    RR    GOTO520,426, 550,  560,427,  590,428  A  :  X  <  T  ,  TT)  =A  :  NEXT    TTiNEXT     T 
,620,1000  140     DATA     40,64,64,123,64,53,108,64,1 

426  Y=12:GOTO650  44 

427  Y=14:GOTO550  150     DATA     40,64,53,128,53,60,108,64,1 

428  Y=13:GOTO650  •  08 
166    COMPUni    January  19S4 


ATARI 

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1010  Program  recorder   ..   74 

1020  Printer  plotter    227 

1025  80  column  printer  .  414 
1027  letter  qua!,  ptr.    ...   265 

1050  Disc  drive    331 

CX85  Numerical  keypad    .  94 

CX77  Touch  Tablet   62 

850  Interface  module  ..  163 
XXL4002  Basic  Cartridge  .  37 
AX2025  Microsoft  Basic    .   62 

KX7097  Logo     70 

CXL4018  Pilot    55 

20102  APX  Pascal     34 

RX8036  AtariWriter    68 

OX5049  VisiCaic 143 

CX414  The  Bookkeeper  .  102 
CX421  Family  Finances  .  34 
XC415  Home  Filing  Mgr.  .  34 
OX5048  Paint     29 


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Skyles  Victree  64     66 

Skytes  Arrow  64     35 

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Modem-ware  64     39 

Mirage  64  data  base   ....   79 
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160  DATA  40,  64,  £.0,  128,53,6lSt,  108,64,  1 

08 
170  DATA  40,60,53,121,47,40,96,40,12 

1 

180  DATA  40,60,47,121,47,53,96,60,12 

1 
190  DATA  40,47,60,121,31,47,96,60,16 

2 
200  DATA  144,60,53,121,40,53,103,60, 

144 
210  DATA  144,72,53,144,60,64,103,72, 

121 
220  DATA  144,47,40,121,64,53,109,64, 

144 
230  DATA  144,60,64,121,72,64,96,60,1 

44 
240  DATA  144,60,64,121,72,64,96,60,1 

14 
250  DATA  162,64,60,128,53,53,108,53, 

108 
260  DATA  162,53,60,144,72,72,108,72. 

144 
270  DATA  162,47,53,121,60,60,96,60,1 

21 
300  DATA  1,3,6,2,1,4,6,2,3,4,1,5,1,4 


,6,7, 1,4,6 

310  DATA  1,1,4 

,1.5,1,4,6 

4,6 

4,3 

.4,3 


2.1,3,6,9 
5,1,4,6,2,3,4,1,5,1,4 

9 
2,3,6,1,5,1,4,6,7,3,4 

7,  1,4,6,9 

7, 1,6,4,5,6,3,6,2,4,6 

9 

7,6,3,6,2,4,6,1,5,1,3 

5,  1  j4, 6, 9,9 


320  DATA  1 

,6,2,1: 

330  DATA  1 

,1,5,1,4,6, 
340  DATA  1,4,3, 

,6,7,3,6, 1 
350  P=75 

400  READ  RR 

401  ON  RR  BOTO  500,420,521,525,430,5 
29, 440 , 535 , 1500 

420  Y=12:GOTO  1010 

430  Y= 14: GOTO  1010 

440  y= 13: GOTO  10  10 

500  Y=l : X=RND (0> : IF  X<0.35  THEN  Y=3 

S10  IF  X>0.75  THEN  Y=2 

520  GOTO  1010 

521  Y=10:1F  RND(0)<0.4  THEN  Y=ll:6aT 
0  10  10 

525  Y=4: X=RND (0) : IF  X<0.35  THEN  Y=5 

527  IF  X>0.75  THEN  Y=6 

528  GOTO  1010 

529  Y=7: X=RND (0) : I F  X<0.35  THEN  Y=S 

533  IF  X>0'.  75  THEN  Y  =  9 

534  GOTO  1010 

535  GRAPHICS  0:?  "{ CLE AR> C DOWN > Well , 

that's  all hope  yau     liked  it!  I 

540  ?  "Run  it  again — to  hear  5  more 

songs  I  !": POKE  752,0;END 
1010  SOUND  0, X ( Y, 1 > , 1 0 , 8: BOUND  1,X(Y 

,2),10,8:FOR  T=l  TO  P:NEXT  T 
1020  SOUND  0, 0, 0, 0: SOUND  1,X(Y,3>,10 

,a:FOR  t=l  TO  P:NEXT  T 
1030  SOUND  0, X ( Y, 4) , 1 0, 8: SOUND  1,X<Y 

,5),10,8:FOR  T= 1  TO  P:NEXT  T 
1040  SOUND  0, 0, 0, 0: SOUND  l,XiY,6),10 

,S:FaR  T=l  TO  P:NEXT  T 
1050  SOUND  0, X (Y, 7) , 10, BjSOUND  1,X<Y 

,S),10,8:FOR  T=l  TO  P:NEXT  T 
1060  SOUND  0,0, 0 , 0: SOUND  1,X<Y,9),10 

,8:FDR  T=l  TO  P:NEXT  TiGOTO  350 
1500  SOUND  0, 40,  10, 8: SOUND  1,64,10,3 

:SOUND  2, 81 , 10, 8: FOR  T=i  TO  600 

:NEXT  T 
1510  SOUND  0, 0, 0, 0: SOUND  l,0,0,0:SaU 

168    COMPUTI!     January  198J 


ND  2,0,0,0:FOR  T= 1  TO  1000:NEXT 
T 
1520  GOTO  350 

Program  4:  ti  Mozart 

Translation  by  Gregg  Peele,  Assistant  Programming  Supervisor 

100  DIM  X(14,9) 

110  REM   THE  TICLANG  AMAZIUS  MOZART 

120  CALL  CLEAR 

130  CALL  SCREEN(14) 

140  PRINT  "  <.Z     SPACES>WELCQME  !   I  AM 

TICLANB" 
150  PRINT  "{6  spaces: AMAZ lUS  MOZART 

11 

160  PRINT 

170  PRINT  "I  PLAY  SONGS  LIKE  THE  CH 

ILD" 
180  PRINT  "PRODIGY,   WOLFGANG    AMADE 

US  " 
190  PRINT  "    MOZART  MIGHT  HAVE  DONE 

200  PRINT 

210  PRINT  "<5  SPACESJMOZART  LIVED  F 

ROM" 
220  PRINT  "IB     spaces: 1756  TO  1791" 
230  PRINT  "AND  WROTE  OVER  626  WORKS 

IN" 
240  PRINT  "<;S  spaces:  31  YEARS." 
250  PRINT 
260  PRINT  "THE  5  PIECES  YDU  HEAR  AR 

E" 
270  PRINT  " iZ     BPACESIBEING  WRITTEN 

BY  THE  " 
280  PRINT  "   COMPUTER  AS  YOU  LISTEN= 
290  PRINT 
300  PRINT 
310  PRINT 
320  FDR  T=l  TO  14 
330  FOR  TT=1  TO  9 
340  READ  X  (T, TT) 
350  NEXT  TT 
360  NEXT  T 
370  DATA  196,494,494,247,494,587,29 

4, 494, 220 
380  DATA  196,494,587,247,587,523,29 

4, 494, 294 
390  DATA  196,494,523,247,587,523,29 

4, 494, 294 
400  DATA  196,523,507,262,659,784,33 

0, 784, 262 
410  DATA  196,523,659,262,659,587,33 

0, 523, 262 
420  DATA  196,659,523,262,392,659,33 

0, 523, 196 
430  DATA  220,523,597,262,784,587,29 

4,523, 220 
440  DATA  220,440,587,220,523,494,29 

4 , 440, 262 
450  DATA  220,659,784,262,537,523,29 

4, 494, 220 
460  DATA  220,523,494,262,440,494,33 

0, 523, 220 
470  DATA  220,523,494,262,440,494,33 

0,523,262 
4S0  DATA  196,494,523,247,587,587,29 

4, 287, 294 
490  DATA   196,537,523,220,440,440,29 

4,440,220 
500  DATA  196,659,587,262,523,523,33 

0, 523, 262 
510  P=250 


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4,6,7.1,4,6,2,1,3,6,9  820  RANDOMIZE 

530  DATA  1,1,4,5,1,4,6,2,3,4,1,5,1,  830  IF  RND<.75  THEN  850 

4,1,5,1,4,6,7  840  Y=6 

540  DATA  1,4,6,2,3,6,1,5,1,4,6,7,3,  850  GOTO  990 

4,6,2,1,4,3,7,1,4,6,9  S60  Y=7 

550  DATA  1,4,3,7,1,6,4.5,6,3,6,2,4,  870  RANDOMIZE 

6,1,5,1,4,6,9  880  IF  RND>.35  THEN  900 

560  DATA  1,4,3.7,6,3,6.2,4,6,1,5,1,  890  Y=8 

3,6,7,3,6,1,5,1.4.6,9,8  900  RANDOMIZE 

570  READ  RR  910  IF  RND< . 75  THEN  930 

530  ON  RR  GOTO  650,590,730,780,610,  920  Y=9 

860,640.940,1040  930  GOTO  990 

590  Y=12  940  PRINT  "  CS  SPACESJWELL,  THAT'S  A 
600  GOTO  990  LL" 

610  Y=14  950  PRINT  "{4  SPACESJHOPE  YOU  LIKED 
620  GOTO  990  IT ! ! " 

630  y=13  960  PRINT  "RUN  IT  AGAIN  AND  HEAR  FI 
640  GOTO  990  VE  " 

650  Y=l  970  PRINT  "  <.B     SPACESJKORE  SONGS." 

660  RANDOMIZE  980  END 

670  IF  RND>.35  THEN  700  990  FOR  1=1  TO  9  STEP  3 

680  Y  =  3  1000  CALL  SOUND < P ,  X  ( Y ,  I  )  ,  2  ,  X  ( Y  ,  I  +  1  ) 
690  RANDOMIZE  ,2) 

700  IF  RND<  .  75  THEN  720  1010  CALL  SOUND ( P ,  X  t Y ,  I  )  ,  30 ,  X  £ Y  ,  I +2 
710  Y=2  ) ,2) 

720  BDTD  990  1020  NEXT  I 

730  Y=10  1030  GOTO  570 

740  RANDOMIZE  1040  CALL  SOUND ( 1 800 , 1 96 , 2 , 494 , 2 , 78 
750  IF  RND>.4  THEN  780  4,2) 

760  Y=ll  1050  FOR  T=l  TO  300 

770  GOTO  990  1060  NEXT  T 

780  Y=4  1070  KOL=INT (RND*a) +8 

790  RANDOMIZE  1080  CALL  SCREEN (KDL) 

800  IF  RND>. 35  THEN  820  1090  GOTO  570  ® 


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Hidden 
64  Memory 


Alon  R  and  Julie  R  Krouss 


BASIC  pivgrammers  can  POKE  data  into  the  Commo- 
dore 64's  hidden  RAM,  but  retrieimig  that  data  requires 
switching  between  blocks  of  RAM  and  ROM.  The 
machine  language  program  given  here  makes  it  easy 
to  do  what  BASIC  can't  do  directly — giving  you  an 
extra  20K. 


The  Commodore  64  contains  24  kilobytes  of 
Random  Access  Memory  (RAM)  which  cannot 
immediately  be  used  by  BASIC.  However,  that 
memory  is  accessible  to  the  VIC-II  chip,  so  it  seems 
an  ideal  place  to  store  a  high-resolution  (bit- 
mapped) screen  (as  well  as  other  large  arrays  of 
data).  The  catch  is  that  although  it  is  possible  to 
move  data  into  this  area  using  POKE  statements, 
you  can't  retrieve  all  of  it  directly  using  BASIC.  In 
this  article  we  describe  a  technique  which  makes 
most  of  this  large  block  of  memory  available  to 
the  BASIC  programmer. 

How  To  Get  Five  Quarts  To  A  Gallon 

The  microprocessor  in  most  smaller  computers, 
including  the  Timex  1000,  IBM  PC,  and  DEC 
PDP-11,  has  16  or  fewer  memory  address  lines. 
So  these  computers  can  address  no  more  than 
2'^ — 64K — bytes  of  memory  directly.  The  more 
expensive  machines  appear  to  have  a  larger 
addressable  memory  because  their  memory- 
management  circuitry  and  operating  systems 
allow  them  to  switch  blocks  of  memory  into  and 
out  of  their  actual  address  space.  The  inexpensive 
Commodore  64  has  no  special  Memory  Manage- 
ment Unit,  yet  it  is  able  to  address  20K  of  Read 
Only  Memory  (ROM)  and  numerous  I/O  chips 
plus  64K  of  RAM.  This  is  like  filling  a  one-gallon 
pitcher  with  five  quarts  of  water.  It  works  because 
the  microprocessor  can  switch  between  various 
blocks  of  ROM  and  RAM  even  when  they  have 
the  same  addresses. 

172    COMPUTt!    jQnuarv1984 


In  its  normal  configuration,  the  first  2K  of  the 
64's  memory  is  used  as  a  work  area  for  the  Oper- 
ating System,  and  for  screen  memory.  Of  the  re- 
maining RAM,  locations  2048  through  40959  are 
the  programmer's  BASIC  area.  The  space  above 
40959  contains  4K  of  RAM  (addresses  49152-53247) 
which  is  not  contiguous  with  BASIC'S  dedicated 
area  and  can  be  accessed  bv  BASIC  only  via  PEEKs 
and  POKEs;  by  the  ROM  BASIC  interpreter 
(40960-^9151);  by  the  Kernal  Operating  System 
(57344-65535);  and  by  the  Input-Output  (I/O)  cir- 
cuitry (53248-57343).  However,  there  is  another 
20K  of  RAM  which  is  similarly  addressed;  to  be 
used,  it  must  be  switched  in  and  out  of  the  ROM- 
masked  space.  This  chore  is  handled  by  registers 
at  locations  0  and  1. 

Wtiat  Ttie  Pointers  Mean 

Although  the  extra  RAM  isn't  directly  available  to 
BASIC,  data  may  be  stored  there  by  using  the 
POKE  instruction.  However,  a  PEEK  of  one  of 
these  locations  will  return  the  value  stored  at  that 
address  in  ROM.  In  order  to  have  access  to  the 
corresponding  RAM,  it  is  necessary  to  seta  pointer 
so  that  the  processor  will  ignore  the  ROM.  Bits  0, 
1,  and  2  of  location  1  are  the  pointers.  Their  func- 
tions are  as  follows: 


Jit 

Value 

Meaning 

0 

1 

Indicates  normal  BASIC  ROM 

0 

Indicates  noncontiguous  RAM 
(addresses  40%(M9151) 

1 

1 

Indicates  Kernal  ROM 

0 

Indicates  underlying  RAM 

(addresses  57344-65535) 

2 

1 

Indicates  I/O  chips 

0 

Indicates  ROM  character  tables 
(addresses  53248-57343) 

If  we  wished  to  save  a  variable — call  it  A — at, 
say,  address  45000,  and  later  retrieve  it,  we  might 
envision  a  routine  like  this: 


I  CodePro-64l 

lOverview  I 


r^^™™^ 


I  BASIC  Tutorial  I 


Using  CodePro-64 
CBM-64  Keyboard  Review 

Introduction  to  BASIC 
BASIC  Commands 
BASIC  Statements 
BASIC  Functions 


Graphics  &  Music 


I  Other  Options  I 


Keyboard  GRAPHICS 
Introduction  to  SPRITES 
SPRITE  Generator 
SPRITE  Demonstrator 
Introduction  to  MUSIC 
MUSIC  Generator 
MUSIC  Demonstrator 

Keyword  Inquiry 
Run  Sample  Programs 


NEW!  For  the  Commodore  64' 

ANNOUNCING 


CodePro-64 

A  new  concept  in 

interactive  visual 

learning . . . 


Now  you  can  learn  lo  code  in  BASIC  and  devefop 
advanced  programming  skills  wilh  graphics,  sprites  and 
music— visually.  You  learn  b/  interacling  witri  CodePro- 
54,  a  new  concept  in  interactii/e  ^/isual  learning. 

SEE  PROGRAM  EXECUTION 

Imagine  actually  seeing  BASIC  slalemenis  execute. 
CodePro-Bd  guides  you  itirough  structured  examples  of 
BASIC  program  segments  You  enlei  tlie  requested  data 
or  let  CodePro-64  do  the  typing  for  you,  (II  will  net  let  you 
make  a  mistake.) 

After  entenng  an  example  you  invoke  our  exclusive 
BasicView'"  which  shows  you  how  the  BASIC  program 
example  executes. 

You  step  through  and  actually  see  the  execution  ol 
sample  program  statements  by  simply  pressing  the  space 
6ar.  CodePro-64  does  the  rest 

You  see  statements  with  corresponding  flow  chart 
graphics  and  variable  value  dispays  You  learn  by  visual 
examples. 


10  FOR  I  =  10  TO  !0 

STEP  ! 
20  J  =  S't 
30  NEXT  I 


CURRENT  VALUES 


F1=MAIN  F3=CUHRENT  FS^NEXT 


EXTENSIVE  TUTORIAL 

CodePro-64's  extensive  tutorial  guides  you  through 
each  BASIC  command,  program  slatement.  and  function. 
You  get  clear  explanations  Then  you  enter  program 
slatements  as  interactive  examples.  Where  appropnate, 
you  invoke  BasicView  to  see  examples  execute  and 
watch  their  flow  charts  and  variables  change. 

By  seeing  graphic  displays  ol  program  segment  execu- 
tion you  learn  by  visual  example  You  learn  faster  and 
grasp  programming  concepts  easier  with  CodePro-64 
because  you  immediately  see  the  results  of  your  input. 

You  control  your  learning  You  can  go  through  the  tutor- 
ial sequentially,  or  return  to  the  mam  menu  and  select 
different  topics,  or  use  keywords  to  select  language  ele- 
ments to  study.  You  can  page  back  and  forth  between 
screens  within  a  topic  at  the  touch  of  a  function  key. 


CodePro-64  lets  you  follow  your  interests  and  prac- 
tice with  interactive  examples.  But  you  can  never  gel 
"lost".  Ft  will  always  return  you  to  the  main  menu.  Once 
you  have  practiced  and  mastered  the  BASIC  language 
elements  you  move  or  to  more  advanced  concepts.  You 
learn  about  sphle  and  music  programming 

SPRITE  GENERATOR  &  DEMONSTRATOR 

CodePro-64's  sprite  generator  lets  you  define  your 
own  sprites  on  the  screen.  You  learn  how  to  define  sprues 
and  what  data  values  correspond  lo  your  sphle  defini- 
tions (You  can  then  use  these  values  lo  write  your  own 
programs.)  You  can  easily  experiment  wilh  different  defi- 
nitions and  make  changes  to  immediately  seethe  effects 


We  also  help  you  learn  to  program  with  sprites  by  giving 
you  a  sprite  demonstrator  so  you  can  see  Ihe  effect  of 
changing  register  values.  You  can  experiment  by  moving 
your  sprite  around  in  a  screen  segment,  change  its  color 
or  pnonty.  and  see  the  effects  of  your  changes.  You  learn 
by  visual  examples 

MUSIC  GENERATOn  &  DEMONSTRATOR 

To  teach  you  music  programming  CodePro-64  gives 
you  an  interactive  music  generator  and  demonstrator. 
First  we  help  you  set  all  your  SID  parameters  (attack/ 
decay,  sustain/release,  waveform,  etc  )  Then  you  enter 
notes  to  play  and  we  show  your  tune  graphically  as  it 
plays,  note  by  note,  on  the  scale  You  learn  by  seeing  and 
hearing  the  results  of  your  input. 


OUR  GUARANTEE 
We  guarantee  your  satisfaction.  You  must  be 
satisfiec!  with  CodePro-64  tor  the  Commodore- 
64,  Try  it  for  1 0  days  and  tf  for  any  reason  you  are 
not  satisfied  feturn  it  Jo  us  (undamaged)  for  a  full 
refund  No  risk. 


Our  music  demonstrator  lets  you  experiment  with  var- 
ious combinations  of  music  programming  parameters 
and  hear  Ihe  results  You  can  quickly  modify  any  ol  the 
SID  register  values  to  hear  the  effects  of  the  change  For 
example,  you  could  easily  change  waveform  and  attack/ 
decay  values  while  holding  all  other  SID  values  constant. 
By  seeing  your  input  and  hearing  Ihe  result  you  quickly 
learn  how  to  create  new  musical  sounds  and  special 
sound  effects 

AND  MORE... 

We  don't  have  enough  space  to  tell  you  everything 
CodePro-64  offers.  You  need  to  see  lor  yourself  BASIC 
tutorials,  graphics,  sprites,  music,  keyboard  review,  sam- 
ple programs— the  mam  menu  shown  above  gives  you 
just  a  sumrrary  ol  the  contents  of  this  powerful  educa- 
lional  product. 

Whether  you're  a  beginning  programmer  or  an  expen- 
enced  professional,  CodePro-64  will  help  you  improve 
your  Commodore  64  programming  skills.  We're  sure 
because  CodePro-64  was  developed  by  a  team  of  two 
professionals  wilh  over  25  years  of  software  development 
experience. 

CodePro-64  is  a  professional  quality  educational  pro- 
gram tor  the  senous  student  of  personal  computing.  And 
it's  hjlly  guaranteed.  Order  yours  today 

HOW  TO  ORDER 

Order  your  copy  of  CodePro-64  today  by  mail  or  phone. 
Send  only  $59,95  plus  $3,00  shipping  and  handling  tO' 

M^  ^  'ir  J    J  i  SYSTEMS  MANAGEMENT  ASSOCIATES 

^J^^J^JZJW  Computer  Dnve.  Dept.  G 
^^■•»^*  Raleigh.  N  C,  27609 

Available  on  diskette  only.  MaslerCard/VISA  ac- 
cepted For  faster  service  on  credit  card  orders  call 
toll  free  1-800-SMA-RUSH  (1-800-762-7874), 

Commodore  64  is  a  trademark  of  Commodore  Business 

tiflachines.  Inc 

Ad  no  733,  Copyright  1983.  SMA 

Dealer  inquiries  InvHed. 


10  POKE  45000, A  :REM  STORE  THE  VALUE 
20  POKE  1,54  :REM  SET  POINTER  TO  RAM 
30  A=PEEK{ 45000 ): REM  GET  THE  VALUE 
40  POKE  1,55  :REM  RESTORE  POINTER 
50  END 

This,  though,  amounts  to  sawing  off  the  branch 
we're  sitting  on.  The  result  is  a  lovely  crash. 

It's  easy  to  see  why.  Line  20  tells  the  processor 
to  look  not  at  the  BASIC  interpreter  in  ROM,  but 
somewhere  else  instead.  So  when  line  30  calls  for 
the  BASIC  PEEK  instruction,  it  can't  be  found, 
and  the  system  hangs.  If  we  change  the  pointer 
for  Kernal  ROM  or  for  I/O,  we  also  crash. 

Machine  Language  Makes  It  Easy 

But  the  extra  memory  is  too  tantalizing  to  pass 
up.  Since  we  can't  get  at  it  properly  from  BASIC, 
we'll  try  machine  language  (ML).  We'll  use  a 
BASIC  loader  for  the  routine,  as  in  Program  1. 

It  works!  We  can  now  store  data  in  the  for- 
merly unavailable  area  of  masked  RAM.  The  ML 
routine,  which  is  only  14  bytes  long,  sets  the  ap- 
propriate pointer  {bit  0  in  this  example)  to  ignore 
the  ROM  (here,  the  BASIC  interpreter).  It  then 
puts  the  byte  of  data  into  a  location  normally  ac- 
cessible to  BASIC  (since  location  251  is  in  unused 
zero  page  space,  we  chose  that)  and  resets  the 
pointer.  A  disassembly  of  the  machine  language 
for  this  routine  is  shown  in  Program  2. 

Let's  take  a  look  at  Program  1.  Lines  100-120, 
340,  and  350  are  not  really  part  of  our  routine — 
hnes  100  and  110  give  us  some  data  to  use  in  il- 
lustration, and  line  340  prints  the  data  that  the 
ML  routine  saved  for  us,  just  to  prove  it  really 
worked.  The  4K  of  RAM  beginning  at  location 
49152  is  unused,  and  since  it  is  not  contiguous 
with  the  BASIC  area,  it  can't  be  overwritten  by 
BASIC;  so  we've  chosen  to  put  our  ML  there. 
Line  130  sets  location  49152  as  the  starting  location 
for  the  machine  language  routine. 

Lines  140,  160,  170,  and  180  determine  what 
value  location  1  should  contain,  and  put  that  value 
in  BL.  The  numbers  in  the  DATA  statements  (lines 
190  and  200)  are  the  bytes  of  ML  (in  decimal). 
Three  of  these  are  0.  The  first  (shown  as  00  for 
prominence)  will  hold  the  block  pointer,  BL.  The 
second  and  third,  000  and  0000,  will  hold  the  low- 
order  and  the  high-order  bytes,  respectively,  of 
the  address  of  the  target  masked-RAM  location. 

Lines  210-240  POKE  the  ML  into  place.  Line 
250  inserts  the  value  of  the  block  pointer  into  byte 
2  of  the  ML  routine.  Lines  260  and  270  calculate 
the  high-  and  low-order  bytes,  respectively,  of 
the  target  address;  lines  280  and  290  POKE  them 
into  place.  Line  300  disables  interrupts  so  that  the 
keyboard  will  not  be  scanned  during  execution  of 
the  machine  language  routine;  this  obviates  the 
possibility  of  the  system's  hanging  should  the 
scan  interrupt  occur  at  the  wrong  moment. 

174     COMPini!     JonuQrv198d 


The  innocuous-looking  line  310,  the  system 
call,  signals  the  real  action — here  is  where  we 
branch  out  to  perform  our  machine  language 
routine.  When  the  subroutine  is  finished,  it  re- 
turns control  to  BASIC.  Now  we  can  get  our  data 
whenever  we  need  it:  It  has  been  left  in  location 
251  for  us. 

Note  that  the  ML  could  reside  virtually  any- 
where— even  in  masked  RAM.  If  it  is  placed  within 
the  normal  BASIC  area,  of  course,  the  appropriate 
BASIC  pointers  should  be  altered  to  protect  it. 
From  line  140  on,  the  routine  is  perfectly  general 
and  may  be  used  to  read  the  value  stored  at  any 
RAM  address  within  the  range  0-65535,  except 
for  that  lying  beneath  the  I/O  area  (53248-57343). 
To  see  the  underlying  4K  of  RAM  in  this  area 
would  require  another  technique,  since  there  are 
three  layers  of  memor)'  here;  our  routine  uncovers 
the  second  layer  and  lets  us  look  at  Character 
ROM  directly.  This  could  be  useful  in  programs 
using  custom-character  routines,  in  order  to  restore 
portions  of  the  ROM  character  table  selectively. 

Finally,  we  must  note  two  things.  First,  this 
routine  may  be  used  to  read  memory  locations  in 
which  either  the  BASIC  program  or  the  ML  routine 
resides.  However,  we  must  not  permit  a  POKE 
instruction  (for  example,  line  120)  to  alter  the  pro- 
gram unless  we  specifically  wish  to  do  so.  Also,  if 
we  POKE  to  a  location  in  the  I/O  area,  we  may 
drastically  alter  our  output. 

Program  1:  ml  Access  To  Hidden  RAM 

100  A=3(15  SPACES] ;REM{ 2  SPACES] PUT  DESIR 

ED  DATA  BYTE  IN  VARIABLE  "A" 
110  AD=4500OU0  SPACES]  :REM{  2  SPACES]WE'L 

L  SAVE  "A"  AT  LOG.  45000  (IN  MASKED  R 

AM) 
120  POKE  AD,A{9  spaces] :REM{2  SPACESIsAVE 

"A" 
130  MS=49152{10  SPACES] ; REM (2  SPACES }MACH 

INE  CODE  WILL  BE  LOADED  STARTING  AT  L 

OC.  49152 
140  IF  40959<AD  AND  AD<49152  THEN  BL=54: 

{space} GO  TO  190 
145  REMS21  SPACES] LOCATION  1  WILL  CONTAIN 

BLOCK  POINTER,  BL 
150  REMt21  SPACES]BL  =  54  —  BASIC  INTERP 

RETER  ROM  OUT 
160  IF  53247<AD  AND  AD<57344  THEN  BL=51: 

[SPACE}G0  TO  190 
165  REm(21  SPACESJBL  =  51  —  l/O  ROUTINES 

OUT 
170  IF  57343<AD  AND  AD<=65535  THEN  BL=53: 

GO  TO  190 
175  REM [21  SPACES )bl  =  53  —  KERNAL  ROM  O 

UT 
180  BL  =  55{11  SPACES] '.REM {2  SPACES]WITHI 

N  NORMAL  BASIC  AREA 
190  DATA  162,00,134,1  :REM{2  SPACES]MACHI 

NE  LANGUAGE  ROUTINE 
200  DATA  174,000,0000,134,251,162,55,134, 

1,96 
210  FOR  1=0  TO  13{5  SPACES ]: REM{ 2  SPACES] 

LOOP  FOR  BASIC  LOADER 


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220  READ  ML(11  SPACES  1 : REM{ 2  SPACESJGET  N 

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230  POKE  (MS+I),ML[4  spaces] :REM 

{2  spaces} PUT  M.  L.  BYTE  INTO  PLACE 
240  NEXT 
250  P0KE(MS  +  1) ,BL{5  SPACES  1 : REM t 2  SPACES) 

STORE  BLOCK  POINTER  IN  2ND  BYTE  OF  M. 
L.  ROUTINE 
260  HA=INTCaD/256) {4  SPACES] :REM 

{2  SPACES] HIGH-ORDER  BYTE  OF  MASKED-R 

AM  ADDRESS 
270  LA=AD-256*HA{6  SPACES }: REM{ 2  SPACESIl 

0W-0RDER{3  SPACES] "[3  SPACES]" 

[4  SPACES] "{5  SPACES] "[4  SPACES]" 
280  POKE  MS+5,LA(6  SPACES ]: REM { 2  SPACES }P 

UT  ADDRESSES  INTO  M.  L.  ROUTINE 
290  POKE  MS+6,HA 
300  POKE  56333,127(4  SPACES} :REM 

[2  spaces} DISABLE  INTERRUPTS 
310  SYS (MS) [II  SPACES] : REM [2  SPACES }EXECU 

TE  M.  L.  ROUTINE 
320  POKE  56333, I29[4  SPACES] :REM 

[2    SPACES) RE-ENABLE  INTERRUPTS 
330  A=PEEK{251) [7  SPACES] :REM{ 2  SPACES}RE 

AD  THE  DATA  BYTE 
340  PRINT  A 
350  END 

Program  2:  Disassembly  Of  ML  Routine 

LDX  #500  ; BLOCK  POINTER  TO  X  REGISTER 

STX  501  ; STORE  IN  LOCATION  1 

LDX  $0000 ; CONTENTS  OP  MASKED  RAM  TO  X-REGISTER 

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MACHINE  LANGUAGE 


Jim  Butterfietd.  Associate  bditor 


FACTORS: 

AMachine  Language 
Factoring  Program 


Parti 


Machine  language  is  known  for  its  speed.  Some- 
times we  overlook  another  advantage  of  machine 
language;  the  ability  to  do  things  that  BASIC 
can't. 

This  program— for  PET/CBM,  VIC,  and  Com- 
modore 64 — runs  quickly  because  of  ils  machine 
language  structure.  More  importantly,  it  breaks 
through  a  boundary  of  conventional  BASIC:  It 
allow^s  numbers  up  to  19  digits  long  to  be  entered 
and  used  for  computation. 

In  fact,  the  program  can  deal  with  slightly 
over  19  digits.  The  highest  number  it  will  take  is: 

18,445,055,223,849,287,685 

The  program  finds  the  prime  factors  of  any 
number  entered.  If  the  number  is  prime,  the  pro- 
gram will  simply  repeat  it.  Users  should  know 
that  numbers  over  12  digits  orso  can  take  a  very 
long  time  to  factor,  especially  if  they  are  prime. 
The  RUN/STOP  key  will  take  you  out  of  the  pro- 
gram if  you  get  bored  {very  large  numbers  could 
take  up  to  24  hours!). 

Students  of  machine  language  will  find  sev- 
eral useful  modules  in  the  program:  a  numeric 
input,  a  numeric  output,  and  a  division  sub- 
routine. But  vou  don't  need  to  be  a  machine  Ian- 
guage  buff  to  use  it,  of  course. 

You'll  need  a  monitor  to  enter  this  program. 
Once  it's  safely  saved  on  tape  or  disk,  the  monitor 
is  no  longer  needed;  it's  there  only  to  help  you 
get  the  program  in  place.  Any  convenient  monitor 
will  do:  the  built-in  monitor  in  PET/CBM  models, 
Tinymon,  Supermon,  VICmon,  HESmon,  etc. 
VIC  users  may  need  to  adjust  slightly;  many  VIC 
monitors  present  memory  locations  five  at  a  time, 

178    COMPUTE!     January  1984 


and  the  memory  printout  here  gives  them  in 

groups  of  eight. 

The  method  is  generally  a  simple  one  of  trial 
division.  We  divide  by  two,  by  three,  by  five, 
searching  for  an  "exact"  result  (no  remainder). 
After  that,  we  use  a  cyclical  method  of  generating 
divisors.  For  example,  if  we  have  established  that 
a  number  will  not  divide  by  3,  there's  no  point  in 
trying  divisors  of  9  or  15. 

When  numbers  get  big,  there  are  more  effi- 
cient methods  of  looking  for  factors,  but  they  are 
not  used  in  this  simple  program.  Even  if  more 
advanced  methods  were  used,  very  large  numbers 
are  hard  to  crack.  There's  no  guaranteed  way  to 
factor  a  huge  number  within  a  reasonable  amount 
of  time. 

Machine  language  nuts  will  easily  be  able  to 
extend  this  program  to  allow  more  digits:  50,  100, 
or  whatever.  But  for  really  large  numbers,  time 
catches  up  with  you. 

How  To  Enter  "Factors" 

For  the  PET/CBM,  enter  Program  1  using  a 
machine  language  monitor.  After  it  has  been  en- 
tered, set  the  BASIC  pointers  with: 

.:  0028  01  04  6D  07  6D  07  6D  07 

Then  return  to  BASIC  and  save  Factors  to  tape  or 
disk  like  a  normal  BASIC  program. 

For  the  VIC-20  and  Commodore  64,  type  in  the 
following  commands  before  entering  Program  2. 

POKE  4608,0:POKE  43,18:NEW 

Now  switch  to  any  machine  language  monitor, 
and  enter  the  program. 


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Now  enter  the  following  memory  changes: 

.:  002B  01  12  6D  15  6D  15  6D  15 

You  may  now  return  to  BASIC  and  save  the 
program  to  tape  or  disk.  When  you  load  this  pro- 
gram at  a  later  time,  you  won't  need  any  special 
POKE  commands;  the  program  will  adapt  to  any 
configuration. 

To  use  either  the  VIC/64  or  PET/CBM  version 
of  Factors,  simply  LOAD  the  program  from  tape 
or  disk  and  give  the  usual  BASIC  RUN  command. 

Next  month  we'll  disassemble  the  machine 
language  for  Factors  to  see  how  it  works  in  more 
detail. 


Program  1 

:  Factors— PET/CBM  V 

0400 

00 

24 

04" 

64 

00 

99 

22 

50 

0408 

52 

49 

4D 

45 

20 

46 

41 

43 

0410 

54 

4F 

52 

53 

20 

4F 

46 

20 

0418 

41 

4E 

20 

49 

4E 

54 

45 

47 

0420 

45 

52 

22 

00 

46 

04 

6E 

00 

0428 

99 

22 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

0430 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

4A 

49 

4D 

0438 

20 

42 

55 

54 

54 

45 

52 

46 

0440 

49 

45 

4C 

44 

22 

00 

65 

04 

0448 

78 

00 

99 

22 

55 

50 

20 

54 

0450 

4F 

20 

31 

39 

20 

44 

49 

47 

0450 

49 

54 

53 

20 

4E 

55 

4D 

42 

0460 

45 

52 

53 

22 

00 

79 

04 

82 

0468 

00 

99 

22 

4D 

41 

59 

20 

42 

0470 

45 

20 

55 

53 

45 

44 

20 

2D 

0478 

00 

97 

04 

ac 

00 

99 

22 

42 

0480 

55 

54 

20 

56 

45 

52 

59 

20 

0488 

4C 

41 

52 

47 

45 

20 

4E 

55 

0490 

4D 

42 

45 

52 

53 

22 

00 

B7 

0498 

04 

96 

00 

99 

22 

4D 

41 

59 

04A0 

20 

54 

41 

4B 

45 

20 

41 

20 

04A8 

56 

45 

52 

59 

20 

4C 

4F 

4E 

04B0 

47 

20 

54 

49 

4D 

45 

00 

CA 

04B8 

04 

A0 

00 

99 

22 

54 

4F 

20 

04C0 

46 

41 

43 

54 

4F 

52 

2E 

2E 

04ca 

2E 

00 

D5 

04 

AA 

00 

9E 

20 

04D0 

31 

32 

38 

30 

00 

00 

00 

81 

0408 

00 

00 

00 

00 

83 

40 

00 

00 

04E0 

00 

81 

00 

00 

00 

00 

83 

20 

04E8 

00 

00 

00 

83 

20 

00 

00 

00 

04F0 

84 

10 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

04F8 

00 

00 

83 

60 

00 

00 

00 

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Program  2:  Factors— VIC/64  Version 

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1230  20  20  20  4A  49  4D  20  42 


180    COMPUTE!     JonuoryWM 


COMPUTEI's 
Machine  Language  For  Beginners 


Author:   Richard  Mansfield 

Price:        SI  2.95  , 

On  Sale:  Now 

One  of  the  most  exerting  moments  in  com-  ^T^*  E^  I               ^  ^^ 

puting  is  when  a  beginner  writes  his  or  her  I  3,DI^   f\Y   W  ^  f\^\^t-umx^^ 

first  program  which  actually  works...  usually  '^^    *^"    %^\J|  I  LGrltS 

after  hours  of  effort.  A  new  world  opens  up,  ^^ 

But  as  beginners  grow  into  intermediate  ^|r 

programmers  and  become  more  fluent  in  Preface  .  .                                                                                                   ^V 

BASIC,  they  realize  the  language's  limitations  ^   ^HF 

-  slow  speed,  and  the  lack  of  total  control  'ntroduction  —  Whv  M-i   k-       i  ^K 

over  the  inner  operations  of  the  computer.  *"/'  '3Cnine  Language?    .                            „■■   SIH^ 

They  often  develop  an  admiration  for  the  Chapter  I  ■  How  Tn  Mco  xu-    d       ,  

fast,  smoothly  running  machine  language  '  ^^^  ''•IS  Book ■ 

programs  that  mark  commercial  software.  Chapter  2"  Thfs  Fi.n,^^^  r  

Unfortunately  too  many  people  view  ma-  "   '  "*^ '^unaamentals , 

chine  language  as  mysterious  and  forbidding,  Chapter  3'  The  Monirn  

and  they  are  reluctant  to  tackle  ir  themselves.  '  [uriitor 

COMPUTEl  Books' latest  release.  Chapter  4"  Addrp^ind  

Machine  Language  For  Beginners,  by  '        ^' ciiing _ 

Richard  Mansfield,  introduces  newcomers  Chapter  5"  Arirhmfai-;/-  

to  the  challenges  of  machine  language  '      '"-'""title 

with  a  unique  approach.  Aimed  at  people  Chapter  6"  The  ln<:frii^f-;«„  c                             

who  understand  BASIC, /Wac/i/ne /language  "i:>Lructlon  bet ,, 

Fo^fieg//^/^er•5  uses  BASIC  to  explain  how  Chanter  7-  RrM-r-^.-;       r           r,  ■                        

machine  language  works.  A  whole  section  ^           '  ^^^^0  W(ng  from  BASIC  ....  .                            g  | 

of  the  book  explains  machine  language  in  Chapter  8"  Buildina  A  Pr-^                                           

terms  of  equivalent  BASIC  commands  If  "^              ^^^'lamg  A  Program q, 

you  know  how  to  do  it  in  BASIC,  you  can  Chapter  9'  Ml   Fnnival                                             •■••■••       7/ 

see  how  it's  done  in  machine  language.  rye  d  a  ci'r  r-  ^   '^^'^'^^S 

Machine  Language  For  Beginners  is  a  DA5IL.  Commands 

general  tutorial  for  all  users  of  computers  Ann^^nrl"                                        '^' 

with  6502  microprocessors  -  with  examples  '^Ppenaices 

for  the  Commodore  64,  VIC-20,  Atari  400/  - 

800/I200XL,  Apple  II,  and  PET/CBM.  The  ^'-  Instruction  Set 

numerous  machine  language  programs  dm                             '49 

will  work  on  all  these  computers,  "•'  "^aps    

As  a  bonus.  Machine  Language  For  r    k                               '67 

Beginners  includes  something  that  all  fledg-  ^"  Assembler  Programs 

ling  machine  language  programmers  will  n    ni-                                         223 

need  to  get  started  -  an  assembler,  The  '-^•'  LJlSassembler  Programs 

"Simple  Assembler, "written  in  BASIC  for  c    ki       ,                                237 

the  various  computers,  takes  the  tedium  ^-  Number  Charts 

outof  entering  and  assembling  short  c.  m      •                               243 

machine  language  programs.  The  book  even  '  •  Monitor  Extensions 

explains  how  to  use  the  bujit-in  machine  n    tu     \a                            253 

language  monitors  on  several  of  the  com-  ^'   '  he  Wedge 

puters.  And  it  includes  a  disassembler  pro-  ■  ■  ■  • ^^^ 

gram  and  several  monitor  extensions.  Index 

This  book  fills  the  need  for  a  solid,  but  3  on 

understandable,  guide  for  personal  com-  

puting  enthusiasts.  Mansfield  is  Senior 

Editor  of  COMPUTE!.  His  monthly  column, 

"The  Beginner's  Page."  has  been  one  of  COMPUTEt's  most  popular  features. 

In  the  COMPUTE!  tradition.  Machine  Language  For  Beginners  has  been. written 
and  edited  to  be  straightforward,  clear,  and  easily  understood.  It  is  spiral-bound 
to  lie  flat  to  make  it  easier  to  type  in  programs. 

Available  at  computer  dealers  and  bookstores  nationwide.  To  order  directly  call  TOLL  FREE  800-334-0868,  In  North  Carolina 
call  9  i  9-275-9809.  Or  send  check  or  money  order  to  COMPUTE!  Books,  P.O.  Box  5406,  Greensboro,  NC  27403. 
Add  S2  shipping  and  handling  Outside  the  U.S.  add  S5  for  air  mail,  S2  for  surface  mail.  All  orders  prepaid.  U,S,  funds  only. 

jQnua(v1984     COMPUTE)     1S1 


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Broderbund  Bank  St  Writer  ID) $45 

Hesware  Omniwriter  (D) $49 

Data  20  Word  Manager  (D&C) $24 

Quic)<  Brown  Fox  ICT) $42 

Rainbow  Wnters  Asst  (D)  $49 

Blue  Sky  Script  M  |D)    $69 

On  Line  HomeWord  ID) $39 


ELECTRONIC 
SPREADSHEETS 


Hcsware  Muttiplan  ID)    , $75 

Hesware  Omnicalc  IDl    ..,.S37 

MSI  Praclicalc  ID&C) $35 

MSI  ProsMrnmable  Spreadsheet  (D)    ...  $55 

B.SKY  CALC  Result  Easy  IDl $49 

B  SKY  CALC  Result  Advd.(D)    $99 

Rainbow  Spreadsheet  Asst.  (D) $49 

Rainbouj  Spreadsheet  wGraphics  ID)   . .  $B9 


HOME  APPLICATIONS 


Spinnaker  Aerobics  (D)    $33 

Softsync  Computer  Mechanic  (D)    .....  S19 

Sofrsync  Computer  Mechanic  (C)    $16 

Creaiiue  Car  Cosis  ID) $13 

Creaiive  CaT  Costs  iCl .,,,.,..,.  $10 

Creative  Decis:on  Maker  ( D) $13 

Creative  Decision  Maker  iC) $10 

Hesware  Time  &  Money  Manager  iDl  .  ,  $39 
TimewoTks  Data  Manager  (D&Cl  ...  $17 
CompuMTve  Starter  Kti  (5  hrs)  . , $29 


LANGUAGES  &  UTILtTIES 


Hesniare  6S02  Pro  Deuel  Sys  ID)    $19 

Hesn'Ste  Hesmon  64  (CT) $26 

Hesware  64  Forth  (CT) $45 

Acess  Spritemaster  ID&C)    $23 

Timeworks  Programmer  Kits  I,  II.  Ill 
(D&C)  ..._ each  $17 


BUSINESS  SOFTWARE 


Data  20  Business  Manager  (D)    ...  $79 

(AP.A.R..GL.) 

Timeworks  Invenrory  Mgmt  ID)    $49 

Timeworks  Payroll  (D)    $49 

Timeuwrks  Cash  Flow  Mgmt  (D)    S49 

Timeivorks  Sales  Analysis  Mgmt  (Dl    . .    $49 

Inio  Designs  A  R  Billing  (Dl $55 

[nio  Designs  A'P  Checkwrile  (CI   $S5 

Info  Designs  Gen  Ledger  (Dl  $55 

Info  Designs  Inv  MGMT  (Dl   $55 

liilo  Designs  Payroll  (D)    $55 


wjj.ijti 


Creative  Choplifter  ICT)    $]9 

Epyx  Temple  of  Apshai  (T)    $24 

S«9a  Congo  Bongo  ICT) $25 

Seaa  Star  Trek  (CT)   $25 

Miner  2049  (CT) $23 


Rock  Bottom 
Prices  on 
Peripherals! 


PTJ,',I^^ 


"MJIt^'^='^ 


UfM.^h\ 


Epys  Dragon  Riders  of  Pern  (D&C)  $25 

Epyx  Silicon  Wairier  (CT)    $25 

Sega  Congo  Bongo  (CT)    $25 

InftKom  Enchanter  |Dl $33 

Inlocom  Inlidel  ( D ) , .  $33 

Synapse  Blue  Max  ID&C)    $22 

Sublogic  Pmball  (D&C) $20 

Hesware  Ma^e  Master  (CT) $26 

Broderbund  Choplifter  (CT)    $27 

Sinus  Grcids  In  Space  (D) $23 

Siena  On  Line  Sainmy  Light  (oot  ^^^__^^^_ 

„'CT>...-^. $29    JSMOSiS 

Miner  2049  (D)   $29 

Donkey  Kong  (CT)    $35 

Pac  Man  ICT) $35 

'1igDu9(CT>  S35 


BMC)2- Green  $79 

BMC  12-  Amber    $89 

BMC  )3"  Composite  Color    $239 

Monitor  calile  wijbove   ...!,,  $10 


ATARI  SOFTWARE 


PERSONAL  PRODUCTIVITY 


Continenta!  Hoine  AccounlanI  {D) $47 

Online  HomeWord  (Dl $39 

D^r^soft  Spell  Wizard  (D) „ , . .  $29 

Darasolt  Word  Wiiard  (CT)    $45 

Datasolt  Money  Wizard  (CT)    .........  $45 

Daiasofi  Text  Wizard  IDl $29 

Atari  AtanWnter  (CT) $69 

Si,mapsc  File  Manager  (D)    $69 

Si/napse  Syn  Calc  (D) $75 

Synapse  Syri-File  fD) , ,  $75 

Synapse  Syn-Trend  fD)    $75 

Synapse  Syn  Comm  ( D) $22 

Synapse  Syn  Graph  (D)   ,,,,,. 1^9 

Synapw  Syn  Mail  (D)    , , , . .  $33 

Synapse  Syn  Siai  iD)    $45 

Synapse  Syn  Stock  I D 1 $45 

Thorn  Home  Finance  Mgml  {C) $19 

Creaiiue  Household  Finance  (D) $23 

Creative  Household  Finance  (C)  .......  $19 

Creative  Home  Inv^entory  (Dl    $13 

Creative  Home  Inventory  (C)    .,..,.,,.  $10 
Compuserue  Start  Kit  (5  hrs) $29 


Vic  40  80  Display  Manager $77 

CM  Video  Pak  SO $]33 

Includes  Word  Manager  FREE 
Parallel  Pnnieir  Inleriace   $45 


tcfj,',i:fcl 


Hescard  Vic  5  Slot  $39 

HesModem  Vic  &  CM    $49 

Hes  Commctdoie  Disk  Dnve $288 


iL«»MW.1:/.l.l 


CbA,  Vic,  Atari ,  $67 

Apple $89 


COMMODORE  VIC  20        IJ:llJbJJ:M 


Inlocom  Zork  [.  II.  [I  each  D $26 

Inlocom  Plane!  Fall  ID) $33 

Infocom  Enchanter  (D) $33 

Infocom  infidel  ID) $33 

Synapse  Dimension  X  ( D&C)    $22 

Broderbund  Arcade  Machine  fD)    $39 

Epyx  Gatewa^i  lo  Apshai  i  CT) $27 

Epyx  Silicon  Warrior  (CT)   $27 

Epyx  Dragonriders  of  Pern  (D&C)   $25 

Epvx  Fun  Wilh  Art  (CT) $27 

Sega  Congo  Bongo  (CT)    $25 

Rnbolron  (CT)   $3T 

Donkey  Kong  Jr.  (CT)    $37 

Joust  (CT)    $37 

Pole  Position  (CT)   $37 


M:k*l,',IIMrrf 


Epyx  Funy.-i1h  Art  (CT) $27 

Epyx  Fun  wlh  Music  (CT) $27 

Hesware  Syntbesound  (D) ,  $33 

Hesware  Paintbrush  (CT) $19 

Spinnaker  Delta  Drawng  fCT)    $26 

Koa[a  SpiderEiter    . $23 

Kcidla  Geometric  Designs $23 

Koala  Crystal  Flowers $23 

Koala  Logo  Designs , , . ,  $29 

Spinnaker  Delia  Music  (CT) $26 


PERSONAL  PRODUCTIVITY 


Creative  Home  Oflice  (Dl $22 

Creative  Home  Oflite  (Cl    $19 

Creative  Household  Finance  ID) $17 

Creative  Household  Finance  ICf $13 

Creative  Home  Inventory  (D)    $13 

Creative  Home  Inventory  (C)    $10 

Thorn  Music  Composer  (CT)    $25 

MSI-  Piacticalc  Plus  (0)   $35 

M.S  I,  Praclicaic  Plus  (Tl    $33 

MS  I  Practicalc  IDl    $32 

M  Si  Practicalc  (T)    $29 

Hesware  Synthesound  (CT) $19 

Hesware  Vic  Forth  ICT) $39 

Hesware  Hes  Man  (CT)   $26 

Cardro  Write  Now $27 

Quicli  Broum  Fox  ICTI $42 

Hesware  6502  Pro  Dev  Sys    $19 

Epyx  Fun  with  Art  (CT)    $26 

Epyx  Fun  with  Music  (CT)  $26 

Broderbund  Mastettype  (CTl      $24 


BMC  Bx80    . .   $259 

GEM)NI  lOX $269 

AlphaCom  40  Column $99 

AlphaCom  SO  Column    $169 

Vic,  CM.  Alan 
Cable  with  AlphaCom  FREE 


sisssmn 


\M3Sm 


Anchor  Singleman  Mark  II  Atan 

(300BAUDI    $7$ 

Hes  Modem  Vic  9  C54    $49 

Hes  AuloAns  Vic  4  CM $89 


ATARI  DISK  DRIVES 


Rana $317 

Trak  Single  Density  w  Printer  Port   $429 

Irak  Double  Density $379 

Trak  Double  Density  w  Phnler  Port  ...  $459 
Atari  Inc    1050    $329 


ld.lllrf.*il.1JI 

Spinnaker  Alphabet  Zoo  (CT)   $23 

Spinnaker  Cosmic  Life  (CT) $23 

Spinnaker  Pacemaker  (CT)    $23 

Spinnaker  Fraction  Fever  (CT( $23 

Spinnaker  Kindercomp  (CT)   $19 

Spinnaker  Story  Machine  (CT)    $26 

Spinnaker  Up  For  Grabs  (CT)    $26 

Spinnaker  Trams  (D) j27 

Timeworks  Spellbound  (D&C)    $17 

Timeworks  Algebra  Dragons  ( D&CI    ...  $  1 7 

Lightning  Master  type  (D)   $27 

Sinus  Type  Attack  (D)    $26 

Hesivare  Turtle  Graphics  II  (CT(    $39 

Hesware  Turtle  Toyland  (CT)   $26 

Hesware  Turtle  Toyland  Jr.  (CT)    $26 

Hesware  Type  'N'  lAlriler  (CT)    $26 

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EDUCATIONAL  SOFTWARE 


Hesware  Spinnaker 

KinderComp  ICTi   $23 

Story  Machine  (CT)    $23 

Face  Maker  ICT) $23 

Kids  On  Keys  iCT)    $23 

Alphabet  2oo  iCT)    $23 

Hesware  Turtle  Graphics  (CT)    $26 

Creasive  Pipes  IC)   $19 

Creative  Spills*  Fills  I C)  $19 

Creative  Hangman  &  Hangmalh  IC)    ...  $10 
Creative  Math  Hurdle  &  MMaie  (C)  . .  -  $10 


The  Boss   „ $14 

3  Way  Grip  Stick $21 

Numeric  Keypad  C64    $29 

Graphic  Printer  Interface    ,  > , , $69 

Ecunorny  Printei  Inierface    $39 

Commodore  64  5  Slot   $49 

I6K  Board $53 

Cassclte  hterf $27 


Spmrtaiser  Delta  Drawfng  ICT)    $26 

Koala  SprderEaier    $23 

KtHJa  Geometric  Designs $23 

Koala  Crystal  Roujer s $23 

Koala  Logo  Designs . .  $29 

Spinnaker  Trams  (D) $27 


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INSIGHT:  Atari 


Bill  Wilkinson 


Well,  it's  the  new  year  and,  even  though  I  am 
writing  this  months  before  New  Year's  Eve,  I'm 
going  to  make  at  least  one  resolution  right  now:  I 
hereby  resolve  to  write  the  articles  which  I  have 
promised.  (Except,  of  course,  if  I...naw,  that's  not 
fair.  I'll  even  try  to  avoid  those  exceptions.) 

So,  in  the  spirit  of  that  resolution,  I'm  going 
to  deliver  the  fourth  part  of  my  series  on  writing 
self-relocatable  machine  language  right  now.  This 
month.  Immediately.  After  1  feed  you  some  tidbits 
first. 

Keep  Those  Cards  And  Brickbats 
Coming 

Recently,  I  have  received  several  letters  ("several" 
means  more  than  four — I  am  seldom  exactly  del- 
uged with  mail)  which  all  bear  on  one  or  two 
topics.  Since  there  appears  to  be  some  interest  in 
these  two  areas,  I  would  like  to  touch  on  them 
this  month.  Normally,  I  acknowledge  my  readers 
by  name  when  I  answer  letters.  This  time,  how- 
ever, several  asked  the  same  questions,  and  I  am 
hesitant  to  single  out  any  one  letter.  If  you  recog- 
nize, in  this  column,  a  response  to  a  letter  you 
wrote  me,  I  offer  my  thanks  for  the  ideas  you 
have  given  me. 

Maclilne  Language 

The  questions  about  this  topic  ranged  all  the 
way  from  "How  about  a  section  for  machine  lan- 
guage beginners?"  to  "Are  you  planning  any  more 
about  graphics  from  machine  language?" 

To  begin,  let  me  say  that  I  do  not  intend  to 
teach  a  tutorial  machine  language  class  through 
this  column.  A  good  tutorial  would  take  about 
200  magazine  pages,  minimum.  That's  about  what 
COMPUTE!  allots  me  for  two  years'  writtng.  By  the 
fime  the  series  were  finished,  I  would  hope  that 
you  would  have  been  experienced  programmers 
for  over  a  year! 

On  the  other  hand,  I  will  try  to  take  the  spirit 
of  the  questions  to  heart  and  include  a  little  more 
material  for  those  who  are  just  beginning  to  learn 
machine  language.  (Unfortunately,  that  does  not 
include  this  month's  article,  but  I  feel  committed 
to  finishing  the  series.) 

Several  of  you  have  asked  me  if  I  will  write 

184     COMPtni!    Jonuorv1984 


on  how  to  do  I/O  and  graphics  from  machine  lan- 
guage. Unfortunately,  I  have  already  written  a  lot 
about  these  subjects  (primarily  from  November 
1981  to  February  1982,  but  with  many  addifions 
through  the  summer  of  1982). 

Alas,  there  is  no  beginner-level  book  which 
treats  these  subjects.  Most  of  what  I  discussed  in 
my  articles  is  thoroughly  explored  in  Atari's 
Technical  Notes  and  Operating  System  documen- 
tation or  De  Re  Atari,  but  you  need  to  be  well- 
versed  in  6502  machine  language  before  tackling 
either. 

Probably  the  most  popular  books  about  the 
6502  are  those  by  Rodnay  Zaks.  My  personal  opin- 
ion is  that  they  are  good,  but  not  great  books.  So, 
after  you  have  digested  Richard  Mansfield's 
Machine  Language  for  Beginners  (COMPUTE! 
Books),  you  probably  should  be  very  careful  about 
what  book  you  pick  up  from  your  dealer's  shelves. 
Pick  one  which  appears  appropriate  to  your  level. 
But  keep  watching:  More  books  are  on  their  way. 

The  1050  Disk  Drive  And  DOS  3 

I  had  promised  that  I  would  say  no  more  on  these 
topics,  since  there  is  obviously  something  of  a 
conflict  of  interest  for  me  here.  (Atari  hasn't 
bought  our  DOS  XL,  but  some  of  the  other  disk 
drive  manufacturers  have.)  But  I  have  received 
several  cogent  questions  and  comments,  and  I 
will  try  to  answer  them  as  honestly  as  possible. 

First,  I  heard  from  a  couple  of  people  that  the 
1050  drive  does  rrot  support  32  sectors  per  track  in 
its  pseudo-double-density  mode.  The  claim  is 
that  it  only  supports  26  sectors  per  track,  a  sub- 
stantial rtducfion  in  capacity.  Since  I  don't  have  a 
1050  drive  or  the  final  version  of  DOS  3,  1  cannot 
directly  verify  or  dispute  this  claim.  (Is  it  possible 
that  this  claim  is  a  result  of  an  opinion  which  I 
myself  expressed  to  a  users  group  last  spring?) 
I  can  only  reiterate  that  it  was  an  examination  of 
a  preliminary  copy  of  DOS  3  which  resulted  in 
my  comments. 

The  other  letters  I  received  either  chided  me 
for  not  giving  more  details  on  DOS  3  or  simply 
asked  whether  it  would  work  with... well,  almost 
anything  (Atari  810  drives,  RAMDISKs,  Mosaic 
boards,  etc.).  First,  let  me  state  that  I  have  not 


been  able  to  exhaustively  test  DOS  3,  The  prelimi- 
nary version  works  on  an  Atari  800  with  an  810 
drive.  Beyond  that,  1  cannot  say. 

DOS  3  achieves  its  random  access  file  capa- 
bility by  segmenting  the  disk  into  128  blocks  of  IK 
each.  Obviously,  with  so  few  blocks,  one  can  keep 
a  pointer  to  each  block  in  memory  at  all  times.  In 
fact,  the  VTOC  (which  is  a  bitmap  on  DOS  2)  is 
also  the  file  block  map  (which  doesn't  exist  on 
DOS  2,  hence  no  random  files),  all  nicely  packed 
into  only  128  bytes  of  your  computer's  memory 
per  drive. 

And  that  is  beginning  to  get  more  technical 
than  I  meant  to  get  in  this  section,  but  let  me  close 
by  noting  that  expanding  this  scheme  to  a  5  mega- 
byte drive  would  imply  either  40,000  bytes  per 
block  on  the  disk  (and  remember,  a  block  is  the 
smallest  possible  file  size)  or  10,000  bytes  of  VTOC 
and  file  map  per  drive  in  your  main  memory  (in 
order  to  maintain  the  IK  block  size).  And  that  is 
why  I  said  in  my  previous  articles  that  DOS  3 
does  not  expand  well. 

Anyway,  I  found  it  surprising  that  Atari 
would  introduce  the  double-sided  drives  of  the 
1450XLD  with  DOS  3.  But  maybe  I'm  going  to  be 
surprised  again. 

A  Tidbit 

Once  again,  I  am  indebted  to  Steve  Lawrow,  the 
author  of  our  MAC/65  assembler  for  telling  me  of 
another  discovery  about  Atari  BASIC  which  I 
shall  share  with  you. 

1  have  been  traveling  around  demonstrating 
our  new  BASIC  XL  to  various  user  groups;  and, 
quite  naturally,  I  have  found  several  quick  and 
easy  programs  which  show  off  the  language.  One 
of  my  favorites  is  the  following  little  gem; 

IREM 

2  REM 

3  REM 


99  REM 

100  POKE  20,0 

101  IF  K200  THEN  I  =  I  + 1 : 

102  PRINT  PEEK(20) 


GOTO  101 


The  object  of  this  little  gem  is  to  get  a  bunch 
of  do-nothing  lines  (in  fact,  99  REMarks)  in  a  pro- 
gram and  then  see  how  much  they  slow  down 
the  loop  in  line  101.  Location  20  is  the  Vho  second 
clock  tick  ('/50  second  in  countries  using  50Hz 
power  systems),  so  the  result  of  lines  100  and  102 
is  to  print  out  the  elapsed  time  in  clock  ticks. 

Well,  I  usually  run  this  programette  in  Atari 
BASIC  first.  Atari  Microsoft  BASIC  second,  BASIC 
XL  in  slow  mode  third,  and  BASIC  XL  in  FAST 
mode  last.  (See  the  chart  for  timings.) 

Steve  mentioned  to  me,  though,  that  the 
timings  of  Atari  BASIC  (and  slow-mode  BASIC 
XL)  were  dependent  on  the  line  numbers  chosen. 


Skeptically,  I  renumbered  the  program  to  look 
like  this: 
IREM 

2  REM 

3  REM 


99  REM 

4000  POKE  20,0 

5000  IF  K200  THEN  1  =  1  +  1: 

6000  PRINT  PEEK(20) 


GOTO  5000 


Sure  enough,  all  the  BASlCs  (except,  naturally, 
BASIC  XL  in  FAST  mode)  speeded  up  a  little 
(again,  see  the  chart).  Why? 

I  know  the  answer  for  Atari  BASIC  and  BASIC 
XL,  and  I  suspect  it  is  the  same  answer  for  Micro- 
soft BASIC.  When  these  BASICs  need  to  make  a 
line  number  search,  they  place  the  line  number 
being  searched  for  in  a  particular  memory  location. 
Then  they  search  through  the  program,  a  line  at  a 
time,  looking  for  a  match  on  the  numbers.  As  they 
search,  though,  they  always  check  the  high  bytes 
of  the  line  numbers  first.  If  the  high  bytes  do  not 
match,  they  don't  bother  to  check  the  low  bytes. 

In  our  first  example,  since  all  the  line  numbers 
were  less  than  256,  all  the  high  bytes  were  the 
same,  so  the  search  took  slightly  longer.  In  the 
second  example,  though,  the  GOTO  statement 
caused  a  search  for  line  number  5000,  whose  high 
byte  is  never  the  same  as  those  of  any  of  the  other 
lines.  Bingo,  fast  search  speed. 

What  does  this  mean?  When  writing  in 
BASIC,  it  might  be  a  good  idea  to  modify  the  old 
traditional  line-numbering-by-10.  Purposely  break 
your  program  up  into  sections  so  that  the  target 
lines  of  GOTOs  and  GOSUBs  all  differ  by  at  least 
about  300,  and  you  will  help  BASIC  do  its  search- 
ing a  bit  faster.  (And  even  though  BASIC  XL  in 
FAST  mode  is  not  affected  by  these  foibles  when 
working  with  absolute  line  numbers,  even  it  will 
be  helped  when  in  slow  mode  or  when  you  use 
variable  names  or  expressions  as  GOTO/GOSUB 
targets.) 

And,  incidentally,  you  might  remember  that 
the  Microsoft  version  of  this  program  must  be 
typed  exactly  as  shown  to  get  these  timings.  Using 
longer  variable  names,  more  spaces  in  a  line,  more 
variable  names,  etc.,  will  significantly  slow  down 
Microsoft  BASIC.  Often  to  the  point  where  it  is 
slower  than  Atari  BASIC. 

Anyway,  here  is  the  chart  of  timings.  The 
Microsoft  BASIC  Integer  version  timings  were 
obtained  by  appending  a  %  to  all  variable  and 
constant  usage  in  lines  101  and  5000.  Try  some 
timings  like  this  yourself.  You'll  be  amazed. 

Timings  For  The  99  REM  Benchmark 

Atari      Microsoft    Microsoft    BASIC  XL  BASIC  XL 
BASIC       FItgPt.         Integer  Slow  Fast 

GOTO  101         178  169  155  125  35 

GOTO  5000       162  160  145  110  35 

January  1984    COMPinEI    185 


Self-Relocatable  Machine  Language, 
Part  4  (At  Last) 

Since  it  has  been  three  months  since  Part  3  of  this 
sort-of  series  appeared  {COMPUTE!,  September 
1983),  let  me  briefly  summarize  why  self-relocatable 
machine  language  (ML)  is  desirable: 

1.  If  all  your  ML  is  self-relocatable,  you  can 
load  as  many  (or  as  few)  modules  as  desired 
without  worrying  about  where  to  put  them 
in  memory. 

2.  If  you  are  using  ML  within  Atari  BASIC 
strings,  remember  that  the  strings  can  be 
moved  by  BASIC,  so  the  ML  virtually  has  to 
be  self-relocatable. 

3.  Various  pieces  of  systems  software  (for 
example.  Atari  BASIC,  Pascal,  Microsoft 
BASIC,  some  compilers)  insist  on  using  cer- 
tain portions  of  memory.  Since  the  pieces 
they  insist  on  are  not  consistently  the  same, 
it  is  an  advantage  to  be  able  to  load  your  ML 
(especially  device  drivers,  utilities,  etc.) 
wherever  the  systems  software  leaves  you  a 
hole. 

Also,  let  me  summarize  some  of  the  rules  for 
"Safe  Relocatable  Techniques,"  as  presented  in 
September: 

1.  Change  JMFs  to  branches. 

2.  Save  register  values  in  the  stack,  not  in 
fixed  memory. 

3.  From  BASIC,  pass  the  address  of  a  string 
as  a  location  (or  series  of  locations)  to  load 
from  or  store  to.  Note  that  Part  3  discussed 
how  the  ML  string  itself  could  be  used  for 
this  purpose. 

4.  Move  ML  from  relocatable  memory  to  fixed 
memory  temporarily. 

5.  Avoid  load,  store,  and  transfer  instructions 
which  refer  to  locations  within  your  own 
module. 

Finally,  let  me  remind  you  that  1  promised  to 
tell  you  how  to  utilize  more  than  255  bytes  of  re- 
locatable storage  and  how  to  generate  pointers  to 
such  storage  without  the  "benefit"  of  help  from  a 
calling  BASIC  program.  I  shall  attempt  to  fulfill 
my  promise. 

The  techniques  I  will  discuss  here  require  a 
very  small  segment  of  nonrelocatable  ML  as  well 
as  one  or  (better)  several  zero  page  pointers.  If 
you  are  in  really  dire  straits,  you  can  make  do 
with  temporary  locations  for  both  those  require- 
ments, but  if  possible  you  should  find  a  way  to 
preserve  the  required  memory  exclusively  for 
your  routine.  In  fact,  the  rest  of  this  discussion 
assumes  that  you  have  managed  to  preserve  the 
locations. 

1B6    COMPUTf!    January  1984 


First  Requirement:  Find  Yourself 

You  must  have  a  subroutine,  located  at  a  fixed 
location,  which  looks  like  this: 


BASE 

= 

$CE 

*  = 

$680 

FINDME 

PLA 

STA 

BASE+1 

PLA 

STA 

BASE 

PHA 

LDA 

BASE+1 

PHA 

RTS 

Note  that  I  have  placed  this  routine  in  the 
infamous  Page  6  and  have  used  a  fixed  zero  page 
location.  These  choices  are  for  convenience,  for 
illustration.  Feel  free  to  make  your  own  choice 
of  locations. 

And  just  what  does  this  routine  do7  How 
does  it  work?  Quite  simply,  it  finds  the  address  of 
the  program  which  called  it.  More  precisely,  it  finds 
the  address  of  the  last  byte  of  the  three-byte  JSR 
instruction  with  which  a  relocatable  program  calls 
it.  An  illustration  of  the  calhng  program  will  help: 


START 

JSR        FINDME 
BASEPTl       =  *-l 

LDY       #DATABYTE-BASEPT1 
LDA      (BASE),Y 

DATABYTE  .BYTE    99 

Do  you  follow  this?  When  FINDME  is  called 
via  the  JSR,  it  places  the  address  of  BASEPTl  into 
the  zero  page  location  called  BASE.  Then  the  Y 
register  is  loaded  with  the  offset  from  BASEPTl 
to  DATABYTE  and  used  an  index  for  the  LDA 
instruction.  (This  is  similar  to  the  technique  dis- 
cussed in  Part  3,  but  it  could  only  be  used  from 
BASIC  USR  calls.) 

The  limitation  of  this  technique  is  that  the 
data  location  (for  example,  DATABYTE  above) 
must  be  located  no  more  than  255  bytes  away 
from  the  JSR  (for  example,  BASEPTl),  If  you  are 
writing  a  package  of  several  small  routines,  this 
may  not  prove  to  be  a  limitation.  After  all,  each 
routine  could  call  FINDME  if  needed,  and  each 
routine  could  thus  have  its  own  storage  areas, 
located  no  more  than  255  bytes  from  the  respective 
call  to  FINDME.  If  you  are  writing  a  subroutine 
library  or  a  device  driver,  this  might  prove  to  be  a 
very  worthwhile  option. 

Note  the  side  "benefit"  to  the  scheme:  If  you 
call  FINDME  each  time  you  enter  a  routine,  then 
BASE  may  prove  to  be  a  really  very  temporary 
location  and  can  be  shared  with  other  routines. 

So  far,  so  good.  But  suppose  that  you  really 


do  need  a  large  data  area  or  program,  all  self- 
relocatable.  Well,  then,  your  program  might  have 
to  do  this: 


*  = 

???? 

DATABASE 

= 

sec 

START 

JSR 

FINDME 

BASEPTl 

= 

*-l 

OFFSETl 

CLC 

DATA  B  YTES-B  AS  EPTl 

LDA 

BASE 

ADC 

#OFFSETl&255 

STA 

DATABASE 

LDA 

BASE  +  1 

ADC 

#OFFSETl/256 

STA 

DATABASE +1 

LDY 

<some  offset  in  D  ATABYTES> 

LDA 

(DATABASE),Y 

DATABYTES 

.BYTE     1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 

Even  more  confused?  You  have  a  right  to  be. 
Here,  we  actually  develop  the  base  address  of  a 
data  area  and  place  it  in  a  new  zero  page  location. 
Now  we  can  access  the  data  area  from  anywhere 
in  our  self-relocatable  ML  by  simply  placing  an 
offset  within  that  data  area  into  the  Y  register. 
Again,  this  limits  the  size  of  access  to  256  bytes 
(the  range  of  values  the  Y  register  can  take  on), 
but  now  the  program  can  be  as  large  as  desired. 

Finally,  what  happens  if  you  actually  do  have 
a  data  area  larger  than  256  bytes?  There  are  several 
possible  solutions,  none  of  them  easy.  If  no  "array" 
within  the  data  area  is  larger  than  256  bytes,  you 
could  simply  develop  several  zero  page  pointers — 
one  for  each  group  of  256  bytes  or  less — using  the 
ADC  #OFFSET  technique  presented  above. 

If  you  have  a  single  array  or  table  which  is 
larger  than  256  bytes,  the  chances  are  that  you 
have  already  developed  some  method  of  ad- 
dressing into  it  (since  the  6502  limits  you  to  index 
sizes  of  0  through  255,  unless  you  play  with  indi- 
rect-Y  addressing  and  calculated  zero  page  pointer 
values).  You  need  only  use  the  contents  of  DATA- 
BASE, as  generated  above,  in  place  of  an  absolute 
address  for  the  start  of  the  array  or  table,  and  your 
address  calculations  will  be  similar  or  even  identical. 

If  you  are  lost  at  this  point,  don't  worry.  Much 
of  what  I  just  said  will  suddenly  be  meaningful  as 
you  write  more  and  more  advanced  machine  lan- 
guage programs.  Just  keep  this  article  for  handy 
reference. 

Second  Requirement:  Calling  Yourself 

Suppose  you  want  to  call  subroutines  within  your 
self-relocatable  ML.  How  do  you  do  it? 

Of  course,  if  the  subroutine  is  at  a  fixed  loca- 
tion (in  ROM  somewhere),  you  need  do  nothing 
special  The  JSR  instruction  insists  on  an  absolute 


address,  and  you  simply  supply  one.  But  what 
happens  if  the  routine  you  want  to  call  is  itself 
part  of  the  self-relocatable  ML? 

Advice:  Avoid  doing  what  I  am  about  to 
describe  if  you  possibly  can.  However,  if  you  need 
to  write  ML  which  must  use  these  techniques, 
read  on. 

First,  you  could  simply  write  some  self- 
modifying ML.  An  example: 


START 

JSR 

FINDME 

BASEPT 

= 

»-l 

ROUTINEl 

= 

ROUTINE -BASEPT 

CALLl 

= 

CALL  +  1- BASEPT 

LDY 

#CALL1 

CLC 

LDA 

BASE 

ADC 

#SUB1&255 

STA 

(BASE),Y 

INY 

LDA 

BASE+1 

ADC 

#SUBl/256 

STA 

(BASE),Y 

CALL  JSR       0;  ADDRESS  WILL  BE  GENERATED 


ROUTINE 

RTS 

Simply,  did  he  say?  Well,  it's  not  as  bad  as  it 
looks.  After  all,  if  we  could  generate  the  address 
of  a  table  and  place  it  in  zero  page,  why  can't  we 
place  a  subroutine's  address  directly  into  our  ML? 
Of  course,  we  must  do  the  placing  indirectly, 
since  even  the  address  of  the  JSR  instruction  is 
self-relocatable.  Did  you  note  that  CALLl  is  an 
offset  to  the  first  address  byte  in  the  instruction? 
It  wouldn't  do  to  modify  the  instruction  byte! 

Another  way  of  doing  JSRs  like  this  might  be 
to  place  yet  another  small  routine  in  nonrelocat- 
able  memory.  You  could  (1)  load  the  A  and  X  reg- 
isters with  the  offset  to  the  desired  subroutine, 
then  (2)  JSR  to  the  nonreloca table  routine  which 
would  calculate  the  actual  address  you  desired, 
and  (3)  JMP  to  that  location.  When  the  subroutine 
returned,  execution  would  continue  at  the  in- 
struction after  vour  JSR.  © 


Use  the  cord 

in  the  back 

of  this  magazine 

to  order  your 
COMPUTE!  Books 


January  1934    COMPUTE!    187 


64  EXPLORER 


Lorrv  Isaacs 


Printing  Graphics 


I've  been  receiving  a  number  of  letters  asking  for 
more  information  about  printers  and  printer  in- 
terfaces. Possibly  last  month's  article  helped  some. 
Several  people  asked  about  graphics. 

Most  printers  implement  their  graphics 
capabilities  differently.  Fortunately,  there  are 
enough  similarities  so  that  they  can  be  discussed 
as  a  class,  somewhat  generally.  I  have  used  the 
graphics  on  a  number  of  different  printers,  so  I 
will  try  to  share  what  experience  I  have  accumu- 
lated. You  should  be  able  to  apply  this  information 
to  your  own  printer. 

Dot-Matrix  Characters 

Before  getting  into  the  graphics,  let's  take  a  quick 
look  at  how  a  printer  forms  its  dot-matrix  charac- 
ters. The  characters  are  placed  on  paper  by  the 
printhead,  which  travels  horizontally  back  and 
forth  across  the  paper.  This  printhead  contains  a 
number  of  print  needles.  These  needles  can  be 
pushed  out  to  strike  the  printer  ribbon  against  the 
paper  to  form  a  dot.  Most  dot-matrix  printers 
have  eight  to  ten  needles,  though  there  are  some 
with  more.  Usually  the  needles  are  arranged  in  a 
straight  vertical  line.  Those  with  more  needles 
will  typically  arrange  the  needles  in  two  rows 
which  are  offset  vertically: 


Since  the  vertical  spacing  between  the  needles 
is  very  small,  the  dots  resulting  from  the  dual-row 
printhead  will  actually  overlap.  The  advantage  of 
the  dual-row  printhead  is  that  better,  more  fully 
formed  characters  can  be  printed.  However,  this 

188    COMPUU!    January  198/1 


advantage  may  not  serve  graphics.  It  depends  on 
the  printer. 

Printing  is  accomplished  as  the  printhead 
traverses  the  paper.  At  certain  intervals,  a  set  of 
print  needles  are  "fired,"  printing  a  group  of  ver- 
tical dots  on  the  paper.  Characters  are  formed  by 
printing  these  vertical  dots  in  a  pattern  appropriate 
for  the  character.  So,  during  normal  printing, 
each  byte  or  character  sent  to  the  printer  will  result 
in  the  printing  of  a  number  of  vertical  groups  of 
dots.  Typically,  enabling  the  graphics  feature  of 
the  printer  means  that  each  byte  or  character  sent 
to  the  printer  will  print  only  one  vertical  group  of 
dots.  The  dots  in  the  group  are  specified,  of  course, 
by  the  character  which  was  sent.  In  the  remainder 
of  this  article,  I  will  use  the  term  "graphics  char- 
acter" to  refer  to  characters  sent  to  the  printer 
while  the  printer's  graphics  mode  is  enabled.  As 
you  will  see,  while  in  graphics  mode,  you  have 
control  over  each  dot  that  is  printed. 

Since  each  byte  sent  to  the  printer  contains 
eight  bits,  up  to  eight  dots  can  be  controlled  by 
each  graphics  character.  In  all  printers  that  I've 
seen,  a  bit  which  is  a  one  will  cause  the  cor- 
responding dot  to  be  printed.  Bits  which  are  zero 
indicate  that  no  dot  should  be  printed.  Most 
printers  print  eight  dots  per  graphics  character, 
but  there  are  some  which  print  six  or  seven.  A 
printer  which  prints  eight  dots  per  graphics  char- 
acter will  work  out  best  for  use  with  the  64  since 
eight  dots  is  also  the  height  of  a  character  cell  on 
the  display. 

Now  let's  start  looking  at  what  it  takes  to 
print  graphics.  First,  we'll  restrict  ourselves  to 
printing  graphics  on  a  single  line.  Afterwards  we 
can  go  over  how  to  visualize  printing  a  graphics 
image  which  is  more  than  one  line  high. 

Entering  The  Graphics  Mode 

The  first  step  in  trying  to  print  graphics  is  to  de- 


termine  how  to  enter  and  exit  the  graphics  printing 
mode.  In  general,  two  methods  are  used  to  accom- 
plish this.  The  first  method  sends  the  printer  an 
"escape  sequence"  which  includes  the  number  of 
graphics  characters  that  are  intended  to  be  sent. 
With  this  method,  the  only  way  to  exit  the  graphics 
mode  is  to  send  the  specified  number  of  charac- 
ters, at  which  point  the  printer  automatically  exits 
the  graphics  mode.  The  second  method  uses  one 
escape  sequence  to  enter  the  graphics  mode,  and 
another  to  exit  graphics  mode.  This  method  im- 
plies that  there  will  be  some  way  to  distinguish 
the  escape  sequences  from  the  graphics  characters. 
For  printers  which  print  eight  dots  per  graphics 
character,  all  I've  seen,  including  my  NEC-8023, 
use  the  first  method.  (Escape  is  a  "key,"  like  the 
SHIFT  key,  which  alerts  a  machine  that  the  fol- 
lowing number  is  special.  ESC  is  the  number  27. 
So,  27  24  could  mean  italics  mode  to  a  printer.' 
Consult  your  printer's  manual  for  the  correct  es- 
cape sequences  to  activate  special  modes.) 

The  escape  sequence  to  put  my  NEC-8023 
into  graphics  mode  is 

ESC,S,"nnnn" 

and  "nnnn"  is  a  four-digit  string  giving  the 
number  of  graphics  characters  that  will  be  sent. 
To  illustrate  how  this  is  output  to  the  printer, 
here  is  a  subroutine  to  output  the  proper  escape 
sequence  for  N  graphics  characters  to  channel  4: 

N?=STR$(N) 

N$=RIGHT?(N$,LEN(N$)-1) :REM    DROP    SPACE 

N?=LEFT$( "0000",4-LEN(N$) )+N$ 

PRINT#4,CHR$(27);"S";N$,- 

RETURN 

The  second  line  of  the  routine  is  needed  to 
remove  the  leading  space  from  STR$(N).  The  third 
line  places  the  required  number  of  leading  zeros 
toN$. 

Preparing  Graphics  Characters 

Once  you  know  how  to  enter  and  exit  the  graphics 
mode,  the  next  step  is  to  determine  how  the 
graphics  characters  need  to  be  prepared.  The  first 
consideration  is  which  bit  in  the  graphics  character 
controls  which  dot.  On  some  printers,  the  least 
significant  bit  controls  the  uppermost  dot,  and  on 
others  it  controls  the  lowest  dot.  I've  seen  both 
used  many  times,  so  you  will  have  to  check  your 
printer  manual  to  determine  which  applies  to  you. 

A  second  consideration  for  preparing  the 
graphics  characters  is  how  the  dots  of  the  graphics 
image  are  activated.  Usually  a  graphics  image  is 
accessed  a  byte  at  a  time,  just  as  it  is  printed  a 
byte  at  a  time. 

You  must  first  obtain  some  bytes  from  the 
graphics  image  which  are  displayed  vertically. 
The  number  of  bytes  to  fetch  is  the  same  as  the 
number  of  dots  printed  per  graphics  character. 


Since  my  NEC  prints  eight  dots  per  graphics  char- 
acter, I  will  need  to  fetch  eight  bytes.  Once  these 
bytes  have  been  obtained,  the  next  step  is  to  begin 
removing  a  single  bit  from  each  of  these  bytes 
and  combining  the  bits  to  form  a  graphics  charac- 
ter. Eight  graphics  characters  may  be  formed  from 
the  bytes  fetched  from  the  graphics  image. 

An  important  considerahon  at  this  point  is 
which  bit  of  the  graphics  image  byte  represents 
the  leftmost  dot.  In  every  computer  Fve  en- 
countered, the  most  "significant"  bit  is  displayed 
on  the  left.  This  means  the  bits  should  be  extracted 
from  our  graphics  image  bytes  starting  with  the 
most  significant  bit  (that  is,  bit  7)  first.  We  can 
extract  bit  7  of  a  byte  by  ANDing  it  with  128.  This 
will  leave  us  a  byte  with  bit  7  the  same  as  the  orig- 
inal byte,  but  all  other  bits  set  to  zero.  By  shifting 
the  remaining  bits  in  the  graphics  image  byte 
toward  bit  7,  we  can  extract  each  bit  of  the  byte  in 
sequence.  To  shift  the  bits  toward  bit  7,  we  simply 
multiply  by  2. 

Since  any  bit  we  extract  is  bit  7,  it  would  be 
easier  if  we  put  it  into  the  graphics  character  at  bit 
7  also.  This  can  be  done  by  ORing  the  extracted 
bit  with  the  graphics  character.  Successive  bits  can 
be  put  into  the  graphics  character  by  shifting  the 
bits  in  the  graphics  character  toward  the  least 
significant  bit  (bit  0)  then  ORing  in  the  next  bit. 
Shifting  the  bits  toward  bit  0  is  accomplished  by 
dividing  by  2. 

By  using  this  procedure,  we  establish  that 
the  first  bits  placed  in  the  graphics  character  will 
end  up  at  the  least  significant  bit  positions.  Now 
we  need  to  determine  if  these  first  bits  should  be 
the  top  dots  or  the  bottom  dots.  On  my  NEC,  the 
least  significant  bits  should  be  the  top  dots.  To 
illustrate  the  process,  here  is  a  short  subroutine 
that  would  accomplish  the  rearrangement  for  the 
NEC.  It  assumes  that  the  eight  bytes  from  the 
graphics  image  are  contained  in  the  array  SA( ), 
with  SA(0)  containing  the  top  dots.  The  resulting 
graphics  characters  will  be  output  to  channel  4. 

FOR  J=l  TO  8:GC=0:REM  DO  8  GR.  CHARS 

FOR  1=0  TO  7: REM  8  DOTS  PER  GR.  CHAR 

GC=GC/2  OR  (SA(I)  AND  128) 

SA(I)=SA(I)*2 

NEXT  I;  PRINT#4,CHR$(GC); :  NEXT  J 

RETURN 

If  you  need  the  least  significant  bits  of  the  graphics 
characters  to  be  the  bottom  dots,  just  place  the 
bytes  in  the  SA( )  array  so  that  SA(0)  contains  the 
bottom  dots.  If  you  are  using  a  printer  interface, 
you  must  also  make  sure  that  the  interface  is  in  a 
mode  where  it  will  not  do  any  character  transla- 
tions, such  as  most  do  for  color  control  codes,  etc. 
On  my  printer  interface,  secondary  address  4  or  5 
is  specified  for  graphics  printing,  with  4  including 
auto  linefeed.  Thus  I  might  use  OPEN  4,4,4  or 
OPEN  4,4,5  to  open  a  channel  to  the  printer. 


Jonuarv1984     COMPUTE!     189 


Printing  Grapliics 

If  you  wanted  to  print  a  line  of  graphics,  the  fol- 
lowing routine  shows  how  it  could  be  done.  This 
routine  would  output  a  line  320  graphics  char- 
acters long. 

N  =  320:GOSL)B     <eniili!c  graphics  mi>tte> 
FOR  NC  =  1  TO  N  STEP  8  ' 

GOSUB         <fill  thf  SA(  )  array> 
GOSUB         <print  SA(  )  arrav> 
NEXT  NC 

I  haven't  covered  anv  specifics  about  how  to 
"fill  the  SA( )  array."  This  will  depend  somewhat 
on  the  graphics  image  you  are  trying  to  print. 
However,  it  turns  out  that  the  way  the  64  stores 
its  graphics  images  in  memory  is  ideal  for  graphics 
printing  (provided  the  printer  prints  eight  dots 
per  graphics  character).  The  bytes  neetled  to  fill 
the  SA(  )  array  are  found  right  next  to  each  other 
in  memory.  An  example  of  a  "fill  SA( )"  routine 
may  be  found  in  the  demo  program  at  the  end  of 
this  article. 

If  you  need  to  print  only  one  line  of  graphics, 
you  can  continue  with  text  immediately  after  the 
last  graphics  character.  You  could  also  output  a 
carriage  return  and  continue  with  text  on  the  next 
line.  With  normal  line  spacing  there  will  be  a  gap 
between  your  graphics  line  and  the  previous  and 
following  lines  of  text.  If  vou  want  to  print  multiple 
lines  of  graphics,  and  have  them  print  next  to 
each  other,  there's  an  additional  step  to  take. 

This  involves  getting  the  printer  to  feed  a 
distance  less  than  the  normal  line  spacing.  On 
some  printers,  there  is  a  special  code  or  escape 
sequence  to  do  this.  However,  on  most  printers, 
this  is  done  with  an  escape  sequence  which  allows 
you  to  change  the  linefeed  distance.  Once  it  is 
changed  appropriately  for  graphics,  the  usual 
carriage  return  and  linefeed  may  be  used  to  move 
to  the  next  graphics  line.  This  is  how  it  is  done  on 
my  NEC.  The  escape  sequence  to  change  the 
linefeed  distance  on  the  NEC-8023  is: 

ESC,T,"nn" 

where  "nn"  is  a  two-digit  string  which  indicates 
how  many  144ths  of  an  inch  the  linefeed  distance 
should  be.  Since  the  vertical  distance  between  the 
centers  of  the  needles  is  'A;  inch,  eight  dots  would 
require  "/144  inch.  Therefore,  the  appropriate  se- 
quence would  be: 

ESC,T,"16" 

Normal  line  spacing  ('/d  inch)  caii  be  restored  by 
selecting  -''/144  inch,  or  bv  the  escape  sequence; 
ESC,A. 

To  bring  all  this  together,  here  is  a  demo  pro- 
gram which  will  print  a  copy  of  the  64  Character 
Generator  ROMs  on  a  NEC.  Try  to  determine 
what  changes  are  necessary  to  make  it  work  with 
your  printer.  Since  the  program  is  accessing  the 

wo    COMPUTE!    JanuarYl9M 


character  ROMs,  kevboard  interrupts  and  the  I/O 
registers  must  be  disabled  in  order  to  read  the 
data.  The  required  POKEs  and  PEEKs  are  found 
in  the  subroutine  at  lines  250  and  260.  You  can 
refer  to  the  section  on  Character  Memory  which 
starts  on  page  106  of  the  CaniDiodorc  64  Program- 
mer's Reference  Guide  for  details.  This  program  is 
intended  strictly  as  a  demonstration.  Written  en- 
tirely in  BASIC,  it  is  rather  slow  when  printing  an 
image  of  any  size.  In  next  month's  column  I  will 
try  to  provide  some  machine  language  routines  to 
accomplish  the  same  thing  much  faster. 

Example  Of  ROM  Character  Printout 

SABCDEFGHUKLMHO 
PQRSTUUWXVZ[£:t*- 

6123456789; ,<=>? 
-♦I -I  l-v  '-'I   ~ 


i!i»i'i3iM!lW:4Mii:[f 


PQRSTUWWXVZtt It, 
6123-156789     ;  C  =  >? 


iabcde  f ghi  jklnno 

0123458789:  ;<:  =  >? 
-ABCDEFGHIJKLriNO 

PQRSTuuwxvz-K  liss; 


pqrstuwwxyiLflt*" 

0123456789: ;<=>? 
-fiBCDEFGHJ  JKLMKO 
PQRSTUUWXVZ-H;  |::::S; 


Print  Character  ROM  Image 

10  REM  PROGRAM  TO  PRINT  CHAR  ROM  IMAGE 

20  OPEN  4,4,5 

30  GOTO  1000 

100  REM  ENABLE  GR .  MODE  FOR  N  CHARS 

110  N$=STR$(N) :N$=RIGHT$(N$,LEN(N$)-1) 

120  N$=LEFT${"0000",4-LEN(N$) ) +N$ 

130  PRINT#4,CHR$(27) r"S";N$; 

140  RETURN 

200  REM  FILL  SA()  FROM  8  BYTES  AT  CP 

210  POKE  56334, PEEKC56334)  AND  254 

220  POKE  1,PEEK(1}  AND  251 

230  FOR  1=0  TO  7 

240  SA{I)=PEEK(CP+I) :NEXT 

250  POKE  1,PEEK(1)  OR  4 

260  POKE  56334, PEEK(56334)  OR  1 

270  RETURN 

300  REM  PRINT  SA()  ARRAY 

310  FOR  J=0  TO  7:  GC=0 

320  FOR  1=0  TO  7 

330  GC=GC/2  OR  CSA(l)  AND  128) 

340  SA(I)=SA{I)  *  2 

350  NEXT  I:PRINT#4,CHR$(GC),-  :NEXT  J 

360  RETURN 

1000  REM  THE  MAIN  ROUTINE 

1010  PRINT#4,CHR$(27) ; "T16"; 

1020  N=16*8:CP=53248 

1030  FOR  L=l  TO  32: REM  PRINT  32  LINES 

1040  GOSUB  100 

1050  FOR  G=l  TO  16; REM  16  GROUPS/LINE 

1060  GOSUB  200:GOSUB  300 : CP=CP+8 :NEXT  G 

1070  PRINT#4:NEXT  L 

1080  PRINT#4,CHR$(27) ; "A"? 

1090  CLOSE  4  C 


Atari  Autorun 

BASIC 


Michoel  E  Hepner 

The  Atari  DOS  makes  it  possible  to  automatically  run  a 
machine  language  program.  This  program  shoios  you 
how  to  automatically  run  a  BASIC  program — a  tech- 
nique especially  helpful  when  you're  loriting  programs 
fornovice  users. 


The  Atari  Disk  Operating  System  (DOS  2. OS)  pro- 
vides the  capability  to  automatically  run  a  user- 
written  machine  language  program  whenever  the 
computer  is  turned  on.  This  article  will  show  you 
how  to  use  this  feature  to  automatically  run  a 
program  which  is  written  in  BASIC. 

The  need  to  automatically  run  a  BASIC  pro- 
gram arose  as  1  was  writing  a  program  for  a  friend's 
business.  Most  of  the  employees  who  would  have 
to  run  the  program  were  unfamiliar  with  com- 
puters. I  wanted  to  make  the  program  easy  for 
them  to  use.  I  knew  that  once  the  program  gained 
control,  I  could  help  the  user  make  inputs  through 
menus  and  prompts.  But  the  user  still  had  to  re- 
member the  syntax  of  the  RUN  command  to  make 
the  program  run,  and  had  to  cope  with  looking 
up  the  meaning  of  an  error  code  if  he  or  she  made 
a  mistake. 

To  solve  these  problems,  I  wrote  a  machine 
language  program  which  tells  the  BASIC  cartridge 
to  run  a  BASIC  program  named  AUTORUN. BAS 
from  disk.  1  stored  the  machine  language  pro- 
gram output  from  the  assembler  onto  disk  as 
AUTORUN.SYS. 

When  the  computer  is  turned  on,  the  oper- 
ating system  loads  DOS  from  disk  and  then  runs 
an  AUTORUN.SYS  program  if  it  finds  it  on  the 
disk.  My  AUTORUN.SYS  program  then  causes 
the  BASIC  program  to  be  run.  In  this  way,  the 
user  only  needs  to  turn  the  computer  on,  reply  to 
questions  from  the  BASIC  program,  and  turn  the 
computer  off. 

The  machine  language  program  uses  a  trick 
that  was  documented  in  De  Re  Atari  to  run  the 
BASIC  program.  The  program  writes  two  BASIC 
instructions  on  one  line  on  the  screen,  tells  BASIC 
to  accept  its  input  from  the  screen  editor,  and 
gives  control  to  the  BASIC  cartridge. 

When  the  BASIC  cartridge  takes  control,  it 


processes  the  two  commands  on  the  screen.  The 
first  command  is  POKE  842,12.  This  command 
tells  BASIC  to  get  its  next  input  from  the  keyboard 
after  it  has  finished  processing  all  the  commands 
in  the  current  line.  The  second  command  is 
RUN  "Dl: AUTORUN. BAS".  This  command  loads 
the  BASIC  program  named  AUTORUN. BAS 
from  disk  number  one  and  runs  it.  You  should 
SAVE  the  BASIC  program  you  wish  to  have  auto- 
matically RUN  on  the  disk  with  the  filename 
AUTORUN.  BAS. 

The  BASIC  program  here  will  write  the 
machine  language  program  to  your  disk  as 
AUTORUN.SYS.  It  reads  data  from  DATA  state- 
ments and  creates  the  machine  language  pro- 
gram with  the  necessary  load  and  run  information 
with  it. 

Line  10  opens  the  disk  for  output.  The  output 
goes  to  a  program  on  disk  named  AUTORUN.SYS. 

Lines  20  and  50  set  up  a  loop  to  read  94  bytes 
of  data. 

Line  30  reads  the  integer  data  from  the  DATA 
statement  into  the  variable  A. 

Line  40  writes  one  byte  to  the  disk.  This  byte 
is  the  AT  ASCII  code  that  corresponds  to  the 
number  in  variable  A. 

Line  60  closes  the  disk. 

Lines  80-100  contain  the  integer  representa- 
tion of  the  machine  language  program,  including 
the  load  and  run  information. 

Atari  BASIC  AUTORUN.SYS 


10  OPEN  #4,8,0, 

20  FOR  1=1  TO  7 

30  READ  A 

40  PUT  #4, A 

50  NEXT  I 

60  CLOSE  #4 

70  END 

BO  DATA  255,255 
8, 2, 105, 4,13 
33,205,24, 16 
3,212 

90  DATA  160, 1 , 1 
60, 32, 185,49 
, 169, 13, 141, 
0,24 

lOO  DATA  20, 19, 
,2,36, 17,26 
14,  34,  33,  51 


■Dl: AUTORUN.SYS" 


, 0,6,81,6,216, 24,  173, 4 
3, 204, 173, 49, 2, 105, O, 1 
0,0,177,204,105,162,13 

77,204, lOS, O, 133, 213, 1 
, 6, 145, 212, 136, 208,248 
74,  3,  96,  O,  48, 4  7, 43, 37, 

12, 17, 18, 26, 50, 53, 46, O 
,33,53,52,47,50,53,46, 
,2,226,2,227,2,0,6         © 

January  1984    COHPUTi!     191 


/ 


Commodore  Files 
For  Beginners 

Parts 


Jim  Butterfield,  Associate  Editor 


Port  3  continues  the  discussiou  affiles  appearing  in  tfw 
two  previous  issues  0/ COMPUTE!.  This  month,  Butter- 
field  explains  how  to  handle  files  that  fit  within  or  are 
larger  than  RAM,  and  hoxv  to  change  or  delete  files. 


We've  set  up  our  file  of  data.  So  we  know  how  to 
write  it.  We've  written  a  reading  program.  So  we 
know  how  to  read  it.  In  fact,  we  know  how  to  do 
everything:  additions,  deletions,  and  corrections, 
since  these  are  just  reading  and  writing  with  a 
little  computing  in  between. 

Sizing 

Can  you  handle  a  file  of  100,000  characters  when 
you  have  only  a  5K  machine?  The  answer  is  yes, 
but  it's  a  quahfied  yes. 

There  are  a  few  difficulties,  but  in  principle 
you  can  handle  a  big  file  with  a  small  computer. 
Ultimately,  you  may  have  to.  Even  if  your  com- 
puter were  fitted  with  a  million  bytes  of  memory, 
somebody  would  dream  up  a  two-million  byte 
file — which  could  not  be  held  entirely  within  the 
computer's  RAM. 

There  are  technicjues  for  handling  big  files. 
The  main  idea  is  to  handle  an  item  and  then  get 
rid  of  it.  If  you  had  a  list  of  a  million  customers  on 
a  disk  (it  would  be  a  big  disk),  you  could  print  out 
all  the  customers'  names  without  trouble.  Read  a 
name,  print  it,  and  then  loop  back  and  read  the 
next  one.  The  names  don't  have  to  stay  in  the 
computer's  memory:  Once  they  have  been 
printed,  they  are  no  longer  needed. 

192     COMPUTE!     JonuOfy19e4 


Even  when  we  are  updating  a  big  file,  we 
won't  have  too  much  trouble  provided  we  have  a 
disk  unit.  Read  a  record  from  the  input  file;  change 
or  delete  it  if  necessary;  write  it  to  the  output  file; 
and  then  go  back  and  repeat.  A  little  computer 
can  handle  big  files. 

Cassette  tape  is  a  special  problem.  To  use 
this  "big  file"  approach,  we'd  need  to  have  two 
tape  drives.  That's  not  possible  on  VIC-20  or 
Commodore  64,  and  it's  impractical  on  most  PET/ 
CBMs.  So  where  cassette  files  are  concerned, 
you'd  better  plan  to  have  files  that  will  fit  entirely 
within  memory. 

And  there  are  bonus  things  you  can  do  when 
a  file  fits  into  RAM.  For  example,  sorting  records 
within  memory  is  a  snap.  In  contrast,  special  tech- 
niques are  called  for  when  files  don't  fit. 

Let's  confine  this  discussion  to  files  that  do 
fit  enfirely  within  the  computer's  memory  space. 
But  don't  let  your  thinking  freeze — you  can  do 
the  bigger  ones.  It's  just  more  work. 

Bringing  It  In 

First,  we  must  make  space  for  the  number  of 
records  we  expect.  We  set  up  the  arrays  with  a 
DIM  statement: 

100    DIM  A$(50),B$(50),M(50) 

This  leaves  room  for  up  to  50  students.  To  work 
out  memory  space,  allow  three  bytes  plus  the 
average  length  for  each  string,  plus  seven  bytes 
for  each  numeric.  Here,  we  have  a  table  of  student 
names  (A$),  of  student  numbers  (B$),  and  marks 
(M).  Let's  calculate,  using  previous  data. 


We  estimate  memory  space  with: 


Surname: 
Student  number: 
Mark: 


50  X  (3  plus  8  characters) 
50  X  (3  plus  4  characters) 
50  X  7  bytes 


This  gives  us  a  rough  estimate  of  1250  bytes  for 
storage.  It  is  not  highly  accurate — we  haven't 
allowed  for  the  zero  elements,  tor  example — but 
it  will  give  us  an  idea  whether  things  will  fit.  The 
program  itself  will  need  extra  storage,  of  course. 

Note  that  we're  simply  allocating  space.  We 
can  provide  for  50  students,  but  only  need  space 
for  30;  that's  quite  OK. 

Now  we  can  read  our  file  into  memorv: 

110    INPUT    "NAME    OF    INPUT    FILE";N$ 

For  disk,  we  use: 
120    OPEN    1,8, 2, N$ 
And  for  tape,  we  code: 

120    OPEN    I, 1,0, N$ 

or  simply: 

120    OPEN    1 

Now  we  read  the  data  into  our  memory  tables. 
The  coding  is  quite  similar  to  our  previous  ex- 
ample, except  that  this  time  we  need  to  give  each 
record  a  code  number: 

130  J=0 

140  J=J+1 

150  INPUT#1,A$(J) 

160  INPUT#1,B$(J) 

170  INPUT#1,M(J) 

We'll  look  for  the  last  record  in  the  usual  (ST) 
way,  and  log  the  number  of  records  as  variable  N: 


190  IF  ST=0  GOTO  140 

200  N=J 

210  CLOSE  1 

220  PRINT  "THERE  WERE' 


rN; "RECORDS" 


At  this  moment,  our  whole  file  is  parked  neatly  in 
memory.  Record  1  contains  a  surname  in  A$(l),  a 
student  number  in  B$(l),  and  a  mark  in  M(l). 

Deciding  What  To  Do 

Let's  give  the  user  a  series  of  options: 


230 
240 

250 
260 
270 
280 
290 
300 


similar  to  what  we  have  done  before: 

310  INPUT  "NAME  OF  OUTPUT  FILE";N$ 

320  OPEN  1,8,2,"0:"+N$+",S,W 

330  FOR  J=l  TO  N 

340  PRINT#1,AS(J);CHR$(13) 

350  PRINT#1,B?{J);CHR${13) 

360  PRINT#1,M(J) ;CHR$(13) 

3  70  NEXT  J 

380  CLOSE  1 

390  END 

For  tape,  change  line  320  to: 

320    OPEN    1,1,2,N$ 

Adding  A  Record 

Line  400  is  reached  if  the  user  wishes  to  add  a 
record.  Since  we  haven't  sorted  our  records,  we 
can  stick  the  new  record  on  the  end: 

400  INPUT  "NAME", -A? 

410  INPUT  "NUMBER" ;B$ 

420  INPUT  "MARK"?M 

430  INPUT  "0K";X$ 

As  before,  we'll  give  the  user  a  chance  to  back 

out: 

440  IF  X$<>"Y"  AND  X$<>"YES"  GOTO  230 

450  N=N+1 

460  A$(N)=A$ 

470  B$(N)=B$ 

480  M(N)=M 

490  GOTO  230 

Finding  A  Record 

To  change  or  delete  a  record,  we'll  need  to  find 
that  record.  Let's  save  time  by  writing  a  subroutine 
to  search  for  a  student  number: 

500  INPUT  "NUMBER" ;B$ 

510  E=0;FOR  J=l  TO  N 

520  IF  B?<>B?(J)  GOTO  560 

530  PRINT  A$(J);"  ";BS(J),"  "?M(J) 

540  INPUT  "IS  THIS  THE  RECORD" ;X$ 

550  IF  X5="Y"  OR  X$="YES"  GOTO  590 

560  NEXT  J 

570  PRINT  "RECORD  NOT  FOUND" 

580  E=l 

590  RETURN 

Deleting  A  Record 

Line  600  is  for  deletion  of  a  record.  First,  we  call 
the  subroutine  at  500,  noting  if  the  record  was  not 
found: 


PRINT 

PRINT  "ADD  -  DELETE  -  CHANGE  -  WRITEF   600  GOSUB  500; IF  E  GOTO  230 

ILE" 

INPUT  "ACTION" ;X$ 

X?=LEFT$(X$,1) 

IF  X$="A"  GOTO  400 

IF  X$="D"  GOTO  600 

IF  X$="C"  GOTO  700 

IF  X?<>"W"  GOTO  250 


Now  we  have  found  the  record;  close  up  the 
space: 


Writing  It  Out 

If  we  get  to  line  310,  the  user  has  selected  the 
"writefile"  option.  Let's  write  the  code;  it  will  be 


610 

N=N-1 

620 

FOR  K=J  TO  N 

630 

A$(K)=A$(K+1) 

640 

B$(K)=B$(K+1) 

650 

M(K)=M(K+1) 

660 

NEXT  K 

670 

PRINT  "RECORD  DELETED" 

680 

GOTO  230 

January  1984    COMPUTE!    193 


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Changing  The  Record 

Finally,  line  700  starts  the  sequence  to  change  a 
record.  Again,  we  locate  the  recorci  with  the  sub- 
routine at  500: 

700  GOSUB  500: IF  E  GOTO  230 

710  INPUT  "NEW  NAME"?A$ 

720  INPUT  "NEW  NUMBER" ;B$ 

730  INPUT  "NEW  MARK";M 

740  INPUT  "OK";X$ 

750  IF  X$<>"Y"  AND  X$<>"YES"  GOTO  230 

760  A${J)=A$ 

770  B$(J)=B$ 

780  M(J)=M 

790  PRINT  "D0NE!":GOT0  230 

Other  Projects 

That's  all.  We  might  add  to  this  program: 

•  A  LIST  option  to  allow  the  current  file  to  be 
listed  to  the  screen; 

•  A  PRINT  option  to  output  the  file  to  the 
printer; 

•  An  UPDATE  option  to  allow  new  marks  to 
be  entered  for  all  students; 

•Where  disk  is  used,  disk  error  checking. 

At  this  point,  we're  starting  to  achieve  a  small 
but  effective  sequential  filing  svstem. 

Next  month,  we'll  deal  with  "keys,"  sorted 
files,  and  merges.  © 


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Machine  Language  Entry  Program 
For  Commodore  64 


Chorles  Bronnon,  Program  Editor 


Remember  the  last  time  you  typed  in  the  BASIC 
loader  (a  group  of  DATA  statements)  for  a  long 
machine  language  program?  You  typed  in  hun- 
dreds of  numbers  and  commas.  Even  then,  vou 
couldn't  be  sure  if  you  typed  it  in  right.  So  you 
went  back,  prtxifread,  tried  to  run  the  program, 
crashed,  went  back  and  proofread  again,  corrected 
a  few  typing  errors,  ran  again,  crashed  again, 
rechecked  your  typing.  Frustrating,  wasn't  it? 

Until  now,  though,  that  has  been  the  best 
way  to  get  machine  language  into  your  computer. 
Unless  you  happen  to  have  an  assembler  and  are 
willing  to  wrangle  with  machine  language  on  the 
assembly  level,  it  is  much  easier  to  just  type  in  a 
BASIC  program  that  reads  DATA  statements  and 
then  POKEs  the  numbers  into  mcmtirv. 

Some  of  these  "BASIC  loatiers"  will  use  a 
checksum  to  see  if  you've  typed  the  numbers  cor- 
rectly. The  simplest  checksum  is  just  the  sum  of 
all  the  numbers  in  the  DATA  statements.  If  you 
make  an  error,  your  checksum  will  not  match  up 
with  the  total.  Some  programmers  make  your 
task  easier  by  including  checksums  every  few 
lines,  so  you  can  locate  your  errors  more  easily. 

Now,  MLX  comes  to  the  rescue.  MLX  is  a 
great  way  to  enter  all  those  long  machine  language 
programs  with  a  minimum  of  fuss.  MLX  lets  you 
enter  the  numbers  from  a  special  list  that  looks 
similar  to  DATA  statements.  It  checks  your  typing 
on  a  line-by-line  basis.  It  won't  let  you  enter  illegal 
characters  when  you  should  be  typing  numbers. 
It  won't  let  you  enter  numbers  greater  than  255.  It 
will  prevent  you  from  entering  the  numbers  on 
the  wrong  line.  In  short,  MLX  will  make  proof- 
reading obsolete. 


Tape  Or  Disk  Copies 

In  addition,  MLX  will  generate  a  ready-to-use 
copy  of  your  machine  language  program  on  tape 
or  disk.  You  can  then  use  the  LOAD  command  to 
read  the  program  into  the  computer,  just  like  a 
BASIC  program.  Specifically,  you  enter: 

LOAD  "program  name", 1,1     {for  Inpt-) 
or 

LOAD  "program  name", 8,1     (for  disk) 

To  start  the  program,  you  need  to  enter  a  SYS 
command  that  transfers  control  from  BASIC  to 
your  machine  language  program.  The  starting 
SYS  will  always  be  given  in  the  article  which 
presents  the  machine  language  program  in  MLX 
format. 

Using  IVILX 

Type  in  and  SAVE  MLX  (you'll  want  to  use  it  in 
the  future).  When  you're  ready  to  type  in  the 
machine  language  program,  RUN  MLX.  MLX  will 
ask  you  for  two  numbers:  the  starting  address 
and  the  ending  address. 

You'll  then  get  a  prompt  showing  the 
specified  starting  address. 

The  prompt  is  the  current  line  vou  are  en- 
tering from  the  MLX-format  listing.  Each  line  is 
six  numbers  plus  a  checksum .  If  vou  enter  any  of 
the  six  numbers  wrong,  or  enter  the  checksum 
wrong,  the  64  will  sound  a  buzzer  and  prompt 
you  to  reenter  the  entire  line.  If  you  enter  the  line 
correctly,  a  pleasant  bell  tone  will  sound  and  you 
may  go  on  to  enter  the  next  line. 

A  Special  Editor 

You  are  not  using  the  normal  Commodore  64 
BASIC  editor  with  MLX.  For  example,  it  will  only 

January1984     COMPUTEI     195 


accept  numbers  as  input.  If  you  need  to  make  a 
correction,  press  the  INST/DEL  key;  the  entire 
number  is  deleted.  You  can  press  it  as  many  times 
as  necessary,  back  to  the  start  of  the  line.  If  you 
enter  three-digit  numbers  as  listed,  the  computer 
will  automatically  print  the  comma  and  go  on  to 
accept  the  next  number  in  the  line.  If  you  enter 
less  than  three  digits,  you  can  press  either  the 
comma,  space  bar,  or  RETURN  key  to  advance  to 
the  next  number.  The  checksum  will  automatically 
appear  in  inverse  video. 

MLX  is  an  extremely  easy  way  to  enter  long 
listings.  With  the  audio  cues  provided,  you  don't 
even  have  to  look  at  the  screen  if  you're  a  touch- 
typist. 

Done  At  Last! 

When  you  get  through  typing,  assuming  you 
type  vour  machine  language  program  all  in  one 
session,  you  can  then  save  the  completed  and 
bug-free  program  to  tape  or  disk.  Follow  the  in- 
structions displayed  on  the  screen.  If  you  get  any 
error  messages  while  saving,  you  probably  have  a 
bad  disk,  or  the  disk  was  full,  or  you  made  a  typo 
when  entering  the  MLX  program.  (MLX  can't 
check  itself.) 

Command  Control 

What  if  you  don' t  want  to  enter  the  whole  program 
in  one  sitting?  MLX  lets  you  enter  as  much  as  you 
want,  save  the  completed  portion,  and  then  reload 
your  work  from  tape  or  disk  when  you  want  to 
continue.  MLX  recognizes  these  few  commands: 

SHIFT-S:  Save 
SHIFT-L:  Load 
SHIFT-N:  New  Address 
SHIFT-D:  Display 

Hold  down  SHIFT  while  you  press  the  ap- 
propriate key.  You  will  jump  out  of  the  line  you've 
been  typing,  so  I  recommend  you  do  it  at  a  new 
prompt.  Use  the  Save  command  to  store  what 
you've  been  working  on.  It  will  write  the  tape  or 
disk  file  as  if  you've  finished.  Remember  what 
address  you  stop  on.  The  next  time  you  RUN 
MLX,  answer  all  the  prompts  as  you  did  before, 
then  insert  the  disk  or  tape  containing  the  stored 
file.  When  you  get  to  the  entry  prompt,  press 
SHIFT-L  to  reload  the  file  into  memory.  You'll 
then  use  the  New  Address  command  (SHIFT-N) 
to  resume  typing. 

New  Address  And  Display 

After  you  press  SHIFT-N,  enter  the  address  where 
you  previously  stopped.  The  prompt  will  change, 
and  you  can  then  continue  typing.  Always  enter 
a  New  Address  that  matches  up  with  one  of  the 
line  numbers  in  the  special  listing,  or  else  the 
checksums  won't  match  up.  You  can  use  the  Dis- 
play command  to  display  a  section  of  your  typing. 

196    COMPUTE!    JanuoryWM 


After  you  press  SHIFT-D,  enter  two  addresses 
within  the  line  number  range  of  the  listing.  You 
can  stop  the  display  by  pressing  any  key. 

Tricky  Stuff 

The  special  commands  may  seem  a  little  confus- 
ing, but  as  vou  vvcM-k  with  MLX,  they  will  become 
valuable.  For  example, what  if  you  forgot  where 
you  stopped  typing?  Use  the  Display  command 
to  scan  memory  from  the  beginning  to  the  end  of 
the  program.  When  you  reach  the  end  of  your 
typing,  the  lines  will  contain  a  random  pattern  of 
numbers.  When  you  see  the  end  of  your  typing, 
press  any  key  to  stop  the  listing.  Use  the  New 
Address  command  to  continue  typing  from  the 
proper  location. 

You  can  use  the  Save  and  Load  commands  to 
make  copies  of  the  completed  machine  language 
program.  Use  the  Load  command  to  reload  the 
program  from  tape  or  disk,  then  insert  a  new  tape 
or  disk  and  use  the  Save  command  to  create  a 
new  copy. 

One  quirk  about  tapes  made  with  the  MLX 
Save  command:  When  vou  load  them,  the  message 
"FOUND  program"  may  appear  twice.  The  tape 
will  load  just  fine,  however. 

Programmers  will  find  MLX  to  be  an  inter- 
esting program  which  protects  the  user  from  most 
typing  mistakes.  Some  screen  formatting  tech- 
niques are  also  used.  Most  interesting  is  the  use 
of  ROM  Kernal  routines  for  LOADing  and  SAVE- 
ing  blocks  of  memory.  To  use  these  routines,  just 
POKE  the  starting  address  (low  byte/high  byte) 
into  memory  locations  251  and  252  and  POKE 
the  ending  address  into  locations  254  and  255. 
Any  error  code  for  the  SAVE  or  LOAD  can  be 
found  in  location  253  (an  error  would  be  a  code 
less  than  ten). 

Be  sure  to  save  MLX;  it  will  be  used  for  future 
applications  in  COMPUTE!  Magazine,  COMPUTEI's 
GAZETTE,  and  COMPUTE!  Books. 
Machine  Language  Editor  (MLX) 

100  PRINT" [CLR] (CYNJ ";CHR$(142) ;CHR$(8) ; : 
POKE53281, 1:POKE53280, 1 

101  POKE  788, 52: REM  DISABLE  RUN/STOP 
110  PRINT" {RVS} (40  SPACES}"; 

120  PRINT" {RVS} {15  SPACES] { RIGHT} {OFF} 

g*g£{RVS} {RIGHT)  {RIGHT} {2  SPACES} 

E  *  iTOFF } E  *  i  £ { RVS } £ { RVS } 

{13  SPACES}"^; 
130  PRINT" {RVS] { 15  SPACES] {RIGHT]  gC^ 

{right}  [2    RIGHT]  {OFF }£{ RVS] £§*3 

{0FF]E*3{RVS} {13  SPACEST"; 
140  PRINT" {RVS} {40  SPACES]" 
200  PRINT" {2  DOWN} {PUR} {BLK} {3  SPACES}A  F 

AILSAFE  MACHINE  LANGUAGE  EDITOR 

{5  DOWN}" 
210  PRINT"f53{2  UPjSTARTING  ADDRESS? 

{8  SPACES} (9  LEFT]"; rINPUTS 
215  F=1-F;C$=CHRS(31+119*F) 
220  IFS < 256OR{S>40960ANDS< 49152 )ORS> 5 3247 

THENGOSUB3000:GOTO210 


225  PRINT: PRINT: PRINT 

230  PRINT"g53t2  UP3enDING  ADDRESS? 

£8  SPACES}[9  LEFT]"; :INPUTE:F=1-F:CS= 

CHR$C31+119*F) 
240  IFE <256OR(E>40960ANDE< 49152 )ORE> 53247 

THENGOSUB3000:GOTO230 
250  IFE<STHENPRINTC$;  ■' {rvs}  ENDING  <  START 

{2    SPACES} ";GOSUB1000: GOTO  230 
260  PRINT: PRINT: PRINT 

300  PRINT" [CLR]"rCHR$(14) ;AD=S : POKEV+21, 0 
310  PRINTRIGHT5("0000"+MID$(STR5(AD) ,2) , 5 

);":"; :F0RJ=1T06 
320  GOSUB570:IFN=-1THENJ=J+N:GOTO320 
390  IFN=-211THEN  710 
400  IFN=-204THEN  790 
410  IFN=-206THENPRINT: INPUT" {DOWN J  ENTER  N 

EW  ADDRESS ";ZZ 
415  IFN=-206THENIFZZ<SORZZ>ETHENPRINT" 

{RVSJOUT  OF  RANGE" :GOSUB1000:GOTO410 

417  IFN=-206THENAD=ZZ: PRINT ;GOTO310 

420  IF  No-196  THEN  480 

430  PRINT: INPUT "DISPLAY; FROM" ;F:PRINT, "TO 

"  ;  : INPUTT 
440  1FF<S0RF>E0RT<S0RT>ETHENPRINT"AT  LEAS 

T" ?S; "{lEFTJ ,  NOT  MORE  THAN" ; e7G0T043 

0 

450  F0RI=FT0TSTEP6 : PRINT : PRINTRIGHT? { " 000 
0 " +MID$ ( STR$ ( I) , 2 ) , 5 ) ; " : " ; 

451  FORK=0TO5 :N=PEEK( I+K) : PRINTRIGHT$ ( "00 
"+MID$(STR?(N),2),3);","; 

460  GETA$ :IFA$>""THENPRINT:PRINT:GOTO310 
470  NEXTK:PRINTCHR${20) ; :NEXTI : PRINT: PRIN 

T:GOTO310 
480  IFN<0  THEN  PRINT: G0T03 10 
490  A(J)=N:NEXTJ 
500  CKSUM=AD-INT (AD/256 ) *256 : FORI=lT06 : CK 

SUM= ( CKSUM+A ( I) ) AND2  55 : NEXT 
510  PRINTCHR$(18) ; :GOSUB570 : PRINTCHR? { 20) 
515  IFN=CKSUMTHEN530 
520  PRINT: PRINT "LINE  ENTERED  WRONG  :  RE-E 

NTER" : PRINT: GOSUB1000:GOTO310 
530  GOSUB2000 
540  FORI=lT06:POKEAD+I-l,A(l) :NEXT:POKE54 

272,0:POKE54273,0 
550  AD=AD4-6;IF  AD<E  THEN  310 
560  GOTO  710 
5  70  N=0:Z=0 

580  PRINT" g+g"r 

581  GETA$:IFA$=""THEN581 

585  PRINTCHR? (20); :A=ASC(A$) : IFA=130RA=44 

ORA=32THEN6  70 
590  IFA>128THENN=-A: RETURN 
600  IFAO20  THEN  630 
610  GOSUB690:IF1=1ANDT=44THENN=-1:PRINT" 

{LEFT}  {LEFT}"; :GOTO690 
620  GOTO570 

630  IFA<48ORA>57THEN580 
640  PRINTA$; ;N=N*10+A-48 

650  IFN>255  THEN  A=20 :GOSUB1000 :GOTO600 
660  Z=Z+I:IFZ<3THEN5a0 
670  IFZ=0THENGOSUB1000:GOTO570 
680  PRINT" , " ; : RETURN 

690  S%=PEEK(209)+256*PEEK(210)+PEEK{211) 

691  F0RI=1T03:T=PEEK(S%-I) 

695  IFT<>44ANDT<>58THENPOKES%-I, 32:NEXT 
700  PRINTLEFT?("{3  LEFT} ", I-l );: RETURN 
710  PRINT" {CLR] {RVS}***  SAVE  ***{3  DOWN}" 
720  INPUT" {DOWN}  FILENAME" ?F5 
730  PRINT: PRINT" {2  DOWN] { RVS }T{ OFF} APE  OR 
{RVS}D{OFf3isK;  (T/D)" 


740  GETA$:IFA$<>"T"ANDA$<>"D"THEN740 

750  DV=1-7*(A$="D") :IFDV=8THENF$="0: "+F$ 
760  T$=F$;ZK=PEEK(53)+256*PEEK(54)-LEN(T$ 
):POKE782,ZK/256 

762  POKE781 , ZK-PEEK( 782 ) *256 : POKE780, LEN( 
T$) :SYS65469 

763  POKE780,1:POKE781,DV:POKE782, 1:SYS654 
66 

765  POKE254, S/256 :POKE253, S-PEEK( 254 )*256 
:POKE780,253 

766  P0KE782 , E/256 : POKE781 , E-PEEK( 782 } *256 
:SYS65496 

770  IF(PEEK(783)AND1)0R(ST  AND191 )THEN780 
775  PRINT" {DOWN} DONE. ": END 

780  PRINT" {down} ERROR  ON  SAVE. {2  SPACES}T 
RY  AGAIN . " : IFDV=1THEN720 

781  OPEN15,8,15:INPUT#15,El$,E2$:PRINTEl$ 
; E2$ : CLOSEl 5 : GOTO720 

790  PRINT" {CLR} {RVS}***  LOAD  ***{2  DOWN}" 

800  INPUT" {2  DOWN]  FILENAME" ;F$ 

810  PRINT: PRINT" {2  DOWN} { RVS}t{ OFF) APE  OR 

{ RVS } D { OFF } ISK :  ( T/D ) " 
820  GETA$:IFA$<>"T"ANDA$<>"D"THEN820 
830  DV=1-7*(A$="D") :IFDV=8THENF$="0:"+F$ 

840  TS=P$:ZK=PEEK(53)+256*PEEK(54)-LEN(T| 
) :POKE782,ZK/256 

841  POKE781 , ZK-PEEKC  782 )*256 : POKE780, LEN{ 
T$) :SYS65469 

845  POKE780 , 1 : POKE781 , DV : POKE782 , 1 : SYS654 

66 
850  POKE780,0:SYS65493 

860  IFCPEEK(783)AND1)0R(ST  AND191 )THEN870 
865  PRINT" {DOWN}DONE. " :GOTO310 
870  PRINT" {DOWN} Error  on  load. {2  SPACES}! 

RY  AGAIN. {DOWN}" :IFDV=lTHENa00 
880  0PEN15 , 8, 15 : INPUT#15, El$ , E2$ : PRINTEl? 

;E2$ :CL0SE15 :GOTO800 

1000  REM  BUZZER 

1001  POKE54296, 15:POKE54277,45;POKE54278, 
165 

1002  POKE5427e,33:POKE  54273 , 6 : POKE54272 , 
5 

1003  FORT=1TO200:NEXT:POKE54276, 32:POKE54 
2  73, 0:POKE542  72,0: RETURN 

2000  REM  BELL  SOUND 

2001  POKE54296, 15:POKE54277, 0:POKE54278, 2 
47 

2002  POKE  54276,17:POKE54273,40:POKE54272 
,0 

2003  FORT=1TO100 : NEXT : POKE54276 , 16 : RETURN 
3000  PRINTC?; " {RVS}N0T  ZERO  PAGE  OR  ROM": 

GOTO 1000  © 


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Januofv1984     COMPUTE!  197 


CAPUTE! 

Modifications  Or  Corrections  To  Previous  Articles 


Modem  Save  And  Download  For  The  VIC-20 

For  Program  1  of  this  telecommunications  utility 
from  the  November  1983  issue  (p.  215)  to  run  prop- 
erly, the  following  line  must  be  changed: 

40  CK=0:  FOR  A=10496  TO  10751:  READ  D:  CK 
=CK+D:  POKE  A, D:  NEXT  A 

In  Program  1,  line  190  should  read  THEN  220 
instead  of  THEN  210. 

The  Filer  For  Tl 

The  program  in  "The  Beginner's  Page"  (October 
1983,  p.  32)  will  not  run  in  standard  TI  console 
BASIC.  In  console  BASIC  there  can  be  only  one 
statement  per  line,  and  the  THEN  in  IF-THEN 
statements  can  be  followed  only  by  a  line  number. 
Also,  TI  BASIC  requires  that  spaces  be  left  be- 
tween BASIC  commands  and  variables.  The 
GETK$  in  line  30  must  be  replaced  on  the  TI  with 
an  appropriate  CALL  KEY  command. 

Moving  Maze  For  The  64 

When  "Shuttle  Escape,"  the  64  version  of  this 
game  from  the  October  1983  issue  (Program  3,  p. 
82),  is  run  for  the  first  time,  the  program  will  stop 
with  an  ILLEGAL  QUANTITY  ERROR  IN  500 
message.  If  you  then  hit  the  RUN/STOP  and  RE- 
STORE keys  and  run  the  program  again,  it  will 
function  properly.  To  prevent  this  error  message, 
make  the  following  changes; 

10020  CK=CK+A;POKE  I , A: 1=1+1 : GOTO  10005 
10025  IF  CKO34430  THEN  PRINT  "DATA  ERROR 

IN  LINES  10030-11120" :STOP 
50040  CS=CS+A:POKE  I , A: 1=1+1 : GOTO  50010 
50045  IF  CS<> 188431  THEN  PRINT  "DATA  ERRO 
R  IN  LINES  50050-52010" :STOP 

Spelling  Quiz  For  ViC 

To  prevent  a  BAD  SUBSCRIPT  ERROR  IN  165 
message  when  this  program  from  the  October 
1983  issue  (p.  127)  is  run,  change  the  DIMension 
of  W$(20)  in  line  10  to  WS(21). 

Runway  180  For  TI 

As  presented,  this  game  from  the  October  1983 
issue  (p.  208)  requires  that  the  ALPHA  LOCK  key 
be  down  to  read  the  instructions.  Since  this  key 
must  be  up  to  use  the  joystick  in  the  game,  Gordon 
Millham  suggests  the  following  changes  so  that 
ALPHA  LOCK  can  be  left  up  throughout  the  pro- 
gram: Change  the  value  for  K  to  103  in  line  190 
and  to  105  in  line  200,  and  change  the  word  ON 
in  line  210  to  OFF.  He  also  suggests  the  following 

198     COMPUTC!     JanuarvW84 


additional  line,  ivhich  creates  a  delay  so  that  vou 
can  admire  your  skill  when  you  land  the  plane 


successfully 

1895  FOR  DELAY=1  TO  800 


NEXT  DELAY 


Also  in  this  program,  note  the  stray  zero  at 
the  end  oi  line  1850.  That  line  should  end  with 
GOTO  1870. 

High  Speed  Mazer  For  The  64 

In  the  "Munchmaze"  game  (Program  6)  with  this 
article  (October  1983,  p.  254),  there  is  a  spurious 
question  mark  in  line  13752  which  should  be  re- 
moved. Since  this  game  is  written  entirely  in 
machine  language,  any  errors  in  the  DATA  lines 
will  prevent  it  from  functioning  properly. 

Protector  For  The  64 

In  the  table  for  this  VIC-20  article  from  the  October 
1983  issue  (p.  272),  several  values  for  disabling 
certain  functions  on  the  64  were  given.  In  particu- 
lar, the  article  stated  that  POKE  808,225  could  be 
used  to  disable  STOP,  RESTORE,  and  LIST  on 
the  64.  This  works  for  most  programs,  but  could 
cause  problems  since  it  scrambles  the  value  in  the 
jiffy  clock.  A  safer  way  is  to  POKE  808,234.  If  you 
wish  to  disable  only  the  STOP  key,  you  can  use 
POKE  808,239.  ® 


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How  To  Type  COMPUTEI's  Programs 


<CLEAR> 

ESC 

SHIFT  < 

K 

tUPJ 

ESC 

CTRL  - 

♦ 

(IXMN} 

ESC 

CTRL  - 

« 

{LEFT> 

ESC 

CTRL  + 

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CRIOHTJ 

ESC 

CTRL  ( 

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{BACK  SJ 

ESC 

DELETE 

< 

t DELETE} 

ESC 

CTRL  DELETE 

CI 

{INSERT} 

ESC 

CTRL  INSERT 

a 

{DEL  LIhE} 

ESC 

SHIFT  DELETE 

a 

CINS  LIIC} 

ESC 

SHIFT  INSERT 

n 

{TflB> 

ESC 

TAB 

^ 

£CLR  TAB) 

ESC 

CTRL  TAB 

a 

<SET  TAB) 

ESC 

SHIFT  TAB 

a 

{BELL> 

ESC 

CTRL  2 

a 

{ESC> 

ESC 

ESC 

^ 

Many  of  the  programs  which  are  listed  in  COMPUTE!  contain 
special  control  characters  (cursor  control,  colur  kevs,  inverse 
video,  etc,)-  To  m.ikc  it  easy  to  tell  exactly  what  to  type  when 
entering  one  of  these  programs  into  your  computer,  we  have 
established  the  following  listing  conventions.  There  is  a 
separate  key  for  each  computer.  Refer  to  the  appropriate 
tables  vvhen  you  come  across  an  unusual  symbol  in  a  program 
listing.  If  you  are  unsure  how  tu  actually  enter  a  control 
character,  consult  your  computer's  manuals. 

Atari  400/800 

Characters  in  inverse  video  will  appear  like;  ranssEsnaEBGiicE 
Enter  these  characters  with  the  Atari  logo  key,  {A] . 

Uhnn  you  s«*       Typv  S*« 

Cl»*r  Scrnen 
Cursor  Up 
Cursor  Down 
Cursor  Left 
Cursor  Right 
Backspace 
Delate  character 
Insert  character 
Delete  line 
Insert  line 
TAB  key 
Clear  tab 
Set  tab  stc^ 
Ring  buzzer 
Escape  key 

Graphics  characters,  such  as  CTRL-T,  the  ball  character  •  will 
appear  as  the  "normal"  letter  enclosed  in  braces,  e.g.  ITJ. 

A  series  of  identical  control  characters,  such  as  10  spaces, 
three  cursor-lefts,  or  20  CTRL-R's,  will  appear  as  (10 
SPACES! ,  1 3  LEFT ),  { 20  R) ,  etc.  If  the  character  in  braces  is 
in  inverse  video,  that  character  or  characters  should  be  en- 
tered with  the  Atari  logo  key.  For  example,,  1  b  1  means  to 
enter  a  reverse-field  heart  with  CTRL-comma,  (  5iBll  means  to 
enter  five  inverse-video  CTRL-U's. 

Commodore  PET/CBM/ViC/64 

Generally,  any  PET/CBMWIC/64  program  listings  wiii  contain 
words  within  braces  which  spell  out  any  special  characters: 
( DOWN  )  would  mean  to  press  the  cursor  down  key.  f  5 
SPACES  ( would  mean  to  press  the  space  bar  five  times. 

To  indicate  that  a  key  should  be  shifted  (hold  down  the 
SHIFT  key  while  pressing  the  other  ke}'),  the  key  would  be 
underlined  in  our  listings.  For  example,  S  would  mean  to 
type  the  S  key  while  holding  the  shift  key.  If  you  find  an 
underlined  key  enclosed  in  braces  (e.g.,  (10  N}j,  you  should 
type  the  key  as  many  times  as  indicated  (in  our  example, 
you  would  enter  ten  shifted  N's).  Some  graphics  characters 
are  inaccessible  from  the  keyboard  on  CBM  Business  models 
(32N,  8032). 

For  the  VIC  and  64,  if  a  key  is  enclosed  in  special  brackets, 
fc  >i,  you  should  hold  down  the  Commodim  key  while  pressing 
the  key  inside  the  special  brackets.  (The  Commodore  key  is 
the  key  in  the  lower  left  corner  of  the  keyboard.)  Again,  if 
the  key  is  preceded  by  a  number,  you  should  press  the  key 
as  many  times  as  indicated. 

Rarely,  you'll  see  in  a  Commodore  64  program  a  solitary 
letter  of  the  alphabet  enclosed  in  braces.  These  characters 
can  be  entered  by  holding  down  the  CTRL  key  while  typing 
the  letter  in  the  braces.  For  example,  (A )  would  indicate  that 
you  should  press  CTRL- A. 

About  the  (\uote  mode:  you  know  that  you  can  move  the 
cursor  around  the  screen  with  the  CRSR  keys.  Sometimes  a 
programmer  will  want  to  move  the  cursor  under  program 
control.  That's  why  you  see  all  the  (LEFD's,  [HOMEl's, 
and  (BLU  }'s  in  our  programs.  The  only  way  the  computer 


can  tell  the  difference  between  direct  and  programmed  cursor 
control  is  the  quote  mode. 

Once  you  press  the  quote  (the  double  quote,  SHIFT-2), 
you  arc  in  the  quote  mode.  If  you  tv'pe  something  and  then 
try  to  change  it  by  moving  the  cursor  left,  you'll  only  get  a 
bunch  of  reverse-video  lines.  These  are  the  symbols  for 
cursor  left.  The  only  editing  key  that  isn't  programmable  is 
the  DEL  key;  you  can  still  use  DEL  to  back  up  and  edit  the 
line.  Once  you  type  another  quote,  you  are  out  of  quote  mode. 

You  also  go  into  quote  mode  when  you  INSerT  spaces 
into  a  line.  In  any  case,  the  easiest  way  to  get  out  of  quote 
mode  is  to  just  press  RETURN.  YouTi'then  be  out  of  quote 
mode  and  you  can  cursor  up  to  the  mistyped  line  and  fix  it. 

Use  the  following  tables  when  entering  special  characters: 


f  CRSR  X 


^  CRSR  ^ 


SHIFT 


When  You 

Read:  Press:  See: 

(clear)    shift       ci.r<home~|  ^|nj 

(home!  [  C!,R  HOME    I   El 

lUPj  " 

(down) 

I  LEFT } 

[right] 

iRVS) 
(OFF) 

iBLK} 

(wht) 

{RED) 
{CYN} 

I  pur) 


When  You 
Read:         Piess: 


See: 


I^CHSR.^]   El 


CTRL 

0 

CTRL 

r 

CTRL 

2 

CTRL 

3 

CTRL 

i 

Alt  Commodore  Machines 

ClearScreen    (CLRi 
HotneCursor  {  HOME) 
CursorUp        (UP) 
Cursor  Down  {  DOWN ) 
Cursor  Right  (RIGHT) 


(grn) 

CTRL 

6 

(BLU) 

CTRL 

7 

[yel) 

CTRL 

S 

(Fl) 

ft 

lF2) 

r2 

tF3) 

n 

(F4) 

ft 

(F5) 

a 

(F6) 

fb 

lF7) 

(7 

lF8) 

fe 

A  ' 

«- 

r 

shift 

♦ 

Si 


Cursor  Left  (LEFT) 

Insert  Characlfr     (INST) 
Delete  Chiirjctcr   (DEL( 
Reverse  Field  On  (RVS) 
Reverse  Field  Off  {  OFF) 


Apple  II  /Apple  II  Pius 

All  programs  are  in  Applesoft  BASIC,  unless  otherwise 
stated.  Control  characters  are  printed  as  the  "normal"  char- 
acter enclosed  in  brackets,  such  as  *  D  1  for  CTRL-D.  Hold 
down  CTRL  while  pressing  the  control  key.  You  will  not  see 
the  special  character  on  the  screen, 

Texas  Instruments  99/4 

The  only  special  characters  used  are  in  PRINT  statements  to 
indicate  where  two  or  more  spaces  should  be  left  between 
words.  For  example,  ENERGY  (10  SPACES)  MANAGE- 
MENT means  that  ten  spaces  should  be  left  between  the 
words  ENERGY  and  MANAGEMENT,  Do  not  type  in  the 
braces  or  the  words  10  SPACES.  Enter  all  programs  with  the 
ALPHA  LOCK  on  (in  the  down  position).  Release  the  ALPHA 
LOCK  to  enter  lowercase  text. 

Jariuory1984    COMPUIl!     199 


COMPUTE!  Back  Issues 


I 


Here  are  some  of  the  applica- 
tions, tutorials,  and  games  from 
available  back  issues  of 
COMPUTE!.  Each  issue  contains 
much,  much  more  than  there's 
space  here  to  list,  but  here  are 
some  highlights: 

Home  and  Educational  COM- 
PUTING! (Fall  1981  and  Sum- 
mer 1981  —  count  as  one  back 
issue):  Exploring  The  Rainbow 
Machine,  VIC  As  Super  Calcu- 
lator, Custom  Characters  On 
The  VIC,  Alternative  Screens, 
Automatic  VIC  Line  Numbers, 
Using  The  joystick  (Spacewar 
Game),  Fast  VIC  Tape  Locater, 
Window,  VIC  Memory  Map. 

May  1981:  Named  GOSUB/ 
GOTO  in  Applesoft,  Generating 
Lower  Case  Text  on  Apple  II, 
Copy  Atari  Screens  to  the 
Printer,  Disk  Directory  Printer 
for  Atari,  Realtime  Clock  on 
Atari,  PET  BASIC  Delete  Utility, 
PET  Calculated  Bar  Graphs, 
Running  40  Column  Programs 
on  a  CBM  8032,  A  Fast  Visible 
Memory  Dump,  Cassette  Filing 
System,  Getting  To  A  Machine 
Language  Program,  Epidemic 
Simulation. 

June  1981:  Computer  Using  Ed- 
ucators (CUE)  on  Software  Pric- 
ing, Apple  II  Hires  Character 
Generator,  Ever  Expanding 
Apple  Power,  Color  Burst  for 
Atari,  Mixing  Atari  Graphics 
Modes  0  and  8,  Relocating  PET 
BASIC  Programs,  An  Assembler 
In  BASIC  for  PET,  Quadra  PET 
Multitasking?,  Mapping  Un- 
known Machine  Language, 
RAM/ROM  Memory,  Keeping 
TABs  on  a  Printer. 

July  1981;  Home  Heating  and 
Cooling,  Animating  Integer 
BASIC  Lores  Graphics,  The 

200    COMPUTCI    January  1984 


Apple  Hires  Shape  Writer,  Add- 
ing a  Voice  Track  to  Atari  Pro- 
grams, Machine  Language  Atari 
Joystick  Driver,  Four  Screen  Util- 
ities for  the  PET,  Saving 
Machine  Language  Programs  on 
PET  Tape  Headers,  Commodore 
ROM  Systems,  Using  T\B,  SPC, 
And  LEN. 


August  1981:  Minimize  Code 
and  Maximize  Speed,  Apple 
Disk  Motor  Control,  A  Cassette 
Tape  Monitor  for  the  Apple, 
Easy  Reading  of  the  Atari  Joy- 
stick, Blockade  Game  for  the 
Atari,  Atari  Sound  Utility,  The 
CBM  "Fat  40,"  Keyword  for  PET 
CBM/PET  Loading,  Chaining, 
and  Overlaying,  Adding  A  Pro- 
grammable Sound  Generator, 
Converting  PET  BASIC  Pro- 
grams To  ASCII  Files. 

October  1981:  Automatic  DATA 
Statements  for  CBM  and  Atari, 
VIC  News,  Undeletable  Lines  on 
Apple,  PET,  and  VIC;  Budgeting 
on  the  Apple,  Atari  Cassette 
Boot-tapes,  Atari  Variable  Name 
Utility,  Atari  Program  Library, 
Train  Your  PET  to  Run  VIC  Pro- 
grams, Interface  a  BSR  Remote 
Control  System  to  PET,  A  Gen- 
eral Purpose  BCD  to  Binary  Rou- 
tine, Converting  to  Fat-40  PET 

December  1981:  Saving  Fuel  $$ 
(multiple  computers).  Unscram- 
ble Game  (multiple  computers). 
Maze  Generator  (multiple  com- 
puters). Animating  Applesoft 
Graphics,  A  Simple  Atari  Word 
Processor,  Adding  High  Speed 
Vertical  Positioning  to  Atari  P/M 
Graphics,  OS!  Supercursor,  A 
Look  At  SuperPET,  Supermon 
for  PET/CBM,  PET  Mine  Maze 
Game,  Replacing  The  INPUT# 
Command,  Foreign  Language 
Text  on  The  Commodore  Printer, 
File  Recovery. 


January  1982:  Invest  (multiple 
computers),  Developing  a  Busi- 
ness Algorithm  (multiple  com- 
puters), Apple  Addresses,  Low- 
ercase with  Unmodified  Apple, 
Cryptrogram  Game  for  Atari, 
Superfont:  Design  Special  Char- 
acter Sets  on  Atari,  PET  Repairs 
for  the  Amateur,  Micromon  for 
PET,  Self-modifying  Programs  in 
PET  BASIC,  Tinymon:  a  VIC 
Monitor,  VIC  Color  Tips,  VIC 
Memory  Map,  ZAP:  A  VIC 
Game. 


May  1982;  VIC  Meteor  Maze 
Game,  Atari  Disk  Drive  Speed 
Check,  Modifying  Apple's  Float- 
ing Point  BASIC,  Fast  Sort  For 
PET/CBM,  Extra  Atari  Colors 
Through  Artifacting,  Life  Insur- 
ance Estimator  (multiple  com- 
puters), PET  Screen  Input,  Get- 
ting The  Most  Out  Of  VIC's  5000 
Bytes. 

August  1982:  The  New  Wave  Of 
Personal  Computers,  House- 
hold Budget  Manager  (multiple 
computers).  Word  Games  (mul- 
tiple computers).  Color  Com- 
puter Home  Energy  Monitor,  A 
VIC  Light  Pen  R)r  Under  $10, 
Guess  That  Animal  (multiple 
computers),  PET/CBM  Inner 
BASIC,  VIC  Communications, 
Keyprint  Compendium,  Anima- 
tion With  Atari,  VIC  Curiosities, 
Atari  Substring  Search,  PET  and 
VIC  Electric  Eraser. 


September  1982;  Apple  and 
Atari  and  the  Sounds  of  TRON, 
Commodore  Automatic  Disk 
Boot,  VIC  Joysticks,  Three  Atari 
GTIA  Articles,  Commodore 
Disk  Fixes,  The  Apple  Pilot  Lan- 
guage, Sprites  and  Sound  on 
the  Commodore  64,  Peripheral 
Vision  Exerciser  (multiple  com- 
puters). Banish  INPUT  State- 
ments (multiple  computers). 


COMPUTE!  Back  Issues 


Charades  (multiple  computers), 
PET  Pointer  Sort,  VIC  Pause, 
Mapping  Machine  Language, 
Commodore  User-defined  Func- 
tions Defined,  A  VIC  Bug. 

January  1983:  Sound  Synthesis 
And  The  Personal  Computer, 
Juggler  And  Thunderbird 
Games  (multiple  computers), 
Music  And  Sound  Programs 
(multiple computers),  Writing 
Transportable  BASIC,  Home 
Energy  Calculator  (multiple 
computers).  All  About  Commo- 
dore WAIT,  Supermon  64,  Per- 
fect Commodore  INPUTs,  VIC 
Sound  Generator,  Copy  VIC 
Disk  Files,  Commodore  64 
Architecture. 

March  1983:  An  Introduction  To 
Data  Storage  (multiple  com- 
puters). Mass  Memory  Now 
And  In  The  Future,  Games: 
Closeout,  Boggier,  Fighter  Aces, 
Letter  And  Number  Play  (all  for 
multiple  computers),  VIC 
Music,  Direct  Atari  Disk  Access, 
Automatic  Commodore  Pro- 
gram Selector,  PET  Quickplot,  A 
Commodore  Gotcha,  VIC  and 
Atari  Memory  Management, 
Friendly  VIC  INPUTS. 

April  1983:  Selecting  The  Right 
Word  Processor,  Air  Defense 
(multiple  computers).  Commo- 
dore Structure  BASIC,  Retire- 
ment Planner  (multiple  com- 
puters). Dr.  Video  For  Commo- 
dore, Atari  Filefixer,  Video  80:80 
Columns  For  The  Atari,  VI C- 
word.  Magic  Commodore 
BASIC,  A  BASIC  Hex  Editor  For 
VIC,  VIC  Music  Theory. 

May  1983:  The  New  Low  Cost 
Printer/ Plotters,  Jumping  Jack 
(multiple  computers),  Deflector 
(multiple  computers),  VIC 
Kaleidoscope,  Graphics  on  the 
Sinclair/ Timex,  Bootmaker  For 


VIC,  PET  and  64,  VICSTATION: 
A  "Paperless  Office,"  The  Atari 
Musician,  Puzzle  Generator 
(multiple  computers).  Instant  64 
Art,  64  Odds  And  Ends,  Versa- 
tile VIC  Data  Acquisition,  POP 
For  Commodore. 

June  1983:  How  To  Buy  The 
Right  Printer,  The  New,  Low- 
cost  Printers,  Astrostorm  (multi- 
ple computers).  The  Hawkmen 
Of  Dindrin  (multiple  com- 
puters), MusicMaster  For  The 
Commodore  64,  Commodore 
Data  Searcher,  Atari  Player/ 
Missile  Graphics  Simplified, 
VIC  Power  Spirals,  Un  NEW  R>r 
The  VIC  and  64,  Atari  Fast  Shuf- 
fle, VIC  Contractor,  Commodore 
Supermon  Q&  A. 

July  1983:  Constructing  The 
Ideal  Computer  Game,  Tech- 
niques For  Writing  Your  Own 
Adventure  Game,  SpeedSki 
And  Time  Bomb  (VIC),  Castle 
Quest  And  Roadblock  (Atari), 
RATS!  And  Goblin  (64),  How  To 
Create  A  Data  Filing  System 
(multiple  computers).  How  To 
Back  Up  Disks  For  VIC  And  64, 
Atari  Artif acting.  All  About  The 
Commodore  USR  Command,  TI 
Mailing  List, 

August  1983:  Weather  Forecaster 
(multiple  computers).  First  Math 
And  Clues  (multiple 
computers).  Converting  VIC 
And  64  Programs  To  PET,  Atari 
Verify,  Apple  Bytechanger,  VIC 
And  64  Escape  Key,  Banish  Atari 
INPUT  Statements,  Mixing 
Graphics  Modes  On  The  64, 
VICplot,  VIC/64  Translations; 
Reading  The  Keyboard,  Musical 
Atari  Keyboard,  VIC  Display 
Messages. 

September  1983:  Games  That 
Teach,  Caves  Of  Ice,  Diamond 
Drop,  Mystery  Spell,  and  Dots 


(multiple  computers),  VIC  Pilot, 
Ultrasort  (VIC,  64,  PET),  Easy 
Atari  Page  Flipping,  Computer 
Aided  Design  On  The  TI,  Rela- 
tive Files  On  the  VIC/64,  Atari 
Fontbyter,  TI  Sprite  Editor,  All 
About  Interrupts  (multiple  com- 
puters). Cracking  The  64  Kernal, 
Making  Change  On  The  Tmiex/ 
Sinclair,  Build  Your  Own  Ran- 
dom File  Manager  (multiple 
computers). 

October  1983:  Computer  Games 
By  Phone,  Coupon  File  (multi- 
ple computers).  Dragon  Master 
And  Moving  Maze  (multiple 
computers).  Merging  Programs 
From  Commodore  Disks,  Atari 
Master  Disk  Directory,  Sprites  In 
TI  Extended  BASIC,  Commo- 
dore EXEC,  Multicolor  Atari 
Character  Editor,  High  Speed 
Commodore  Mazer,  Apple 
Sounds,  Extra  Instructions  (mul- 
tiple computers).  Commodore 
DOS  Wedges,  Invisible  Disk  Di- 
rectory For  VIC  And  64. 


Back  issues  are  $3  each  or  six 
for  $15.  Price  includes  freight  in 
the  US.  Outside  the  US  add  $1 
per  magazine  ordered  for 
surface  postage,  $4  per 
magazine  for  air  mail  postage. 
All  back  issues  subject  to 
availability. 

In  the  Continental  US  call 

TOLL  FREE  800-334-0868 

{919-275-9809  in  NQ 

Or  write  to: 

COMPUTE!  Back  Issues 
P.O.  Box  5406 
Greensboro,  NC  27403  USA 

Prepayment  required  in  US 

funds. 

MasterCard,  VISA,  and 

American  Express  accepted. 

NC  residents  add  4%  sales  tax. 


January  1984    COMPUTE!    201 


A  Beginner's  Guide 
To  Typing  in  Programs 


What  Is  A  Program? 

A  computer  cannot  perform  any  task  by  itself. 
Like  a  car  without  gas,  a  computer  has  potential, 
but  without  a  program,  it  isn't  going  anywhere. 
Most  of  the  programs  published  in  COMPUTE!  are 
written  in  a  computer  language  called  BASIC. 
BASIC  is  easy  to  learn  and  is  built  into  most  com- 
puters (on  some  computers,  you  have  to  purchase 
an  optional  BASIC  cartridge). 

BASIC  Programs 

Each  month,  COMPUTE!  publishes  programs  for 
many  machines.  To  start  out,  type  in  only  pro- 
grams written  for  your  machine,  e.g.,  "TI  Version" 
if  you  have  a  TI-99/4.  Later,  when  you  gain  ex- 
perience with  your  computer's  BASIC,  you  can 
try  typing  in  and  converting  certain  programs 
from  one  computer  to  yours. 

Computers  can  be  picky.  Unlike  the  English 
language,  which  is  full  of  ambiguities,  BASIC 
usually  has  only  one  "right  way"  of  stating  some- 
thing. Ever)'  letter,  character,  or  number  is  signif- 
icant. A  common  mistake  is  substituting  a  letter 
such  as  "O"  for  the  numeral  "0",  a  lowercase  "1" 
for  the  numeral  "1",  or  an  uppercase  "B"  for  the 
numeral  "8".  Also,  you  must  enter  all  punctuation 
such  as  colons  and  commas  just  as  they  appear  in 
the  magazine.  Spacing  can  be  important.  To  be 
safe,  type  in  the  listings  exactly  as  they  appear. 

Brackets  And  Special  Characters 

The  exception  to  this  typing  rule  is  when  you  see 
the  curved  bracket,  such  as  "{DOWN}".  Any- 
thing within  a  set  of  brackets  is  a  special  character 
or  characters  that  cannot  easily  be  listed  on  a  print- 
er. When  you  come  across  such  a  special  state- 
ment, refer  to  the  appropriate  key  for  your  com- 
puter. For  example,  if  vou  have  an  Atari,  refer  to 
the  "Atari"  section  in  ''How  to  Type  COMPUTE!'s 
Programs  " 

About  DATA  Statements 

Some  programs  contain  a  section  or  sections  of 
DATA  statements.  These  lines  provide  informa- 
tion needed  by  the  program.  Some  DATA  state- 
ments contain  actual  programs  (called  machine 
language);  others  contain  graphics  codes.  These 
lines  are  especially  sensitive  to  errors. 

If  a  single  number  in  any  one  DATA  statement 
is  mistyped,  your  machine  could  "lock  up,"  or 
"crash."  The  keyboard,  break  key,  and  RESET  (or 
STOP)  keys  may  all  seem  "dead,"  and  the  screen 

202    COMPUTl!    jQnuaty19B4 


may  go  blank.  Don't  panic  -  no  damage  is  done. 
To  regain  control,  you  have  to  turn  off  your  com- 
puter, then  turn  it  back  on.  This  will  erase  what- 
ever program  was  in  memory,  so  always  SAVE  a 
copy  of  your  program  before  you  RUN  it.  If  your 
computer  crashes,  you  can  LOAD  the  program 
and  look  for  your  mistake. 

Sometimes  a  mistyped  DATA  statement  will 
cause  an  error  message  when  the  program  is  RUN. 
The  error  message  may  refer  to  the  program  line 
that  READS  the  data.  The  error  is  still  in  the  DATA 
statements,  though. 

Get  To  Know  Your  Machine 

You  should  familiarize  yourself  with  your  com- 
puter before  attempting  to  type  in  a  program. 
Learn  the  statements  you  use  to  store  and  retrieve 
programs  from  tape  or  disk.  You'll  want  to  save  a 
copy  of  your  program,  so  that  you  won't  have  to 
type  it  in  every  time  vou  want  to  use  it.  Learn  to 
use  your  machine's  editing  functions.  How  do 
you  change  a  line  if  you  made  a  mistake?  You  can 
always  retype  the  line,  but  you  at  least  need  to 
know  how  to  backspace.  Do  you  know  how  to 
enter  inverse  video,  lowercase,  and  control  char- 
acters? It's  all  explained  in  your  computer's 
manuals. 

A  Quick  l^eview 

1)  Type  in  the  program  a  line  at  a  time,  in  order. 
Press  RETURN  or  ENTER  at  the  end  of  each  line. 
Use  backspace  or  the  back  arrow  to  correct 
mistakes. 

2)  Check  the  line  you've  typed  against  the  line  in 
the  magazine.  You  can  check  the  entire  program 
again  if  vou  get  an  error  when  you  RUN  the 
program. 

3)  Make  sure  you've  entered  statements  in  brac- 
kets as  the  appropriate  control  key  (see  "How  To 
Type  COMPUTEI's  Programs"  elsewhere  in  the 
magazine.) 


We  regret  that  we  are  no  kniger  able  to  respond  to 
individual  inquiries  about  programs,  products,  or 
services  appearing  in  COMPUTE!  due  to  increasing 
publication  activity.  On  those  infrequent  occasions 
when  a  published  program  contains  a  typo,  the  correc- 
tion xvill  appear  on  the  CAPUTE!  page,  usually  within 
eight  weeks.  If  you  have  specific  questions  about  items 
or  programs  which  you've  seen  in  COMPUTE!,  please 
send  them  to  Readers  Feedback,  P.O.  Bo.\  5406. 
Greensboro,  NC  27403.  © 


NEWS^PRODUCTS 


Terminal  Emulator 
For  VIC  And  64 

Versatcrni,  a  terminal  emulator 
package  for  the  VIC-20  and 
Commodore  64,  is  available  from 
Electrosharp  Technologies. 

The  program  features  UP- 
LOAD, DOWNLOAD,  PRINTER 
DUMP,  SAVE,  and  CONVERT 
commands.  Data  can  be  SAVEd 
on  tape  or  disk,  to  reduce  connect 
time.  Data  is  stored  in  a  receive 
buffer  which  holds  36K  on  the 
Commodore  64  and  up  to  26K 
on  the  VlC-20. 

The  PROGRAM  mode 
searches  through  the  receive 
buffer  for  a  program  file  and 
automatically  converts  it  into 
program  form  so  it  can  be  SAVEd 
and  RUN  normallv- 

VeriHitcrni  is  available  on 
tape  for  S24.95  or  disk  for  S27.95. 
The  VIC  version  requires  at  least 
8K  memory  expansion. 

Ek'ctrofhii rj >  Technologies 
198J  Sniiiiiilwood  Drive 
Sania  Mnria,  CA  93455 
(805)  922-4095 


Atari  Printer 
Interface 

Microbits  has  developed  a  printer 
interface  that  is  compatible  with 
all  Atari  computers  and  serves 
as  a  replacement  for  the  Atari 
850  Interface  Module. 

The  MPP-1150  Printer  Inter- 
face, which  connects  to  the  com- 
puter's serial  bus  and  daisy- 
chains  with  other  Atari  peripher- 
als, is  compatible  with  all  existing 
software.  It  includes  a  three-foot 
cable  with  a  Centronics  plug. 


The  Microbits  MPP-USO  Parallel 
Printer  Interface  is  compatible  with  nil 
Atari  computers. 

The  interface  sells  for  $99.95. 

Microbits  Peripheral  Products 
225  West  Third  St. 
Alhaiiy,  OR  97321 
(503)  967-9075 


On  The  Road  With 
The  Apple 

Columbia  Software  has  intro- 
duced Roadscarch-Pltis,  a  compu- 
terized road  atlas  for  the  Apple  11 
and  Apple  lie  computers. 

The  program  contains  a 
data  base  of  406  cities  and  road 
intersections  and  about  70,000 
miles  of  major  highways 
throughout  the  United  States 
and  Canada.  With  the  compan- 
ion Roadniap  Dcvflopiiioit  S\/stciti, 
users  can  customize  the  data 
base  with  up  to  50  additional 
cities  and  100  additional  road 
segments,  including  local  roads, 
favorite  shortcuts,  and  new 
destinations. 

When  run,  the  program 
determines  and  prints  the 
shortest  practical  route  between 
any  cities  in  the  data  base.  If 
desired,  the  program  can  choose 
routes  that  avoid  toll  roads. 
Printed  output  from  the  program 


includes  driving  route,  dis- 
tances, travel  times,  and  esti- 
mated fuel  usage. 

Roadsearcli-PhiS  with  the 
Roadniap  Development  Sifstem  is 
available  for  $74.95.  A  version 
without  the  Roadniap  Development 
System  is  available  for  $34.95. 

Columbia  Software 
P.O.  Box  2235 A 
5461  Marsh  Hawk 
Columbia,  MD  21045 
(301)997-3100 


Joysticks  For  Atari, 
Commodore,  Tl 

Coin  Controls  has  developed  the 
Competition  Pro  3000  joystick,  a 
new  game  controller  for  Atari, 
Commodore,  and  Tl  computers. 

The  Competition  Pro  3000 
includes  a  trigger  atop  the  joy- 
stick and  a  "fire-bar"  on  the 
controller's  base.  The  joystick 
incorporates  arcade-style,  eight- 
way  directional  leaf  switches. 


The  Tl  version  of  the  Competition  Pro 
3000  joystick  includes  an  adapter  for  the 
TT99/4A  computer. 

January  19M    COMPUtfJ    203 


and  is  backed  by  a  two-year 
warranty. 

Atari  and  Commodore  mod- 
els are  available  for  $16.95.  The 
TI  version  is  available  for  $18.95. 

Coin  Controls,  Inc. 
2609  Greeiileaf  Ave. 
Elk  Grove  Village,  IL  60007 
(800)323-8174 


Pascal  For  The  64 

Zoom  Pascal  64,  from  Abacus 
Software,  is  a  fast-running  Pascal 
package  for  the  Commodore  64. 

The  program  includes  an 
editor  to  create,  save,  or  modify 
Pascal  source  statements,  a  com- 
piler to  translate  source  state- 
ments into  intermediate  code, 
and  a  translator  to  translate  the 
intermediate  code  into  6502 
machine  language. 

The  package,  which  sells  for 
$39.95,  also  includes  several 
sample  programs. 

Other  new  programs  avail- 
able from  Abacus  include: 
Chnrtpak~64,  which  allows  con- 
struction of  charts  and  graphs  in 
high-resolution  graphics  without 
programming,  $42.95;  Assembler/ 
Monitor  64,  a  utility  for  the  de- 
velopment of  machine  language 
programs,  $32.95;  and  Graphics 
Desi;i;ner  64,  which  lets  you  de- 
sign architectural,  engineering, 
or  artistic  graphics,  $34.95. 

Abacus  Software 

P.O.  Box  7271 

Grand  Rapids,  Ml  495W 


Grammar  Tutorial 
For  Apple  And  Atari 

English  Grmnniar  is  a  program 
designed  to  teach  the  parts  of 
speech  to  students  at  any  grade 
or  age  level.  The  two-disk  Apple 
or  Atari  program,  produced  by 
T.H.E.S.I.S.,  can  create 
specialized  exercises  for  use  in  a 
variety  of  settings. 

Drills  on  individual  parts  of 
speech,  or  any  combination  of 
parts  of  speech,  are  available. 

204    COMPini!    January  1984 


The  material  in  the  drills  is  easily 
modified  to  match  the  reading 
level  of  the  student. 

The  program  is  available  for 
$45  plus  $3  for  shipping  and 
handling. 

Another  new  offering  from 
T.H.E.S.I.S.  is  Weights  and  Mcas-^ 
iires,  a  two-program  package  for 
the  Atari,  designed  for  children 
ages  4  to  10. 

Weights  teaches  children 
how  to  read  a  scale  in  pounds 
and  ounces,  and  includes  exer- 
cises for  converting  pounds  to 
ounces  and  ounces  to  pounds. 

Linear  Measures  teaches 
children  how  to  measure  with  a 
ruler  and  how  to  make  conver- 
sions among  inches,  feet,  and 
yards. 

Weights  mid  Measures  is  avail- 
able for  S20  on  tape  or  $25  on 
disk. 

T.H.E.S.I.S. 
P.O.  Box  147 
Garden  City,  MI  48135 
(800)  354-0550 


Color  Computer 
Games  And 
Graphics 

Radio  Shack  has  released  two 
new  games  and  a  disk  graphics 
package  for  the  TRS-80  Color 
Computer. 

The  games.  Color  Baseball 
and  Star  Blaze,  are  both  available 
in  Program  Paks  for  computers 
with  at  least  16K.  In  Color 
Baseball,  you  can  play  a  human 
opponent  or  the  computer.  Fea- 
tures include  user  selectable 
batting  averages,  base  stealing, 
and  control  of  all  defensive 
players.  The  game  sells  for 
$24"".  95, 

Star  Blaze  is  a  space  explora- 
tion adventure.  The  player  must 
defend  the  64  sectors  of  the 
galaxy  against  a  fleet  of  aliens. 
Star  Blaze  is  available  for  $19.95. 

Color  Disk  Graphics  includes 
formats  to  plot  vertical  or  hori- 
zontal bar  charts,  pie  charts,  and 


line  charts.  Charts  produced  by 
the  program  can  be  saved  on 
disk,  displayed  on  either  a  high- 
or  low-resolution  computer 
screen,  or  printed  out  on  a  dot- 
matrix  printer  that  has  graphics 
capabilities. 

Color  Disk  Graphics  sells  for 
$49.95. 

Tandy  CorporaUoii/Rniiio  Shnck 
ISOO'Ouc  Tandy  Center 
Fort  Worth.  TX  76102 


TI  Cartridge 
Software 

Texas  Instruments  has  released 
five  new  cartridge  games  for  the 
TI-99/4A  home  computer.  The 
games  sell  for  $29.95  each  and 
can  be  played  from  the  keyboard, 
though  some  games  may  per- 
form better  with  joysticks. 

The  games  are: 

BurgerTimc,  a  single-player 
chase  game  in  which  Peter  Pep- 
per has  to  avoid  the  nasty  pickles 
and  hot  dogs. 

Treasure  Ishnid,  in  which  the 
player  must  gather  treasure 
before  rising  waters  engulf  the 
island. 

Return  to  Pirate's  Isle,  a  Scott 
Adams  adventure  with  multiple 
screens. 

Hopper,  a  ten-level  chase 
game  for  one  or  two  players. 
The  action  takes  place  in  the 
cargo  hold  of  an  ocean  liner. 

Sli/nioids,  a  single-player 
game  in  which  you  control  a 
sharpshooting  cowboy  who  uses 
scanners  and  laser  fireballs  to 
eliminate  the  alien  Slymoids. 

Texas  Instrinnents 
Consumer  Relations 
P.O.  Box  53 
Lubbock,  TX  79408 
(800)842-2737 


Thinlcing  Game 
For  Commodore  64 

Omnipotits  is  a  Commodore  64 
game  in  which  the  player  as- 
sumes the  role  of  a  computer 


'  We'll  back  you  up !    m^ 


^00  0*00  00  00  00  00  90  00  00  00  00  90  00  M0  00  0^imf0»0^00  00  0090'00'00'00"0m. 

M 

\ 

\ 

'I 

; 

'I 


1 . 
1 1 


Apple  owners 


Commodore  64  owners 


' 


The  Clone  Machine  -  Now  you  can  take  control  of  your 
1541  and  backup  software  easily.  A  complete  users  manual 
comes  with  this  package  that  allows:  1  and  2  drive  copy; 
in\estigaie  and  back-up  many  "copy  protected"  disks;  view 
and  edit  track  block;  easy  initiali/ation;  display  and  print 
directory  contents;  change  program  names;  add,  delete  files 
with  single  keystrokes;  supports  up  to  4  drives. 


'My  only 
copy 


"^Scwt^ 


Special  Offer  ^39^^ 


.Nibbles  Away  II  (New  imprincd  \'er'.!<inC)  -  The  single 
most  respected  back  up  program  to  date  for  Apple  and 
Franklin  computers.  Purchased  by  government  agencies, 
written  about  in  the  N.Y.  Times,  Science  83,  ^Digital 
Retailing  and  other  publications.  Now  revised  with  added 
printing  compatabiliiics,  enhanced  sector  editing  and  disk 
data  search,  subscription  to  nibble  news  available  tool  (with 
back-up  hints  and  parameter  settmgs). 

, 


Special  Offer  ^64 


95 


5^^*;^^"*°'' CALL  (201)  838-90271  mHUTE   Po-pt<;;^;^ns.  n.j 

<00.00,00.^0.00;i0'00'000.'0*^0^'^0^00  0'0-00.09.0^  00-00.0000.0^  0^0^  0^  00 


and  the  computer  assumes  the 
role  of  Professor  Omnipotus,  the 
computer's  creator. 

The  scenario  is  this:  The 
professor  sent  you  out  into  the 
world  to  "compare  and  catego- 
rize." You  have  returned  from 
your  task  and  the  professor  is 
questioning  you  about  what  you 
have  observed.  Your  dialogue 
with  the  professor  introduces 
you  to  the  basics  of  philosophical 
thinking. 

The  program,  produced  by 
The  Wizards,  is  available  on 
tape  or  disk  for  $13.95. 

Also  available  from  The 
Wizards  is  a  computer  aided 
instruction  program  titled  Course 
I:  How  to  Make  Good  Iiwestineiits. 
The  course  covers  material  tradi- 
tionally covered  in  business 
schools,  with  some  practical 
street  techniques  added  in.  The 
program,  which  comes  with  a 
75-page  text,  is  available  on  tape 
for  $39.95  or  disk  for  $44.95. 

The  Wizards 

P.O.  Box  7118 

The  Woodlands,  TX  77387 


CALENDAR 


January  14-15,  Northland  Mall, 
Sterling,  IL.  Fourth  Annual 
Computer  Fair.  Sponsored  bv 
the  Sauk  Valley  Computer  Club. 
For  more  information,  contact 
Vinus  Williams,  Rt.  1,  Mil- 
ledgeville,  IL  61051. 

January  19-21,  Pasadena 
Convention  Center,  300  E.  Green 
St.,  Pasadena,  CA.  Data  West. 
This  cotnputer  conference  and 
exposition  will  offer  a  series  of 
workshops  and  seminars,  and 
will  present  an  array  of  computer 
hardware  and  software  for  per- 
sonal and  business  use.  For  more 
information,  contact  Cliff  and 
Doug  Mitchell,  Information  Proc- 
essing Group,  (213)  792-5111. 

January  23-25,  Hacienda 
Resort  Hotel  and  Casino,  Las 
Vegas,  NV.  Teaching  Math  With 
Microcomputers.  Sponsored  by 
the  National  Council  of  Teachers 
of  Mathematics.  A  two-day  pro- 


gram designed  for  introducing 
microcomputers  to  teachers  and 
supervisors  of  mathematics  edu- 
cation at  the  elementary,  inter- 
mediate, and  secondary  school 
levels.  Seminar  topics  include 
software,  programming,  hard- 
ware selection,  and  computers  in 
the  future.  For  more  information, 
contact  NCTM  Seminar  Series, 
1906  Association  Dr.,  Reston, 
VA  22091,  (703)  620-9840. 


New  Product  releases  are  selected  from  sub- 
missions for  reasons  of  timeliness,  available 
space,  and  general  interest  to  our  readers.  We 
regret  that  we  arc  totable  to  select  all  new 
product  subiaissioiis  for  pid'licatio)i.  Readers 
should  be  aware  that  we  present  here  some 
edited  version  of  material  submitted  In/  ven- 
dors and  are  unable  to  vouch  for  its  accurac[/ 
nl  lime  of  publication. 

COMPUTE!  u'ckvijics  notices  of  up- 
coming  ezvnts  and  requests  that  the 
sponsors  send  n  short  description,  their 
name  and  plume  number,  and  an  address 
to  which  i)tterested  readers  nun/  write  for 
further  informatio)i.  Please  send  jwlices 
at  least  three  luoiiths  before  Ihedate  of  the 
event,  to:  Calouiar,  P.O.  Box  5406, 
G  reel  isboro  ,NC  27403.  Q 

Januorv  1984     COMPUTE!     205 


Fiy 


Your 
Computer 


^sSl 


FLIGHT  SIMULATOR  GAMES 

Sky  Pilot  (8K  VIC-20)  $18.00 

Runway  20  (16KVIC-20)  $25.00 

Ru  nway  64  (Com  modore  64)  $  1 8.00 

Cockpit  64  (Commodore  64)  $25.00 

ADD  $2°°  FOR  DISK  VERSION 


TORPEDO/- 


Submarine  Battle  Games 

8K  VIC-20  or  Commodore  64    $25.00 

SUSIE  SOFTWARE 

709  Wilshire  Dr.  Mt,  Prospect,  IL  60056 

(312)  394-5165 


Solve 
3(x-5)-3xt7=2(x+4)-x-3   ?   ? 
You  can  offer  you've 
worked  wifh  ffie 

MafhTufor     -    Linear    Equations 
A    complete  tutorial    &     practice 

Written    by  a    college    math 

teacher.    Volume     discounts. 

Atari  400/800,    IBMPC,C-64 

Min48K      Disk  or  Tape     $39.95 

Mo.    Res.   add   5.5%     tax 

RISIMQ   5TAR 
SOriWARE 

5732   Holmes       KCMO      64110 
(  i  Et  -  =  X    SI  J3MSUO  am  ) 


CRAZY  CONVEYQRS 
COMMODORE  64'" 


Ziazf  Cflni/eyors      :o;rDine5  tne  p^yvertui  Cdpaoiii^Jies  ol  !ne  Commodore 

6-^  wiifi  Qia-  dfr.e  10  O'cvioe  an  esDitng  aciiQfi-pdC«ec  garrie  wn^n 

ci^tienges  you;  to  r^e  dgdinsi  lime  dmibing  taCOers.  sliding  djwn  tire 

poies,  ara  iravers  ng  unpreooabie  moving  ranveyocs  To  sews  ocunls  you 

must  gainp  amiro  which  you  use  !o  feno  otl  a  vanely  o^  tunning  e-.t' 

(toes  The  tasre^  >-ou  cseai  tfie  screen  iw  mwe  bonus  pomis  you  win 

Cr32V  Conveyors  wiH  emenam  ano  cr>allef^  all  playersjust  as  it  is.  bul  as 

you  maste'  moie  ana  more  oi  ine  &fOwa  screens  of  t^nKfl  vou  viron  i  have 

to  buy  another  gatne  voj  can  l.'  ■■  Cra^y  Conveyors'  Ouiil  m  Screen  Ceatof 

to  modify  Itie  existing  screens  o'  :j;  <: ::  i'  ■  .  ■  e.vor>es  IT  seasyand  Emiv 

IflSCinating  and  it  you  re  sf^atmu  Ciaiy  CortveyoiS  with  family  you  may  nave 

to  ciyr^pete  lor  a  turn  Sorne  oT  :r^e  n;^ny  i^tu^es  incluoe 

Crazy  Cnnvcyor  Action  —  As  Ihe  lieio  fli  opponents  encounier  the  cra?y 

con't^yors  ■A'hirrFTin  pulleys  ana  belts  they  will  be  wmskefl  along  g-  s30^.veo 

to  a  snai'  5  prii:£  But  walch  youf  slED  i'  yw  count  on  a  coJiveycr  for  your 

escape  you  may  be  flisappQinied  as  the  conveyofs  Linexoectediy  revef.se 

direction 

Scieen  Crealor  —  e^Oisno  yojr  g^rne  flistt  to  128  sceens   anfl  use 

s.cc:U'i  ■■■[•■    ■■  ■  .■rrufthv  unlimiiep  screens  Cnoose  c3ny  ol  n  colors  lof 

ea':'i  ■-'  ■:  -  :■■ '  '<   ■■  ,itlef  a  screen  is  bLjiit 

Cuslflm  Characlers   :    n  flitteient  cfli'O's  are  usee  toi  Odilfliog  tiloCKS, 

\3CC-:'::  ■'■.:,.'..   I yjimg  pui-eys  mthfing  conveyc^s  anct  Donus  t)0»es 

Muhs-Color  SpriUs  ji  a  v-gnety  ol  smootJi  rncMng  cnaraclers 

Thi^  Par:  Harmony  Music  ano  a  var«ty  of  acton  sounds 

High  Score  Hrsiory  u-.,^  with  lull  names  ol  10  chamoions. 

Acton  Pause  '  :-i-  ,'Ou  pet  an  urgent  phcre  can  or  othpu?ge 

Start  play  ;■  ,'  ,    "'-e'l  of  your  chwe 

Joy  S^ck  Of  Keytioaiil  control 

Machine  Language  lisj-ei  '.dSt  aicec  icttonoi  spnie  graohcs  arc  sounc 

Ptice:  Only  S29  95  -  EAT  YOUR  HEART  OUT  JUMPHAN? 


COMMODORE 


TIMEX 


lYTES  and  BITS  (6D2)  "z-i*" 

24  E.  Canterbury  Ln.  ^'".1/?,'™^?^™" 

Phoenix,  ftZ  85Q22  "^^7,°aldli^'^ 

Commodore  M  Is  a  Iradenurk  ol  Commodore  Eiocironics  IM, 


1983  TAX 
RETURN  HELPER 


Fast  and  easy 
income  tax  preparation. 

•  Fom  tOIOand  Schedules  A.B.CD.E 

•  Enier  afid  modi'y  data  on  a  screen  copy  of  ifie 
lorm 

"  WorKs   Ilka    a   spreadsheel    ■   all   Ihe   lines 
allectad  by  a  charge  are  msianlly  updaied 

•  Form  ]0^0  anO  Schedule  A  are  aulomatically 
coreJated 

•  Price  IS  tax  deducltble. 

Casseite  VIC20(i6KRAM)orC64  S23 

TIMEX  1000    (16KRAMI  SI"! 

TIMEX  206o  S18 

D.sc  VIC20116K  RAMlorC64  S33 

(Add  S1  50  S  &  Ki  ChecK-  MO  or  credii  card 

KSOFT  CO. 

^^=  B-JS  VVELLNER  RO 

VBA  NAPEHVILLE,  IL  60540 

■^^^  131219611250 

Dealer  inquiries  welcome 


Use  the  cord 

in  the 

bock  of  this 

magazine 

to  order 
your 

COMPUTE! 
Books 


At  lastl 

QUALITY  DUST  COVERS 

Computer  Covers:  Alan  400,  600. 
800.  1200.  3400,  1450; 
Tl  99 'AA.  Commodore  64. 
VIC  20,  Timex  tOOO, 
T5Q0,  20ea    Olsk  Drive 
Covers:  Ataii.  Cor-imo- 
dnre  64.  VIC  20,  Percom. 
/-ij  '".jsl^"  Rana,  Cassette  Covers: 

^'W^  Commodore  64,  VIC  20.  Tl,  Atari,  Tejias 

Instrumenis.  Cusiom  fitted  dusT  covers  are  hand  sewn, 
not  glued,  from  brown  leather-like  Naugahyde.'^Soft 
bonded  inner  line;.  Forgei  aboul  the  cheap  static-filled 
plasiic  cowers  Sftd  go  uviih  Dur  ncfi  looking,  quality  duST 
covers  for  maicimLjm  protection-  And  if  you're  not  con- 
vinced this  is  the  best  cover  on  i;he  market,  just  send  i: 
back  and  we'll  cheerfully  refunid  your  money.  Dealer 
inquiries  are  invited. 

Please  send  me  e  custom  fitted  dust  cover  for: 
Computer: 


I  am  enclosing  S8.9S  ea.  plus  Si. 50  for  postage  and  han- 
dling. (Wisconsin  residents  add  5%  sales  laji.  Ship  to; 


City 

Bjte&Pujoes 


State  Zip 

550  N.  68th  St./I414}  257-3562 
Wauwatosa.  Wl  53213 


fIq€i^A^.e.ciM^ 


TAX  HELPER " 

Commodore  64" 

Tax  HELPER  1.83  performs  all 
arithmetic  for  Form  1040  and 
Schedules  A.  B.  and  G.  Does  not 
calculate  lax.  Saves  results  to  diskette. 
Diskette:  317,00  plus  SI. 25  shipping.' 
Tax  HELPER  2.83  also  does  Sctiedules 
C,  D.  E.  F.  G,  SE.  and  W  and  Form  4562. 
Calculates  tax,  prints  reports,  and  more. 
Diskette:  S30.00  plusS1.25  stiipping. 

(M)agreeable  software,  inc. 

5925  Magnolia  Lane  •  Plymouth.  MN  55442 
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Micromodem  II  $279  00 

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Smart:  Com  II  S99  00 

5ma^  1  ZOOB  S469  00 

NQVATiarM 

J  Cat  $119.00 

Cal                                              .  5144.00 

DCat  S159-00 

103  Smart  Cat  S1S9  00 

Apple  Cal  II  S279  00 

103.  21  2  Smart  Cal  5^39  00 

212  Applii?  Cal  II  S609  00 

ApplcrCill  1121  2  Upgrade.  S309  00 

ANCHOn 

Matk  I  (RS-2321  S79  00 

Mark  II  (AtaM)  .    £79  00 

Mark  III  (T    [    991  SI09  OD 

Mark  IV  [CeMPET]  $125  00 

Mark  V  (O&botnei  .   S95  00 

M,irk  VI  MGh'  PC)  S179  00 

Mark  VII  (Auto  Ans,  Auto  Diall  51  19  OO 

Mark  VIII  S269  00 

TRS  BO  Coto'  Computef  S99  00 

9  Voll  Power  Suppiv  S9  00 

ZEMITH 

ZTl   T.v(iiinai  S369  OO 


% 


HEWLETT 
PACKARD 


HP  7S  S749.00 

HP41C 8149.00 

HP41CV 8209.00 

HP41CX S2S9.00 

HP  IOC S52.00 

HP  1  IC S69.00 

HP  IXC S92.00 

HP  15C S92.00 

HP16C       S92.00 

Fof  HP41/41CV 

HPtL  Module S99-0D 

HPJL  C<it.»etle  or  Printer. . . .  S3S9.00 

Card  Reader SI 44  00 

Extorided  Functions  Module-.  ,S64.00 
Time  Module SB4.00 


llE-l _ SI369.00 

JIE  2 Sie49.00 

)IE-3 SS399-00 

IIE-4 S3t99.D0 

1»C-E  S1579-00 

PC'l S2399.00 

PC. 2 .82799-00 

PC-XL S3599.O0 

1620 $3599,00 

1  630 S5499  00 

1  540 S6499  00 

Cyma  SoHware CALL 

MOIMITOnS 
AMOEK 

3000  $149.00 

300A  S 1 59 

310A  .  $169.00 

Color  I        S279.O0 

Comr  II    $399 

Color  III  ---i S349 

Color  IV $999  00 

USI 

Pi  1     9     G  $99  00 

P,  2.  12     G  5119  00 

Pi  3     12     A $149.00 

Pi4    9     A $139  00 

1400  Color S299  00 

ZEtVlTH 

ZVM122A 5109,00 

ZVM123G --$99, 00 

BIVIC 

12"  Green SBSOO 

9191  AU  13"  Color S249.00 

TAX  AN 
12  N  Green  .  .5129,00 

12AAmber.,,  S13900 

12     RGB  I S299  00 

NEC 

JB  1260 --  - 1119.00 

JB  1201  $149.00 

JB  1205 $169  00 

JC  1215 $299  00 

JC  1216 $429-00 

JC1203 $469.00 

GoniLLA 


12"  Amber 
12"  Green  . 


S9S.00 

sa9.«a 


PC--1  500A 

ffiTGS 

SHARP*    PC-1250A 

POCKET  CCMPUTEHS 

CE-125  Prinler.Cass,  Inl  ...S129  00 
CE-150ColorPnni.,Cass.lnl....Sl72.00 

Cg.155  SK  RAM ,  $94.00 

C£.161   16K  RAM  , $135.00 

CESOO  ROM  Library    -.each  53900 

TeX3B  InBtrument^B 

TI-40 saos 

CALL  FOR  PPIICIMC3  DM 

TJMEXSiNCLArR  iaaa 

16K  Msmory.  $44  95 

2040  Printer 599. 9& 

Vu  Cak    $1795 

Mmdware  Printer $99.00 


AIL  ORDER 


^SAIMVO 


IBM 


NEC   3SED   Prrntdr S1739 

CERCOM/TAISiQarVJ 

□  nivES 

5"i     320K  Floppy S249.0a 

5  Meg  Hard  w/Controtler.  ..SI  399.00 
10MGgHardw/ContrQllBr..,S1B99.00 
1  5  Meg  Hard  w/Contro Her . .  .S2095,tM 
20Meg  Hard  w/Controller-  $2399  M 
AIVIIDEK 

31 OA  Amber  Monitor  SI 69.00 

DXY  100  Plotter SS99.00 

Color  II S399.00 

AST  RESEARCH,  IMG. 

Six  Pail  Plus... from SZ79.00 

Combo  Plus  11. ..Irom..  .8279.00 

Mega  Plus. ..from $309.00 

I/O  Plus  II. ..from SI 39.00 

QUAD RAM 

Ooadlink S549.00 

OuadbQafd...aslowas...  S309.0O 
Ouad512  Plu&...a$lowas...S259.00 
0u3dC0f0r...asl0W3S  ..  .  S2 19.00 

Ctironograph SB9.00 

Parallel  Interface  Board...  S89. 00 
64K  RAM  Cti.ps  Kit S69-0Q 

iviiCRa  paa 

Word  Star  Ma. I  Merge  $369-00 

InloStar  $299  00 

Spell  Star  51  59.00 

CallSlai  S15900 

IVIICHaBTLJF 
Crojsrai).  S129.00 

IVHCROBOFT 
Mulliplan  S179.00 

ABHTON-TATE 

D.ease  II  $41  9  00 

lus 

EaiiirWriter  II  S219.O0 

EasySpeller  $119.00 

EasyFilBi  .  S239.00 

COMXIfMEiyTAL  SOFTWARE 
islClassMail  Form  Letter       S79.00 
Tne  HomeAccouniam  Plus        S99.00 

SYNAPSE 
File  Manager  58900 

LOTUS 

123  5329.00 

PFS 

APPLE  IBM 

Flic  S79.O0  S89.00 

Report  S79.00  S79.00 

Graph  S79.00  S89.00 

Write  n  a  569.00 

KRAFT 

IBM  Joystick  $65  OO 

IBM  Paddles  S39  00 

PFaOFESSIQfvJAU  SOFTW/ARE 
PC  Plus  Word  Processing        S299.00 

KOALJV 
Koala  Part 

Apple S85-0O 

IBM 595.00 

Atari,- $75.00 

CBM  64 $75,00 


PAPER   SUPPLIES 

1or2  Address  Labels(Tract  Feed). .59. 95 
lb' Report  PaperfTraci  Feed]  $24  95 
8' J   BlnkWt1tPa,[>er1Tract  Feed). 519-95 


ST:     iCAblADA: 


HBC  550PC .^TT^...iCALL 

MBC  5S5PC    CALL 

MBC  1  100  $1599,00 

MBC  nSO     ,  .$2099  OO 

MBC  1200  $1999  OO 

MBC  1250  52399  00 

FDD  3200  320K  Driuc  $399  00 

FDD  6400. 64K  Diivu  5499  00 

PR  5500  Piinlei  S699  00 

PRINTERS 

EPSON 

MXBO  FT-  MXIDO,  HUSO 

FXSO.  FXlOO  .        CALL 

OKIOATA 

62.  83    84,  92    93    ,  CALL 

STAR 

Delia  1 0 $559 .00 

Gemini  lOX  S299.00 

Gemini  P15 S449.00 

SerialBoard- S75.00 

SIV1ITH   CORONA 
TP.2  5469  OO 

Tractor  Feed  $1  1  9  00 

C.ITOH 
Gorilla  5209  00 

ProwfileraSlOP  5379  00 

Prowrilei  ISSOP  $639  00 

Starwriter  F10  40P  SI  149  00 

Prinlmastei  F10.55P  $1549.00 

Tractor  FaGd  SI  99  00 

□  AISYUUniTEH 

3000  Letter  Ouahty SI 049.00 

2500      NEW         CALL 

Tractor  Feed SI  09  00 

DIABLO 

620 S949  00 

630 $1749.00 

lOS 

Call  for  ALL  Conliguiations  on 

IDS  PRISM  PRINTERS 

NEC 

8023  AN  $399.00 

6025  ST29.00 

3510  SI  449.00 

3530  $1499.00 

3550  .51799  00 

7710   7730  S1949  00 

BMC 

401  Letter  Quality $69900 

BX-BO  Dot  Matrix E259.O0 

COMREX 

ComMriterll  ParaUel  Printer . ,  .   $549,00 

n/IANIMSEMAN  TALLY 

Spirit  80  -  - $31 9.00 

MT.160L $589,00 

MT-iaOL.., ....$829. 00 

TRANSTAR CALL 

TOSH  I BA CALL 

CABLES  K  COIMNECTIOIUB 
Atari  to  Parallel  . ,     S29-0O 

Atari  to  Serial  S29.00 

Apple  10  Parallel  $&9.00 

Apple  to  Parallel  Graphics,     $99.00 
Apple  10  Serial  ,     $69.00 

IBM  to  Patallel  ..$35  00 

IBM  to  Serial $29.00 

Parallel  to  Parallel $29.00 

Serial  to  Serial 529.00 

Grappler  Plus    $129.00 

PKASO         .  SI  39-00 

Atari  to  Modem  Cable  .    .S29-00 

CBM  64  lo  IEEE  BoarO  $79  00 

Apple  flOCfjlumn  Card  $159  00 

CBM  Pet  lo  Paraltei  $99.00 

CBM  Pel  Id  Serial  SB9  00 


t.800-648.5511     laoo -268  •  ^^559   1-800-233-8950 


In  PA  call  (71  7(327-9575,  Dopt.  0106 
477  E.  Third  St.  Wllllamsport,  PA  17701 
Order  Status  «:  327-9576 


In  NV  call  (702)588  5654.  Oepl.01 06  In  Toronto  call  (41 61828-0866.  D«pt.  D106  <n  PA  call  (71 7(327-9575,  Dept.  0106 

■    PO    Box  6689  Stateline.NV  89449  2505  Dunwin  Ct.,Onlt  1  B,  477  E.  Third  St.  Wllllamsport,  PA  1  7701 

Order  Status  »:  588-5654  Mississauga,  Ontario,  Canada  LSLITI  Order  Status  «:  327-9576 

Order  Status  «:  828-0866 

No  risk,  no  deposit  on  CO.D.  orders.  Pre-paid  orders  receive  free  shipping  within  the  UPS  Continental  United  States  with  no  waiting  period  for  certified 
checks  or  money  orders.  Add  3%(minimu(n  $5.00}  shipping  and  handling  on  alt  C.O.O.  and  credit  card  orders.  Larger  shipments  may  require  additional 
charges.  NV  and  PA  residents  add  sales  tax.  All  itemssubjecttoavallability  and  pricechange.  We  stock  manufacturer'sand  third  party  software  for  moatali 
computers  on  the  market.  Call  today  for  our  new  catalog. 


Ia 


E^FRAHKLIH 


COUan  COMPUTE  OS 
ACE  1000,  ACE  120O,  ACE  1200 OMS. 
ACE  1  100  PBO  PACK:  ACE  1000.  ACE 
10  Drive  4  Confrollor.  BO  Column  Ca'd, 

ACECaIci  ACEWnlar CALL 

APPLE  I'd  starter  PACK 
&4KApplfi  Wo.  Disk  DrivcandConlrallor. 
60  Column  Card  &  Monilor  ML.. 
COMPLETE SI  599.00 

MICRO-SCI 

Applo  &   Franklin 

A2  - $219.00 

A40 S299.00 

ATO S319.00 

C2Conlroller S?9  00 

C47  Conliollcf S89.00 

nAtMA 

Ehle  I  (Apple  Fianhhnl  $279  00 

Elile  II  lApple  Franklini  S319.00 

Elilc  III  (AppleFranklinl         $563.00 

VISICORP 

FOR  APPLE.  IBM  &  FRANKLIN 

Visidex SI89  00 

visilile .., Slag. 00 

VlSiplQl S 1  69-00 

Visilerm SS9.00 

Visilrenrt/Plot S229-00 

VisiSchedule S229.00 

D«jsKloo  Plan ,  ,S1S9  00 

Visicalc  a  (IBMI S169  OO 

Vi^icalc  Advanced  lie        .    .S309  00 
Slrotcn  Calc  389.00 

Visicorp  prices  loi  ISM  may  vary  sliglilly. 

LJK 
Leller  PerfecT  Apple                 SI  09  00 
Dala  Perfect  Apple S75.00 

AXLON 

Apple  Franklin  12eK  Ram       .S299-00 

Apple.  Franklin  Ram  Disk    .  .S723.00 

IVIPC 

Bubditk(12BKNonVolila(e|.     se49.00 
WICO 

Joystick      .  S21    95 

Famous  Red  Salt  S23.95 

PowerGrip S21.95 

Ttrree-Way  Oaluici} S22.95 

Atari,'VIC  Trackball S34.95 

Apple  Tr3t:ktiall     .  S59.95 

KRAFT 

Alati  Single  Frre       SI  3.00 

Alan  Switch  Huter,  $16  00 

Apple  Joyslick     Sdd.OO 

Apple  Paddles  S3S  00 


PUTERMAILOP.D 


ARPUE/PRANKLIN 

1  Choplifter   S27  00 

2  Bank  Street  Wtilai  S55.00 

3.  PFS    File SB9.00 

a,  Visri;alc SI  79.00 

5.  Home  Accountant. ..-$55. 00 

6.  Zaoon 529.00 

7.  Most  Am  a  ring  Thing  ......  $26. 00 

B   Visihle S1B9.00 

9  Fa1homs40 S19.Q0 

10  Deatlline  S35.00 

11  PFS:  Report sag. 00 

12  2oik  III  S29.00 

13.  Frogger       S24.00 

1 4    Facemaket S24.00 

16-  Snooper  Troops  «1 S32-0O 

16.  Delta  Otammg S35.00 

17    Castle  WoMensline  $24,00 

16    Wayoul       S29.0D 

19  Canyon  Climber  S19.00 

20  Bandlls        S26.O0 


Qz  commodore 
CBfVI 

saaa 
*S93 

c:Bivie<4  ...SpSI  3 
VIC  so £SS 

CALL  ON 
EKBCutivH  B4  Portable 

1520  Color  Printer  Plotter  5169.00 

1525  80  CtJlumn  Pnnler  5319  00- 

1530  Datasetle  S69  00 

1541  Single  Disk  Drive  $249  00 

1600  VIC  Modem  S59  00 

1650  AD  AA  Modem  S89  00 

1702  14     Color  Monitor  S249  00 

Pel  64  5569  00 

Pel  4032  $599  00 

CBM  6032  .5599  00 

Super  Met  S999  00 

S128  SO  5769  00 

203  1  S299  00 

8050  5949  00 

8250  SI  199  00 

9060  S1999O0 

9090  52  199  00 

4023  S3I9  00 

6400  51399  00 

64K  Upgiaoe  $269  00 

Spell  Masier  S149  00 

Z  Bam  S549  00 

Silicon  Odice  S749  00 

Ttie  Manager  5209  00 

Soil  Rom  5129  00 

Jinsam  CALL 

CalcRasult  64  513900 

CodeWriler64 S75.00 

VisiCjIC $169.00 

PROFESSIONAL 

SOFTVUARE 

Word  Pro  2  Plus  S  I  69  00 

Word  Pro  3  Plus.  SI  89.00 

Word  Pro  4  Plus  S279  00 

Word  Pro  5  Plus $279  00 

InloPro S179  Oa 

Adminialralor 1399  00 

Power S79-00 

Word  Pro  64  Plus S65.00 

CAROCQ 

faf  VIC  20/S«I 

Light  Pen  .  ,S32.00 

Cassette  Interlace  529.00 

Parallel  Printer  Interlace  S69  00 

3SlotExpans   In1erface(20)  S32.00 

eSlolEnpans  Interface  1201  S79-00 

C.M.O. 

CBM  S4 

1WordPf064 S6S.00 

2.  Jumpman $29,00 

3    Garn20/64) SI  4.95 

4.  Miciospec  Data  Base  64  .  .$6900 

5.  Logo  64 S39.00 

6.  MicfospecGen.  Ledger 64.   .$79.00 

7-  Zork  III S29.00 

8.  Frogger  |64) .-.$23.00 

g.  Quick  Brown  Fox  (20/64)  ...S49.00 

10    Shamus S29.00 

1  1.  Deadline $29.00 

12.  Assembler  84 SI 4.95 

13.  Zork  II    $29.00 

14.  3D  Man SI  4.00 

1  5-  Protector S32 .00 

le.Starcross S29.00 

17,  Easy  Mail  64 .$14.95 

IB   Grave  Robber S1I.0O 

19- Wall  Street S1900 

20.  Trash  Man 532,00 


A 

ATARI 


HOME  COMPUTERS 


ATARI  60axi_ E61  43 

ATARI  BOOXL SS69 

ATARI   1  SOOXL CALL 


ATARI 40a 
ATARI aOO 


1010  Piogram  RecoFuC'  STd  QO 

102O4OCal  Prmlei'Plotler  S.249.00 

1025  60  Call    Primer  Sdag  00 

102  7  Letlef  Quality  Pimier  1299.00 

1050  Disk  Dr<ve  S379  00 
l030DireclConnetlModeni        CALL 

CX30  Paddles  SI  2.00 

CXJO  Joyslick  -$&  00 

0X12  Remore  Joyslpck  CALL 

CX77  Touch  Tablet  S69  00 

CX0O  Tiak  Ball  Sd9  00 

exes  Keypad  S105  00 

CXdls  Home  Manager  S69  00 

0X488  Communicato'  M  S229  00 

KX709eAiariAccountani  S209  00 

KX7101   Entertainer  S69  00 

KX7102  Arcaae  Champ  S75  Oo 

ALIEN 

Atari  VOhCe  Bo«  SI  19  00 

Apple  Voice  Boi  SI  49  00 

MEMORY  BOARDS 

AAlon  32K  Ram  459  00 

Anion  4aK  Ram  .  ,  S99  00 

Ajclon  12BK  Ram  S299-00 

Iniec  32K  Board     .  -    .S59.00 

mtec  -SBK  Board     SBSOO 

Iniec  64K  Board  (4O0  only!      ,S99,00 
Ir^Tec  Real  Time  Clock  S39  00 

OISK  S.  CART  HOLOER5 
Flip  n  File  10  S4  DO 

FlipnFile  50  51900 

Flipn-File  400.800  Can  S19-00 


.  . .  CALL 
...  CALL 


PtFCDM 


AT  88S 1 S329.00  I 

ATaB'A2 $J69.00l 

AT  aa-S2 S569.00  I 

AT  as  SI   PD $469.00  I 

ATBB-DDA SI 45. 00  I 

HFD  40S1    $449.00  I 

HFD  40-A1    S279.00  I 

RFO  40-S2  S729.00  I 

HFO  44S1 $539.00  I 

RFD44'S2  sasgoo  I 

TX  99S1  {Texas  Insl.l S279  Ool 

RANA  r 

1000  Alan  Disk  Oriwe  $31900 

TBAX 
AT-D2 CALL  J 

FLOPPY  DtSKS 

IV1AXELL 

MDl  829,00 

MD2  S39  0" 

FDH8    I  .  $40,00 

F02|e     OSDDI.  S50.00 

ELEPHANT 

5'.   SSSO    $18. SO 

5'.    SS  DD S24  95 

5'.     OS  DD         S29.95 

VERBATUM 
S> .     SS  DO  S2B.aO 

5',     OS  00  S3B.00 

HEAD 
Disk  Head  Cleaner  S14.9S 


TOP    SO 


1.  Donkey  Kong $39.00 

2.  Zaixon S29.00 

3.  E-T,  Ptiono  Home $39.00 

4.  Miner  2049er , S35  00 

5.  Dig  Dug $33.00 

6.  Choplilter S29.00 

7.  Donkey  Kong.  Jt $39.00 

B.  Canyon  Climber $25.00 

9.  Snooper  Troops  if 2 $34.00 

10  Word  Wiiard  $59.00 

1 1  -  picnic  Paranora $34,00 

12.  Jumpman     $29.00 

13.  Stiamus $34.00 

1 4 .  Letter  Perfect  - $1 09.00 

15.  File  Manager  800 SB9.00 

16.  Preppie $24.00 

1  7.  Astro  Ctiase $25. OO 

1  B.  Blade f  Black  Hole S27.00 

19-  Pac  Man $33.00 

20     Bajo  Buggies $25,00 


21   Crush  Crumbled  Chori;tp.     S24  00 
22.  Wayoul       .  S27.O0 

23  Zork  II  $29.00 

24  Visicalc  $159,00 

25  Atari  Wilier $49.00 

2B,  Three  Little  Pigs $25.00 

27-UpperneachesqlApshai  ,      $16. OO 
IB    Starbowl  Football    .  $24  95 

29  Oielbs  $26  00 

30  Protector  $34,00 

31  Frogger        S2S.0O 

32  Lunar  Leeper. $2400 

33  Wizard  ot  Wor $34.00 

34  Klndercomp...    -.$2100 

35- Moon  Shuttle  .   $22.00 

36  Home  Accountant  $55.00 

37  Templfi  ol  Apstiai  $29  00 

38  Spell  Wuard  $39.00 

39  Nautilus  .    $26.00 

40  O'RrleysMine  $2200 


iCAb!ADA=    -EAST: 

l-800-6*8-55ft     1 -800 -268 -4559  f-800-255-3950 


In  PA  call  (717)327-9575.  Dept,. 0106 
477  E.  Third  SI.  Williamspoil,  PA  1 7701 
Order  Status  «:  327-9S76 


In  NV  call  (702)588  S6S4.  Dept.  0106  In  Toronto  call  (41 6)028-0866,  Oepl-OlOe  In  PA  call  (717)327-9575.  Dept,. 0106 

P.O.  Box  66B9,  Statellne,  NV  B9449  2S0S  Ounwin  Ct.,Unlt  IB,  477  E.  Third  SI.  Williamspoil,  PA  1 7701 

Order  Status  «:  588-5654  MIssissauga,  Ontario,  Canada  LSLITI  Order  Status  «:  327-9S76 

Order  Status  «:  828-0866 

CANADIAN  ORDERS:  All  prices  are  subject  to  shipping,  lax  and  currency  exchange  fluctuations.  Call  for  exact  pricing  in  Canada.  I 

INTERNATIONAL  ORDERS:  All  shipments  outside  the  Continental  United  Stales  must  be  pre-paid  by  certified  check  Only.  Include  3%  (minimum  $5.00) 
shipping  and  handling.  EDUCATIONAL  DISCOUNTS;  Additional  discounts  are  available  to  qualified  Educational  Institutions. 
APO  &  FPO:  Add  3%  (minimum  S5.00)  shipping  and  handling. 


MSir 


HAPPY  WINS  THE  RACE  WITH  WARP  DRIVE  SPEED! 


HAPPY  810  ENHANCEMENT 

•  The  only  change  needed  to  run  all  WARP  DRIVE  software 

•  Plug  in  P.C.  board  requires  no  permanent  modifications 

•  Proven  reliable  in  thousands  of  installations,  reduces  disk  drive  wear  i 

•  Comes  completely  assembled  and  tested,  just  plug  in  and  use 

•  Full  one  year  parts  and  labor  guarantee,  compatible  with  existing  software 

•  High  quality  printed  circuit  board  with  gold  connectors 
NO  ONE  ELSE  HAS  THIS  PERFORfvlANCE 

Unenhanced  whole  disk  (ATARI  rev  B  format)  read  time:  1 12  seconds 
Unenhanced  whole  disk  (ATARI  rev  C  fast  format)  read  time:  89  seconds 
ENHANCED  810  whole  disk  (any  format)  read  time  with  standard  software:  68  seconds 
ENHANCED  810  whole  disk  (any  format)  read  time  with  WARP  DRIVE  software:  43  seconds 
Standard  software  whole  disk  write  and  verity  time:  238  seconds 

WARP  DRIVE  software  whole  disk  write  and  verify  time:  62  seconds  J 

NEW  HAPPY  WARP  DRIVE  SOFTWARE 

WARP  SPEED  HAPPY  BACKUP  PROGRAM 

•  Completely  automatic:  nothing  to  figure  out,  insert  disks  and  press  return 

•  Only  program  on  the  market  guaranteed  to  backup  any  disk 

•  Can  write  to  a  blank  disk:  format  write  and  verify  in  one  operation  ,-        ^ 

•  Automatic  program  tracing:  copies  only  the  tracks  that  are  used 

•  Efficient  memory  utilization:  reduces  the  number  of  disk  insertions 

•  Requires  only  one  ENHANCED  disk  drive,  backups  will  work  on  a  standard  drive 
WARP  SPEED  fvlULTI  DRIVE  HAPPY  BACKUP  PROGRAIvl 

•  Same  features  as  above  plus  support  of  multiple  ENHANCED  drives 

•  Can  be  used  with  up  to  4  ENHANCED  drives 

•  Source  and  all  destination  drives  read  and  write  in  parallel 

•  Format  write  and  verify  3  complete  disks  in  less  than  3  minutes 
WARP  SPEED  HAPPY  COfvlPACTOR  PROGRAM 

•  Reduces  the  number  of  disks  required  to  backup  your  library 

•  Combines  up  to  8  self  booting  disks  into  1  disk  with  a  menu 

•  Compacted  disks  run  only  on  an  ENHANCED  drive 

•  Pays  for  itself  by  saving  on  disks 

•  Single  or  dual  ENHANCED  drive  operation 
HAPPY  WARP  DRIVE  DOS 

•  Improves  ATARI  DOS  2.0S  to  use  warp  speed  reading  and  write  with  verify 

•  Use  all  features  of  BASIC.  PILOT,  FiviS,  and  DUP  at  top  warp  speed 

•  Warp  speed  I/O  software  module  available  separate  from  DOS 
HAPPY  WARP  DRIVE  SECTOR  COPY  PROGRAM 

•  Standard  format  whole  disk  read,  write  and  verify  in  105  seconds 

•  Use  with  sngle  or  dual  drives,  mix  ENHANCED  and  NON-ENHANCED  drives 
HAPPY  CUSTOM IZER  PROGRAM  (sold  separately  S99.95) 

•  Creates  custom  format  disks  of  any  specification 

•  Any  type  bad  sector,  duplicate  sector  numbers,  or  interleave 

•  Easy  to  use  but  requires  an  advanced  level  user  to  interpret  the  results 

REVIEWED  IN  POPULAR  MAGAZINES 

AN.A;L0.G.  COfvlPUTING— July/August  1 983  --.The  installation  instructions  for  the  Happy  810  Enhancemsnl  are  among  the  best  I  have  ever  seen  The  Happy 
810  Enhancement  is  one  ol  the  most  powerful  hardware  modilications  available  to  ATARI  computer  owners." 

ANTIC— July  1 983  'The  dltlerence  txtween  a  normal  ATARI  3  W  disk  drive  and  one  equipped  with  Happy  is  like  the  contrast  between  mass  transit  and  the 
aulomot>ile.  A  car  costs  you  more  inilially.  but  improves  the  quality  of  your  life.  Similarly,  il  you  use  your  disk  drive  a  lot  installing  Happy  will  markedly  enhance  your 
programming  life. " 

SPECIAL  SUGGESTED  RETAIL  PRICE  BEFORE  FEBRUARY  28,  1984:  Ge(  (he  HAPPY  810  ENHANCEMENT  with  the  single  and  multi  drive  HAPPY  BACKUP 
PROGRAM,  plus  the  HAPPY  COMPACTOR  PROGRAM,  plus  the  HAPPY  DRIVE  DOS.  plus  the  HAPPY  SECTOR  COPY,  alt  with  WARP  DRIVE  Speed,  including  our 
diagnostic  lor  S249.95.  Existing  registered  ENHANCEMENT  owners  may  upgrade  to  WARP  DRIVE  speed  for  $15.00  with  no  hardware  changes.! 
Price  includes  shipping  by  air  mail  to  U.S.A- and  Canada.  Foreign  orders  addSIO.OOand  send  an  international  money  order  payablethroughaU.S.A  bank.  California 
orders  add  $16.25  state  sales  tax.  Cashierscheck  or  money  order  for  immediate  shipment  from  stock.  Personal  checks  require  2-3  weeks  lo  clear  Cash  COD 
available  by  phone  order  and  charges  will  be  added.  No  credit  card  orders  accepted.  ENHANCEMENTS  for  other  ATARI  compalible  drives  coming  soon,  call  lor 
information.  Please  specify  -H  model  for  all  drives  purchased  new  after  February  1 982,  call  for  help  m  ENHANCEfilENT  model  selection.  Dealers  now  throughout 
the  world,  cal!  for  the  number  ol  Ihe  dealer  closest  to  you.  atari  bio  is  a  resisieredicauemarKat  Man.  inc. 

HAPPY  COMPUTERS,  INC.  •  P.  O.  Box  1268  •  Morgan  Hill,  California  95037  •  (408)  779-3830 


COMMODORE  64^ 
American  Peripherals 


GAMES 

(on  tape) 

646  Pacacuda  19.95 

650  Logger  19,95 

651  Ape  Craze  19.95 

652  Centropod  19.95 

653  Escape  19.95 

641  Monopoly  19.95 

642  Adventure  #1  19.95 
648  Galactic  Encounter  9. 
667  Yahtzee  14.95 

671   Robot  Blast  14.95 
673  Moon  Lander  14.95 
676  Othello  14.95 
686  Horserace-64  14.95 
692  Snake  14.95 
697  Football  14.95 
819  Backgammon  24.95 

822  Space  Raider  19.95 
846  Annihilator  19.95 
842  Zwark  19.95 

845  Grave  Robbers  13.95 
841  Pirate  Inn  Adv.  22.95 
904  Shooting  Gallery  14.95 

816  Dog  Fight  19.95 

817  Mouse  Maze  19.95 

818  Ski  Run  22. 
820'  Metro  22. 

823  Sub  Warfare  29. 

838  Retroball  39.95 
(cartridge) 

839  Gridrunner  39.95 
(cartridge) 

825  Mine  Field  13. 
672  Dragster  14.95 
662  Oregon  Trail  14.95 
679  3-DTicTacToe  14.95 
655  Castle  Advent  14.95 


EDUCATIONAL 

(on  tape) 

644  Type  Tutor  19.95 

645  Assembly  Language 
Tutor  14.95 

687  Fractional  Parts  14.95 
902  Estimating  Fractions  14.95 

695  Tutor  Math  14.95 

870  Square  Root  Trainer  14.95 
699  Counting  Shapes  14.95 
694  Money  Addition  14.95 

689  Math  Dice  14.95 
678  Speed  Read  14.95 

643  Maps  and  Capitals  19.95 

645  Sprite  Editor  19.95 

904  Sound  Synthesizer  Tutor  19. 

696  Diagramming 
Sentences  14.95 

690  More/Less  14.95 

688  Batting  AVERAGES  14.95 
802  TicTacMath  16.95 

904  Balancing  Equations  14.95 

905  Missing  Letter  14.95 
864  Gradebook  15. 

810  French  1-4  80. 

811  Spanish  1-4  80. 

807  English  Invaders  16.95 
809  Munchword  16.95 

812  Puss  IN  Boot  20. 

813  Word  Factory  20. 
660  Hang-Spell  14,95 

905  Division  Drill  14.95 

906  Multiplic,  Drill  14.95 

907  Addition  Drill  14.95 

908  Subtraction  Drill  14.95 

910  Simon  Says  14.95 

911  Adding  Fractions  14.95 

912  Punctuation  14.95 


EDUCATIONAL 

Series  on  disk 

Computer  Science  (30  programs)  S350 
HS  Biology  (70  programs)  S500 
HS  Chemistry  (40  programs)  S450 
HS  Physics  (60  programs)  S475 
HS  SAT  Drill  (60  programs)  S99. 
Elem.  Social  Studies  (18  pr.)  S225 
Elem,  Science  (18  programs)  $225 
Elem.  Library  Science  (12  pr.)  S170 
Librarians  Package  (4  utilities)  S110 
3rd  Grade  Reading  (20  lessons)  S99, 
4th  Grade  Reading  (20  lessons)  S99. 
5th  Grade  Reading  (20  lessons)  S99. 
6th  Grade  Reading  (20  lessons)  $99. 
Spanish  Teaching  (12  lessons)  $95, 
PARTS  OF  SPEECH  (9  lessons)  $95. 


BUSINESS 

(all  on  disk) 
WORD  PRO  3+   95,00 
DATAMAN-64  data  base  program.  49.95 
PERSONAL  FILING  SYSTEM 
(index  card  style)  19.95 
HOME  FINANCE  19.95 
CYBER  FARMER  $195. 
GA  1600  Accounting  System  395. 
PERSONAL  TAX  80. 
ACCOUNTS  RECEIVABLE  22. 
New  York  State  Payroll  89. 
MAILING  LIST  24. 
Manufacturing  Inventory  59. 
Stock  Market  Package  39. 
Finance  16.95 


ORDERING  BLANK 

To:  American  Peripherals 
122  Bangor  Street 
Lindenhurst,  NY  11757 

Ship  to:      Name 

Street 

Town,  State,  ZIP 


ITEM 


DESCRIPTION 


PRICE 


D  Pleasesendyourcomplete64Kcatalog, 
free  of  charge. 

Commodore  64  is  a  requested  trademark  of  Commodore  LTD. 


NY  State  Residents 
—      only  add  7V4%  tax 

Shipping 

COD,  add  1.50 
If  Canada  or  Mexico,  add  additional  2.00 

TOTAL  AMOUNT, 


$1.50 


Li;co  Computer  Marketing  &  Consultants 

TOLL  FREE  800-233-8760 


TO  ORDER 

CALL  US 


. 3271B24 


PERQCM I 


HARD  DISK 
DRIVES  for 


APPLE     IBM-PC    TRS-60* 

5MEG $1349.00 

10MEG $1599.00 

15MEG $1999.00 

20MEG $2359.00 


•Add  S30  00  lor  TRS  HO  D.  .v/.'s 


TEXAS  INSTRUMENT 
DRIVE $255.00 


for  ATARI  COMPUTERb 

AT88S1   $299.00 

AT88S2 $535.00 

AT88SIPD $CALL$ 

RFD40SI $399.00 

RFD40S2 $689.00 

RDF44SI $489.00 

AT88  DOUBLER  BOARD $1  39.00 

ADD-ON  DRIVES $CALL$ 


dppkz 


SSI 

Batlle  of  Shilo S26.75 

Tigert  in  the  Snow. . . .  S26.7S 

Cosmic  Balance J26.T5 

Knights  ot  the  Detert  .  126.75 
Batlle  for  Normandy..  »2e.7S 
Germany  1985 *36.75 


RANA 

DISK  DRIVES 

Elite  t $295.00 

Elite  2 $449.00 

Elites $559.00 

MICRO-SCI 

cell 

A40.. call 

A70 call 

MUSE 

Cattle  Wolfeneteln $20.75 

Caverni  o1  Frietag $20.75 

Robo(  War ,  S2e.7S_ 


A2 


I  f X  commodore 

I  ^^         12  I  2  Programmers  Ad. $44. 75  ^^ 

I  IT;  1 3  Vicmon $44.75 

|\  ic  20  dust  cover $6.99 

|Vic  64  dust  cover S6.99 

TfMEWORKS 

rNVENTORY $59.75 

ACCOUNTS  REC S59.7S 

ACCOUNTS  PAY $59.75 

GENERAL  LEDGER $59.75 

PAYROLL SS9.75 

CASH  FLOW $59.75 

SALES  ANALYSIS S59.75 

ELEC.  CHECKBOOK $59.75 

HONEY  MANAGER $59.75 

DATA  MANAGER $59.75 

WALL  STREET $59.75 


HES64 

64Fofth  B $55.75 

Heimon  R $29.75 

Turtle  Graphics  R $49.75 

Heawrlter  R  $38.75 

Qridrunner  R $29.75 

Attack  of  MutCam  R...$34.75 

Turtle  Tutor  B $29.75 

Turtle  Tfalnef  B $29.75 

Paint  Brush  R $23.75 

Benil  Space  Rescue  D.$29.75 
Home  Manager  C/D  ...$39.75 
Time  Money  Mgr  D  . . .  .$55.75 

OmniCalc  D $79.75 

Sword  Point  D $24,75 

EPYX        54 

Temple  ol  Apshai $28.00 

Upper  Reaches  ot  A  — $1  5.00 

Crush  Crumble  i  C $23.00 

Jumpman $28.00 


CONTINENTAL 

Home  AecounUnt $51 .75 

Book  oT  Apple  Software  .  $1  6.75 
BROOERBUND 

B»nk  Street  Writer $44.75 

AE *24.75 

Apple  Panic $21  75 

ChopHtter $24,75 

David's  Midnight $24.75 

SPINNAKER 

Klndercomp $21.75 

Story  Machine $23.75 

FaceMaker $23.75 

Snooper  Trooper $29.75 

Delta  Drawing $34,75 

CARDCO 

Cardprlrvter  /  LQI $499,00 

Cardprint  0M1 $109.00 

S  Slot  Expansion  64 $54.00 

64  Write  NOW $39.00 

64  Mall  NOW $29.00 

2j  Write  NOW $29.00 

64  Keypad  $29.00 

Universal  Cass.  Int. $29.75 

Printer  Utility $19.75 

6  Slot  Expansion $79.95 

3  Slot  Expansion $24.95 

Vic  20/64  Printer  Int $59.95 

BRODERBUN0e4 

Serpenline  R $26.75 

Choplitter  R $32.75 

Seafoi  R $26.75 

PARKER  20 

FrogQer(BOM| $33.75 

QBert(ROM|   $33.75 

Tulankham  IromI $33.75_ 


EPYX 

Temple  Ot  Apshel $26.95 

Star  Warrior $26.95 

Crush.  Crumble  4  Chomp  .  $22,75 

ADVENTURE 

Saga'l  Adventureland  ,.,$29,95 
Saga«2  Pirate  Adventure. $29, 95 
Sega«3  Secret  Mission... $29. 95 
Stone  of  Sisyphus $24,95 

ALIEN  GROUP 

Atari  Voice  Box $99,00 

Apple  Voice  Box $1 29.00 

SPINNAKER  64 

Klndercomp $21.75 

Story  Machine  $23.75 

Face  Maker $23.75 

Snooper  Trooper $29.75 

Delta  Drawing $34.75 

Shamus  II  c/d $24.95 

Ptnhead  c/d   $22.95 

QUICK  BROWN  FOX 
QBF  Word  Processor  ....  $49.95 
LJK 

Letter  Perfect $105.00 

Data  Perfect $95.00 

ADVENTURE  INTERNATIONAL 
S.  Adams  Adventure $28.75 

VIC-64 

WORDPRO  3+ «e9.7S 

VIC  20 

King  Arthurs  Heir  Cass  — $24.75 
Monster  Maze  Ram  »?4.75 


mJiMii 


1^ 

lATARI 

ompulcrs  for  peopl*.' 


600XL  $$$$$149.00 
800XL...$CALL$ 
1200  XL.  $499.00 
1400XL.$CALL$ 
1450XL.$CALL$ 

1025  Printer $399.00 

1020  Color  Printer  .$245.00 

1027  Printer $299.00 

1010  Recorder $75.00 

410  Recorder $75.00 

810  Disk  Drive $399.00 

1050  Disk  Drive $335.00 


PARKER  BROTHERS 

Super  Cobra  R 

Astro  Chase  R 

Frogger  R 

OBort  R  

Po  peye  R 

Risk  R 

Chess  R 

SPINNAKER 

Story  Machine  R 

Face  Maker  R 

Kinderomp  R 

Fraction  Fever  R 

Delta  Drawing  R. 


SSI 

$33,75      Battle  of  Shilo  C/D 

$33.75  Tigers  In  the  Snow  C/D.,, 

$33.75  Battle  for  Normandy  C/D  , 

$33.75  Knights  of  the  Desert  C/D 

$33.75      Cosmic  Balance  C/D 

$42.75  ON-LINE 

$42.75       Frogger 

Wliord  £  Prin  

$28.75  ROKLAN 

$24.75      Wizard  of  War 

$20.75      Gort 

$24.75  BIG  5 

$26.75      Miner  2049 


$26.75 
$26,75 
$26.75 
$26.75 
$26,75 

$24.95 
$26.95 

$29.75 
$29.75 

$32.75 


BUSINESS 

VIslcalc s 

Letter  Perfect 

Letter  Perfect 

Dels  Perfect 

Text  Wluard 

Spell  Wizzard 

File  Manager 

Home  File  Mgr.... 

Bookeeper y 

C.R,I,S $ 


Tax  Advantage 

Home  Accountant  . 
Bank  Street  W 


159.751 
$80,751 
$80,751 
•89.7sl 

$49.75  I 
$64.75| 
$69,751 
$69,751 

119. 75I 
:199.75l 
*35.75| 
$59.75! 
■$49.75| 


L\;co  Computer  Marketing  &  Consultants 

TOLL  FREE  800-233-8760 


TO  ORDER 

CALL  US 


In  PA  1-717-327  1824 


Lyco  Computer  Marketing  &  Consultants 
TO  ORDER      TOLL  FREE   800-233-8760 


CALL  US 

BLANK  DISKETTES 

ELEPHANT 

single  Side  SD  (10) $17.75 

Single  Side  DD(10) $21.75 

Doubio  Side  DD  (10) $26.75 

WABASH 

Singie  Side  SD  (10) .$19.75 

Single  Side  DD  (1 0) S23.75 

Double  Side  DD  (10)  S3Z.75 

MAXELL 

MD  I  (10) $28.75 

MO  11  (10) $38.75 

CERTRON  CASSETTES 

CC-10  12  for $15.99 

CC-20  12  for $17.99 

INNOVATIVE  CONCEPTS 

Disk  Storage  (holds  10),...  $4. 95 
Disk  Storage  (holds  1 5) ....  $9.95 
Disk  Storage  (hoidsSO). . . .  $26.95 
ROM  Storage  (lioida  1 0) . . .  SI  9.75 


ANCHOR  MARK  I S74.7S 

MARK  11 $74.75 

HA¥ES1200 $509.75 

MICRO  2 $274.75 

SMART $214.75 

NOVATION  CAT $144.75 

°-CAT $155.75 

J-CAT $114.75 

MICROBIT S15e.75 


CORDLESS 
TELEPHONES 

(up  to  700  ft.  range) 

|from.  ..$69.75 


in  PA  1-7  17-  327  ih;>j 


32K  RAM S65.75 

|48K  RAM S89.75 

64K  RAM S109.75 

I  TECHNICAL  N0TES29.75 

BKEYBOAflD $79.75 


SIRIUS 


REPTON  

WAYOUT 

BLADE  o(  BLACK  POOLE . 
TYPE  OF  ATTACK 


.$26.75 
.$26.75 
.$26.75 
.$26.75 


CX415  HOME  FILING 

MANAGER 
CXL4007  MUSIC  COWP 
CXL400!  ATARI  BASIC 
CX8126  MICROSOFT 
CX41  19  FRENCH 
CX41  18  GERMAN 


$41  75 

S33  75 
$45  75 
S65  75 
S45  (X) 
S45  00 


SAVE 


on 


in- 


these 
stock 


PRINTERS 


CITOH 

GORILLA  GX100 $185.00 

PROWRITER  851 0  . . .  S339.00 

PROWRITER  li $659.00 

8600B $1  025.00 

STARWRtTER $1  099.00 

PRINTMASTER $1499.00 

EPSON 

RX-80 SSAVES 

RX80FT ON 

FX80 In-Stock 

FX100 EPSON 

MX80FT PRINTERS 

MX100 $SCALL$$ 

LETTER  QUALITY 
SMITH  CORONA  TPI  S459.00 

SANYO  5500 $649.00 

DIABLO  630 $1  71  9.00 


GEMINI  10X 
PROWRITER 
NEC  8023... 


$269.00 
$339.00 
$369.00 


OKI  DATA 

80 SSAVE$ 

82A CALL  for 

83A LOWEST 

84 PRICES 

92 on  these 

93... IN-Stock 

PACEMARK  2350 PRINTERS 

PACEMARK  241  0 $SAVE$ 

STAR  MICRONTICS 

GEMINI  10X $269  00 

GEMINI  15X $CALL$ 

DELTA  1 0 $479.00 

GEMINI  15   DISC...$BLOWOUT$ 


.  13  inch     _ 

COLOR  TV  I     'V'ONITORS 


(with  1  yf.  warranty) 

$  199.95 

SANYO 

IPR555           ...$CAL,L$ 
|MBC  1000 $1299 


[NEC  JB1260 $115.00 

[NEC  JB1201   S145.00 

NEC  TC1  201 $315,00 

Amdek  Color  I $275.00 

Amdek  300  Green $149.00 

Amdek  300  Amber $149.00 

GORILLAGREEN $88.00 


commodore 

HES         VIC-  20 

Torg  C $14.75 

HES  Games  I  C $14.75 

HES  Games  lie  $14.75 

VIC  Fonlt  Rom , $42.75 

HES  MON  Rom  $28.75 

Turtle  Graphics  Rom  $28  75 

HES  Writer  Rom $23.75 

Shamus  Rom $28.75 

Protector  Rom $31.75 


c 


EASTERN  HOUSE 

Monkey  Wrench  2 $52.75 

INHOME 

Baseball $29.95 

IDS) 
Speedway  Blast $29  95 

P°°"-5 $26^95 

GALAXIAN   $29.75 

DEFENDER $29.75 

DIG  DUG $29.75 

SPEED  READING $53.75 

ATARI  WRITER $54.75 

BOOKKEEPER $102.75 

CX4018  PILOT  HOME  ..,.$54.75 

CX405  PILOT  EDU $91.75 

CX404  WORD  PRO $99.75 

CXL4013  ASTEROID  $25.75 

CXL4020  CENTIPEDE        .$29.75 
CXL4022  PACMAN  $29.75 

CXL4011   STAR  RAIDER   -S29.75 


APX 

Eastern  Ft. 41   $25.50 

DeRay  Atari  $19.95 

Malh-Tlc-Tac $1  5.95 

Pros  of  US $15.95 

3R  Math $19.95 

Typo  Attack $24.95 

Family  Budget $19.95 

F.  Cash  Flow $19.95 

BRODERBUND 

Bank  Street  Writer  D $44.75 

AE  D $24.75 

Apple  Panic  D $23.75 

Chopiifter  ROM $32.75 

David's  Midnight $24.75 

Stellar  Shuttle  C/D $18.75 

Ft.  Apocalypse $24.75 

HES 

Grldrunner  R $27.75 

Sword  Point  D $24.75 


RANA 
DISK  DRIVE 
1000 $CALL 

ALIEN  GROUP 

Voice  Box  2  .  $99.75 

DON'T  ASK 
Sam $41.75 

Abuse $15.95 

Teloatfi $27.95 

Poker  Sam  ,.  $24.95 

Amulet 

Nuke  Sub $16.75 

Magic  Story  Book $24.75 

Thunder  Island. $13.95 

ARTWORX 

Hazard  Run $24,95 

Hodge  Podge $16.95 

S.  Poker $26.95 

Bridge  3.0 $18.95 


^ 


ATARI 

(computers  for  people.] 
O 


;^@         TO  ORDER 

CALL  TOLL  FREE  or  s«nd  order  to 

800-233-8760        pT^rsSr 


In  PA  1    717-327-1824 


Jersey  Shore.  PA  1774C 


POLICY 

in-stock  (tarns  shipped  within  24  hours  of  order  Personal 
checks  require  tour  weeks  clearance  before  shipping  No 
deposit  on  CO. D.  orders.  Freeshipping  on  prepaid  cashorders 
within  the  continental  U.S.  PA  residents  add  sales  tax.  All 
products  subrect  to  availability  and  price  change.  Advertised 
prices  show  4%  discount  offered  for  cash,  add  4=^,  for  Master 
Card  or  V.sa.  DEALER  INQUIRIES  INVITED. 


Advertisers  Index 


Reader  Service  Number/  Advertiser      Page 

Aardvark  Action  Software  147 

Abacus  Software  141 

102  American  Peripfierals  213 

Arlworx  75 

Astra  Systems  124 

103  Atari,  Inc 46,47 

Atari  Computer  Camps   132 

104  Avaion  Hill  Game  Companv  87 

105  Basix  Softworx  182 

Batteries  Included    53 

106  Beaumont  Products  113 

107  Blue  Sky  Software  105 

108  Braiderbund  Software  79 

Bytes  and  Bits  206 

Bytes  and  Bits  207 

109  Bytes&Pieces  206 

110  Cardco,  Inc IBC 

Cass-A-Tapes  132 

Cimarron  Corp 51 

City  Software  33 

Commodore  Business  Mactiines   ....EC 

111  Compatible  Systems  Incorporated   .  169 

112  CompuServe 23 

Computability  171 

The  Computer  Book  Club  .,..,  121 

113  Computer  Cose  Company  208 

114  Computer  Center    167 

lis  Computer  Discount  169 

116  ComputerFood  Press   150 

117  Computer  Humor,  Inc 104 

118  Computer  Mail  Order 210,211 

119  ComputerMat  93 

120  Ttie  Computer  Network   176 

121  Computer  Outlet  162,163 

Computer  Software  127 

Computer Waretiouse   179 

122  Continental  Software  31 

Control  Data  Pubiistiing  45 

Cosmic  Computers  Unlimited  151 

123  Creative  Softwore 70,71 

124  Crystal  Microsoft  Ltd 206 

Dotamost  54,55 

Dow  Jones  89 

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126  Dynatecti  Microsoftwore  Inc 125 

Eastern  Computer  Consulting 
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127  Eastern  House  Softwore 170 

Eicomp  Publishing,  Inc 83 

128  Electronic  Arts  24,25 

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Entech  175 

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Information  Sciences  209 

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Consultants  214,215 

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Reader  Service  Number/  Advertiser       Page 

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The  ULTIMATE  Printer  Interface? 


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C'  coi  I II 1  ladcre 


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Management 

21  business  management 
features.  Bar  graphs. 


■NVEItfraHY 
IWIANAraEMBUT 


comnTodope 


Easy  Finance  V — 
Statistics  and 
Forecasting 

Assess  present/ future 
sales  trends  with  9 
statistics  and  forecasting 
functions. 


Accounts  Payable/ 
Checkwriting 

11  functions  Automatic 
billing.  50  vendors'disk 


fscommoctere 

Accounts 
Receivable/Billing 

11  billing  functions.  Pnnted 
statements. 


General  Ledger 

8  general  ledger  options. 
Custom  income  statement, 
trial  balances,  reports. 


i  z  commodore 
Inventory 

Management 

1000  inventory  items. 
Full  reports. 


-   ■  nmodore 
Payroll 

24  different  payroll 
functions.  Integrated  with 
G'L  system. 


C 


M 


O  commodore 

^  COMPUTERS 

First  In  Quality  Software